69,626 results match your criteria cell entry


Spatiotemporal regulation of store-operated calcium entry in cancer metastasis.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, U.S.A.

The store-operated calcium (Ca2+) entry (SOCE) is the Ca2+ entry mechanism used by cells to replenish depleted Ca2+ store. The dysregulation of SOCE has been reported in metastatic cancer. It is believed that SOCE promotes migration and invasion by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion dynamics. Read More

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December 2021

screening of natural compounds to inhibit interaction of human ACE2 receptor and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 for the prevention of COVID-19.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Dec 2:1-13. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Botany, D.S.B Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

A computational investigation was carried out to find out potential phytochemicals that could inhibit the binding of human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors to spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 which is an essential step to gain entry inside human cells and onset of viral infection known as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A library of phytochemicals was screened by virtual screening against ACE2 receptors resulting in twenty phytochemicals out of 686 which had binding energy (-11.8 to -6. Read More

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December 2021

Genetically edited hepatic cells expressing the NTCP-S267F variant are resistant to hepatitis B virus infection.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Dec 10;23:597-605. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)-S267F variant is known to be associated with a reduced risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease progression. The NTCP-S267F variant displays diminished function in mediating HBV entry, but its function in HBV infection has not been fully established in more biologically relevant models. We introduced the NTCP-S267F variant and tested infectivity by HBV in genetically edited hepatic cells. Read More

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December 2021

SARS-CoV-2: Emerging Role in the Pathogenesis of Various Thyroid Diseases.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:6191-6221. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Division of Molecular Endocrinology, Department of Molecular Oncology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is asymptomatic in most cases, but it is impartible and fatal in fragile and elderly people. Heretofore, more than four million people succumbed to COVID-19, while it spreads to every part of the globe. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces various dysfunctions in many vital organs including the thyroid by utilizing ACE2 as a receptor for cellular entry. Read More

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November 2021

RNA binding protein DDX5 directs tuft cell specification and function to regulate microbial repertoire and disease susceptibility in the intestine.

Gut 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA

Objective: Tuft cells residing in the intestinal epithelium have diverse functions. In the small intestine, they provide protection against inflammation, combat against helminth and protist infections, and serve as entry portals for enteroviruses. In the colon, they had been implicated in tumourigenesis. Read More

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December 2021

Gonococcal invasion into epithelial cells depends on both cell polarity and ezrin.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Dec 1;17(12):e1009592. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) establishes infection in women from the cervix, lined with heterogeneous epithelial cells from non-polarized stratified at the ectocervix to polarized columnar at the endocervix. We have previously shown that GC differentially colonize and transmigrate across the ecto and endocervical epithelia. However, whether and how GC invade into heterogeneous cervical epithelial cells is unknown. Read More

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December 2021

HSV-1 small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) 1 and 2 activate the Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) promoter.

J Virol 2021 Dec 1:JVI0198521. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Center for Neurobiology and Vaccine Development, Ophthalmology Research, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Burns & Allen Research Institute, CSMC - SSB3, 8700 Beverly Blvd., Los Angeles, CA.

HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT) plays a significant role in efficient establishment of latency and reactivation. LAT has antiapoptotic activity and downregulates expression of components of the Type I interferon pathway. LAT also specifically activates expression of the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), one of seven known receptors used by HSV-1 for cell entry that is crucial for latency and reactivation. Read More

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December 2021

Dynamical Differences in Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Bull Math Biol 2021 Nov 30;84(1):11. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Actuarial Science, Butler University, 4600 Sunset Ave, Indianapolis, IN, 46208, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of pediatric respiratory infections and early infant mortality. Despite extensive development efforts currently underway, there remain no vaccines available for the prevention of RSV. RSV is an enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus that utilizes two different proteins (G and F) to mediate attachment and entry into host cells. Read More

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November 2021

A set of accessible enhancers enables the initial response of breast cancer cells to physiological progestin concentrations.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, 08003, Spain.

Here, we report that in T47D breast cancer cells 50 pM progestin is sufficient to activate cell cycle entry and the progesterone gene expression program. At this concentration, equivalent to the progesterone blood levels found around the menopause, progesterone receptor (PR) binds only to 2800 genomic sites, which are accessible to ATAC cleavage prior to hormone exposure. These highly accessible sites (HAs) are surrounded by well-organized nucleosomes and exhibit breast enhancer features, including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), higher FOXA1 and BRD4 (bromodomain containing 4) occupancy. Read More

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November 2021

Understanding the role of nACE2 in neurogenic hypertension among COVID-19 patients.

Hypertens Res 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth Survey No 87/88, Mumbai Bangalore Express Highway, Tathawade, Pune, 411 033, India.

Currently, the third and fourth waves of the coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) pandemic are creating havoc in many parts of the world. Although vaccination programs have been launched in most countries, emerging new strains of the virus along with geographical variations are leading to varying success rates of the available vaccines. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension is responsible for increasing the severity of COVID-19 and, thus, the COVID-19 mortality rate. Read More

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November 2021

Caveolin-1: A promising therapeutic target for diverse diseases.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, SVKM's Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai. India.

The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells contains small flask-shaped invaginations known as caveolae that are involved in the regulation of cellular signaling. Caveolin-1 is a 21-24kDa protein localized in the caveolar membrane. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been considered as a master regulator among the various signaling molecules. Read More

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November 2021

LRRC15 is an inhibitory receptor blocking SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated entry .

bioRxiv 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the entry receptor ACE2. Although attachment factors and co-receptors facilitating entry are extensively studied, cellular entry factors inhibiting viral entry are largely unknown. Using a ome CRISPR activation screen, we identified human LRRC15 as an inhibitory receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry. Read More

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November 2021

Mucosal tissue regulatory T cells are integral in balancing immunity and tolerance at portals of antigen entry.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4+ T cells that exert suppressive control over other immune cells. Tregs are critical for preventing systemic autoimmunity and maintaining peripheral tolerance, and yet they also assist in orchestration of immunity to pathogenic insult, wherein they limit collateral immunopathology and assist in facilitating a fine balance between immune tolerance and effector activity. Tregs have been extensively studied in lymphoid tissues, and a growing body of work has characterized phenotypically distinct Tregs localized in various nonlymphoid tissue compartments. Read More

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November 2021

The NUCKS1-SKP2-p21/p27 axis controls S phase entry.

Nat Commun 2021 Nov 29;12(1):6959. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Medical Research Council Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, OX3 7DQ, Oxford, UK.

Efficient entry into S phase of the cell cycle is necessary for embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. However, unscheduled S phase entry triggers DNA damage and promotes oncogenesis, underlining the requirement for strict control. Here, we identify the NUCKS1-SKP2-p21/p27 axis as a checkpoint pathway for the G1/S transition. Read More

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November 2021

Next generation plasma proteome profiling of COVID-19 patients with mild to moderate symptoms.

EBioMedicine 2021 Nov 26;74:103723. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Science for Life Laboratory, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 has caused millions of deaths globally, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying the various effects of the disease remain poorly understood. Recently, a new analytical platform for comprehensive analysis of plasma protein profiles using proximity extension assays combined with next generation sequencing has been developed, which allows for multiple proteins to be analyzed simultaneously without sacrifice on accuracy or sensitivity.

Methods: We analyzed the plasma protein profiles of COVID-19 patients (n = 50) with mild and moderate symptoms by comparing the protein levels in newly diagnosed patients with the protein levels in the same individuals after 14 days. Read More

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November 2021

utilizes a novel dynamin independent pathway for entry and persistence in brain endothelium.

Curr Res Microb Sci 2020 Sep 16;1:62-68. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Bacterial Pathogenesis Lab, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India.

Adoption of an endocytosis route promoting safe intracellular trafficking is a pre-requisite for development of invasive diseases by Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN). We aim to explore the contribution of various endocytic routes in internalization and survival of SPN in blood brain barrier (BBB), a key event in development of pneumococcal meningitis. Pneumococcal entry and survival in brain endothelial cells were evaluated following treatment with combinations of inhibitors to block multiple endocytosis pathways leaving a single entry port open. Read More

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September 2020

Roles of host mitochondria in the development of COVID-19 pathology: Could mitochondria be a potential therapeutic target?

Mol Biomed 2021 Dec 23;2:38. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers -New Jersey Medical School, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ USA.

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019 and its spread worldwide caused an acute pandemic of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Since then, COVID-19 has been under intense scrutiny as its outbreak led to significant changes in healthcare, social activities, and economic settings worldwide. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor is shown to be the primary port of SARS-CoV-2 entry in cells, the mechanisms behind the establishment and pathologies of COVID-19 are poorly understood. Read More

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December 2021

Pannexin-1 channel opening is critical for COVID-19 pathogenesis.

iScience 2021 Nov 19:103478. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, Texas, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly rampaged worldwide, causing a pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID -19), but the biology of SARS-CoV-2 is under investigation. We demonstrate that both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) or its purified S protein, one of the main viruses responsible for the common cold, induce the transient opening of Pannexin-1 (Panx-1) channels in human lung epithelial cells. However, the Panx-1 channel opening induced by SARS-CoV-2 is greater and more prolonged than hCoV-229E/S protein, resulting in ATP, PGE, and IL-1β release. Read More

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November 2021

The Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Cytokine Storm due to COVID-19.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:3178796. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Regenerative Medicine, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu, China.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has seriously affected public health and social stability. The main route of the transmission is droplet transmission, where the oral cavity is the most important entry point to the body. Due to both the direct harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 and disordered immune responses, some COVID-19 patients may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome or even multiple organ failure. Read More

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November 2021

Recellularization and Integration of Dense Extracellular Matrix by Percolation of Tissue Microparticles.

Adv Funct Mater 2021 Aug 23;31(35). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Paul M. Rady Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO.

Cells embedded in the extracellular matrix of tissues play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis while promoting integration and regeneration following damage or disease. Emerging engineered biomaterials utilize decellularized extracellular matrix as a tissue-specific support structure; however, many dense, structured biomaterials unfortunately demonstrate limited formability, fail to promote cell migration, and result in limited tissue repair. Here, we developed a reinforced composite material of densely packed acellular extracellular matrix microparticles in a hydrogel, termed , that can be molded and crosslinked to mimic native tissue architecture. Read More

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Different impact of bovine complement regulatory protein 46 (CD46) as a cellular receptor for members of the species and .

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Nov 29:1-38. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

The genus within the family comprises highly relevant animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and -2) classified into the two species and , respectively. First described in 2004, HoBi-like pestiviruses (HoBiPeV) represent emerging bovine pathogens that belong to a separate species (), but share many similarities with BVDV-1 and -2. Additionally, two giraffe pestivirus (GPeV) strains both originating from Kenya represent another distinct species (, whose members replicate very efficiently in bovine cells. Read More

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November 2021

Effect of Phosphatidylethanolamine and Oleic Acid on Membrane Fusion: Phosphatidylethanolamine Circumvents the Classical Stalk Model.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Chemistry, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha 768 019, India.

Membrane fusion is one of the most important processes for the survival of eukaryotic cells and entry of enveloped viruses to the host cells. Lipid composition plays a crucial role in the process by modulating the organization and dynamics of the membrane, as well as the structure and conformation of membrane proteins. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid molecule with intrinsic negative curvature, promotes membrane fusion by stabilizing the non-lamellar intermediate structures in the fusion process. Read More

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November 2021

Targeting conserved N-glycosylation blocks SARS-CoV-2 variant infection in vitro.

EBioMedicine 2021 Nov 25;74:103712. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Despite clinical success with anti-spike vaccines, the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies and vaccines has been compromised by rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants. Viruses can hijack the glycosylation machinery of host cells to shield themselves from the host's immune response and attenuate antibody efficiency. However, it remains unclear if targeting glycosylation on viral spike protein can impair infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Read More

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November 2021

Ca dependence and kinetics of cell membrane repair after electropermeabilization.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Nov 25:183823. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508, USA. Electronic address:

Electroporation, in particular with nanosecond pulses, is an efficient technique to generate nanometer-size membrane lesions without the use of toxins or other chemicals. The restoration of the membrane integrity takes minutes and is only partially dependent on [Ca]. We explored the impact of Ca on the kinetics of membrane resealing by monitoring the entry of a YO-PRO-1 dye (YP) in BPAE and HEK cells. Read More

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November 2021

Type IIB PKA is highly expressed in β cells and controls cell proliferation via regulating Cyclin D1 expression.

FEBS J 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

β cell number is maintained mainly by cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is an important intracellular signaling mediating β cell proliferation. However, the precise roles of PKA isoforms are not well-defined. Read More

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November 2021

Characterization of Agapornis fischeri interferon gamma and its activity against beak and feather disease virus.

Virus Res 2021 Nov 25:198647. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan; The iEGG and Animal Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This study sought to clone and sequence the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) gene of the Fischer's lovebird parrot (Agapornis fischeri). Raw264.7 cells treated with the expressed IFN-γ protein exhibited an upregulation in inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) production coupled with increases in phagocytosis and pinocytosis, as well as an induction of interferon-stimulated genes through the activation of the NF-κB factor, all of which are indicators of the innate immune responses of the activated macrophages. Read More

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November 2021

Endothelial contribution to COVID-19: an update on mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Nov 24;164:69-82. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

The global propagation of SARS-CoV-2 leads to an unprecedented public health emergency. Despite that the lungs are the primary organ targeted by COVID-19, systemic endothelial inflammation and dysfunction is observed particularly in patients with severe COVID-19, manifested by elevated endothelial injury markers, endotheliitis, and coagulopathy. Here, we review the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 associated endothelial dysfunction; and the likely pathological mechanisms underlying the disease including direct cell entry or indirect immune overreactions after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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November 2021

Human rhinovirus serotypes induces different immune responses.

Virol J 2021 Nov 27;18(1):232. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a primary infection route of HRV, differences between major and minor groups of HRV in the upper airway epithelium have not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated viral replications and immune responses of major and minor groups of HRV in the HNECs. Read More

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November 2021

M2 macrophage microvesicle-inspired nanovehicles improve accessibility to cancer cells and cancer stem cells in tumors.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Nov 27;19(1):397. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research & Center of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the major players of cancer malignancy and metastasis, but they are extremely difficult to access. Inspired by the vital role of macrophages and microvesicle-mediated cell-cell communication in tumors, we herein designed M2 macrophage microvesicle-inspired nanovehicle of cabazitaxel (M-CFN) to promote accessibility to cancer cells and CSCs in tumors. In the 4T1 tumor model, M-CFN flexibly permeated the tumor mass, accessed cancer cells and CD90-positive cells, and significantly promoted their entry into CSC fractions in tumors. Read More

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November 2021

[Plasmolipin and Its Role in Cell Processes].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 Nov-Dec;55(6):883-896

Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia.

The mechanisms involved in the origin and development of malignant and neurodegenerative diseases are an important area of modern biomedicine. A crucial task is to identify new molecular markers that are associated with rearrangements of intracellular signaling and can be used for prognosis and the development of effective treatment approaches. The proteolipid plasmolipin (PLLP) is a possible marker. Read More

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November 2021