Gastroenterology 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.
Institute of Translational Immunology,Research Center for Immune Therapy and Celiac Center, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:
Celiac disease (CeD) is a frequent immune-mediated disease that affects not only the small intestine but also many extraintestinal sites. The role of gluten proteins as dietary triggers, HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 as major necessary genetic predisposition, and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) as mechanistically involved autoantigen, are unique features of CeD. Recent research implicates many cofactors working in synergism with these key triggers, including the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites, nongluten dietary triggers, intestinal barrier defects, novel immune cell phenotypes, and mediators and cytokines. Read More