105,019 results match your criteria cd8

Immunological and inflammatory profiles during acute and convalescent phases of severe/ critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;97:107685. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood.

Methods: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively.

Results: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. Read More

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PD-1 blockade combined with IL-33 enhances the antitumor immune response in a type-1 lymphocyte-mediated manner.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Apr 23;28:100379. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Immunology, School of Biology and Basic Medical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China; Jiangsu Institute of Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China. Electronic address:

PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade and cytokine IL-33 have shown significant therapeutic effects in tumor immunotherapy. These therapies promote CD8 T cell activation, proliferation, and effector functions. However, there were few research about the combined therapy efficacy. Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope display high naive precursor frequency and TCR promiscuity.

Immunity 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia; Department of Medicine and Radiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3000, Australia; Data Analytics Research and Evaluation (DARE) Centre, Austin Health and The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC 3084, Australia.

To better understand primary and recall T cell responses during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to examine unmanipulated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cells. By using peptide-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tetramers for direct ex vivo analysis, we characterized CD8 T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes in COVID-19 patients and unexposed individuals. Unlike CD8 T cells directed toward subdominant epitopes (B7/N, A2/S, and A24/S) CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant B7/N epitope were detected at high frequencies in pre-pandemic samples and at increased frequencies during acute COVID-19 and convalescence. Read More

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The efficacy and safety of moxibustion for chronic fatigue syndrome: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25742

Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guizhou.

Background: The pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is not clear. The main purpose of treatment is to improve autoimmune function and relieve fatigue symptoms. Moxibustion is often used to treat diseases caused by low autoimmunity, especially in relieving fatigue symptoms. Read More

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A single-cell RNA expression atlas of normal, preneoplastic and tumorigenic states in the human breast.

EMBO J 2021 May 5:e107333. Epub 2021 May 5.

ACRF Cancer Biology and Stem Cells Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Vic, Australia.

To examine global changes in breast heterogeneity across different states, we determined the single-cell transcriptomes of > 340,000 cells encompassing normal breast, preneoplastic BRCA1 tissue, the major breast cancer subtypes, and pairs of tumors and involved lymph nodes. Elucidation of the normal breast microenvironment revealed striking changes in the stroma of post-menopausal women. Single-cell profiling of 34 treatment-naive primary tumors, including estrogen receptor (ER) , HER2 , and triple-negative breast cancers, revealed comparable diversity among cancer cells and a discrete subset of cycling cells. Read More

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Histomorphological patterns of regional lymph nodes in COVID-19 lungs.

Pathologe 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Pathology, Institute of Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: A dysregulated immune response is considered one of the major factors leading to severe COVID-19. Previously described mechanisms include the development of a cytokine storm, missing immunoglobulin class switch, antibody-mediated enhancement, and aberrant antigen presentation.

Objectives: To understand the heterogeneity of immune response in COVID-19, a thorough investigation of histomorphological patterns in regional lymph nodes was performed. Read More

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Chromatin assembly factor 1B critically controls the early development but not function acquisition of invariant natural killer T cells in mice.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

CD4 CD8 double-positive thymocytes give rise to both conventional TCRαβ T cells and invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells), but these two kinds of cells display different characteristics. The molecular mechanism underlying iNKT cell lineage development and function acquisition remain to be elucidated. We show that the loss of chromatin assembly factor 1B (CHAF1b) maintains the normal development of conventional TCRαβ T cells but severely impairs early development of iNKT cells. Read More

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T cell membrane cloaking tumor microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles with a smart "membrane escape mechanism" for enhanced immune-chemotherapy of melanoma.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3453-3464

College Pharmacy, Jiamusi University, 258 Xuefu Street, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang 154007, China.

The application of combination immune-chemotherapy makes up for the limitation of monotherapy and achieves superior antitumor activity against cancer. However, combinational therapy is always restricted by poor tumor targeted drug delivery efficacy. Herein, novel T cell membrane cloaking tumor microenvironment-responsive nanoparticles (PBA modified T cell membrane cloaking hyaluronic acid (HA)-disulfide bond-vitamin E succinate/curcumin, shortened as RCM@T) were developed. Read More

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The human anti-CD40 agonist antibody mitazalimab (ADC-1013; JNJ-64457107) activates antigen-presenting cells, improves expansion of antigen-specific T cells, and enhances anti-tumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine in vivo.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Alligator Bioscience AB, Medicon Village, 223 81, Lund, Sweden.

Non-responders to checkpoint inhibitors generally have low tumor T cell infiltration and could benefit from immunotherapy that activates dendritic cells, with priming of tumor-reactive T cells as a result. Such therapies may be augmented by providing tumor antigen in the form of cancer vaccines. Our aim was to study the effects of mitazalimab (ADC-1013; JNJ-64457107), a human anti-CD40 agonist IgG1 antibody, on activation of antigen-presenting cells, and how this influences the priming and anti-tumor potential of antigen-specific T cells, in mice transgenic for human CD40. Read More

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Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Ending the COVID-19 pandemic will require long-lived immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally from early infection and for eight months thereafter and found a predominant broad-based immune memory response. SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibited a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells. Read More

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Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

CD8+ T cells are important antiviral effectors that can potentiate long-lived immunity against COVID-19, but a detailed characterization of these cells has been hampered by technical challenges. We screened 21 well-characterized, longitudinally-sampled convalescent donors that recovered from mild COVID-19 against a collection of SARS-CoV-2 tetramers, and identified one participant with an immunodominant response against Nuc , a peptide that is conserved in all the SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern reported to date. We conducted 38- parameter CyTOF phenotyping on tetramer-identified Nuc -specific CD8+ T cells, and on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognizing the entire nucleocapsid and spike proteins from SARS- CoV-2, and took 32 serological measurements on longitudinal specimens from this participant. Read More

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Determining clinically relevant features in cytometry data using persistent homology.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Cytometry experiments yield high-dimensional point cloud data that is difficult to interpret manually. Boolean gating techniques coupled with comparisons of relative abundances of cellular subsets is the current standard for cytometry data analysis. However, this approach is unable to capture more subtle topological features hidden in data, especially if those features are further masked by data transforms or significant batch effects or donor-to-donor variations in clinical data. Read More

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Activated CD4 T cells and CD14CD16 monocytes correlate with antibody response following influenza virus infection in humans.

Cell Rep Med 2021 Apr 7;2(4):100237. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

The failure to mount an antibody response following viral infection or seroconversion failure is a largely underappreciated and poorly understood phenomenon. Here, we identified immunologic markers associated with robust antibody responses after influenza virus infection in two independent human cohorts, SHIVERS and FLU09, based in Auckland, New Zealand and Memphis, Tennessee, USA, respectively. In the SHIVERS cohort, seroconversion significantly associates with (1) hospitalization, (2) greater numbers of proliferating, activated CD4 T cells, but not CD8 T cells, in the periphery during the acute phase of illness, and (3) fewer inflammatory monocytes (CD14CD16) by convalescence. Read More

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MR1 overexpression correlates with poor clinical prognosis in glioma patients.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab034. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most common adult primary brain tumor with near-universal fatality. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are important mediators of CD8 activation and can be downregulated by cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. MR1 is a nonclassical MHC-I-like molecule responsible for the activation of a subset of T cells. Read More

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February 2021

Serial assessment of circulating T lymphocyte phenotype and receptor repertoire during treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with adoptive T cell immunotherapy.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1709-1718. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), frequent despite the availability of multiple treatment modalities, may be partly explained by the presence of immunosuppressive cell populations. We hypothesized that progression of disease could be prevented by the administration of an activated T cell immunotherapy (ACT) at time points when immunosuppressive populations increased in peripheral blood. In an N-of-1 study, a patient with multiple primary bladder high grade urothelial carcinomas, previously treated with standard local resection and chemotherapy but with evidence of progression, received ACT consisting of dendritic cells mixed with cytokine induced killer cells (DC/CIK), intravenously 18 times over a 6 year period at indicated time of observed increases in peripheral blood immunosuppressive CD8/CD28 cells. Read More

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Low miR-16 expression induces regulatory CD4NKG2D T cells involved in colorectal cancer progression.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1540-1556. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China.

MiR-15a/16 is a member of the miRNA cluster that exhibits tumor suppression and immune modulation via targeting multiple genes. Decreased miR-15a/16 expression is involved in many cancer cells. Here, miR-16 had decreased expression in NK1. Read More

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The immune cell landscape of metastatic uveal melanoma correlates with overall survival.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 4;40(1):154. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) represents the most common primary intra-ocular malignancy in adults. Up to 50% of the patients develop distant metastases within 10 years from diagnosis, with the liver as the most common site. Upon metastatization, life expectancy strongly reduces and immune checkpoint inhibitors that prove effective in cutaneous melanoma do not modify clinical outcome. Read More

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Preferential Expression of Programmed Death Ligand 1 Protein in Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Its Potential Role in Immunotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Catholic University Liver Research Center, Department of Biomedicine & Health Sciences, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

A predictive biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based treatments in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we focused on the infiltration and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment of HCC. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that PD-L1 was preferentially expressed on CD68 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment of HCC, suggestive of its expression in TAMs rather than in T cells or tumor cells ( < 0. Read More

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Phenotypic Characteristics of the Tumour Microenvironment in Primary and Secondary Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W120 HS, UK.

(1) Background: The intra-tumoural heterogeneity (ITH) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its microenvironment (TME) across primary and secondary disease is poorly characterised. (2) Methods: Intra-tumoural (IT) and peri-tumoural (PT) staining of matched primary and secondary samples was conducted to evaluate the distribution of CD4+/FOXP3+ and CD8+/PD1+ T-cells. Samples underwent PD-L1/2 immunostaining, tumour mutational burden (TMB) evaluation, and high-resolution T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing to derive T-cell clonality and targeted transcriptomics. Read More

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Autophagic Markers in Chordomas: Immunohistochemical Analysis and Comparison with the Immune Microenvironment of Chordoma Tissues.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pathology Department, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, 42055 Saint-Etienne, France.

Chordomas are notably resistant to chemotherapy. One of the cytoprotective mechanisms implicated in chemoresistance is autophagy. There are indirect data that autophagy could be implicated in chordomas, but its presence has not been studied in chordoma tissues. Read More

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Gene expression profiles for an immunoscore model in bone and soft tissue sarcoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 4;13. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background: Immune infiltration is a prognostic marker to clinical outcomes in various solid tumors. However, reports that focus on bone and soft tissue sarcoma are rare. The study aimed to analyze and identify how immune components influence prognosis and develop a novel prognostic system for sarcomas. Read More

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Rutaecarpine administration inhibits cancer cell growth in allogenic TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer mice correlating with immune balance in vivo.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111648. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Background: Rutaecarpine (Rut) is a plant alkaloid abundant in Euodia ruticarpa which is a Chinese herbal medicine used for treating various cancers. However, the Rut administration effect on prostate cancer in vivo remains unclear.

Aim: In the present study we established an allogenic TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer mouse model to evaluate the Rut administration effect and mechanism in vivo. Read More

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IL-2Rβγ signalling in lymphocytes promotes systemic inflammation and reduces plasma cholesterol in atherosclerotic mice.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Apr 24;326:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, 20502, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The relationship between inflammation and lipid metabolism is complex and bidirectional. Lymphocyte-driven inflammation has been shown to modulate both atherosclerotic plaque development and cholesterol levels, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood.

Methods: The cardiometabolic effects of IL-2Rβγ signalling in atherosclerotic Apoe mice were investigated by treatment with an agonistic IL-2Rβγ-targeting IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex or a monoclonal anti-CD122 (IL-2Rβ) blocking antibody. Read More

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Article Topic/Title: Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas other than Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome. Part II: Prognosis and Management.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) other than Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) encompass a heterogenous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with variable clinical course, prognoses, and management. With morphologic and histologic overlap among the CTCL subtypes and other T-cell lymphomas with cutaneous manifestations, thorough evaluation with clinicopathologic correlation and exclusion of systemic involvement are essential prior to initiating therapy. Staging and treatment recommendations vary depending on the subtype, clinical behavior, and treatment response. Read More

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CD276 expression enables squamous cell carcinoma stem cells to evade immune surveillance.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Molecular Signaling, Division of Oral Biology and Medicine, School of Dentistry, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center and Broad Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Immunosurveillance is a critical mechanism guarding against tumor development and progression. Checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant success in cancer treatment, but expression of key factors such as PD-L1 in putative cancer stem cell (CSC) populations in squamous cell carcinoma has been inconclusive, suggesting that CSCs may have developed other mechanisms to escape immune surveillance. Here we show that CSCs upregulate the immune checkpoint molecule CD276 (B7-H3) to evade host immune responses. Read More

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CD8 T cells specific for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid epitope cross-react with selective seasonal coronaviruses.

Immunity 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia. Electronic address:

Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7 COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. Read More

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Pembrolizumab-caused polyradiculoneuropathy as an immune-related adverse event.

Neuropathology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, Hiroshima, Japan.

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) commonly involve the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, skin, and liver, and rarely the nervous system. The pathomechanism of irAEs in the nervous system is unclear, and so characterizing these severe toxic effects is a priority, even if irAEs are uncommon in the nervous system. Our patient presented subacute muscle weakness and dysesthesia with colitis as irAEs caused by pembrolizumab, one of the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies. Read More

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Identification of CDC20 as an immune infiltration-correlated prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Invest New Drugs 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, 98 West Nantong Rd, 225009, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with a poor prognosis. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases play essential roles in HCC, such as regulating progression, migration, and metastasis. We aimed to explore a hub E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase gene and verify its association with prognosis and immune cell infiltration in HCC. Read More

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MHC class II tetramers engineered for enhanced binding to CD4 improve detection of antigen-specific T cells.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The ability to identify T cells that recognize specific peptide antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules has enabled enumeration and molecular characterization of the lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Fluorophore-labeled peptide:MHC class I (p:MHCI) tetramers are well-established reagents for identifying antigen-specific CD8 T cells by flow cytometry, but efforts to extend the approach to CD4 T cells have been less successful, perhaps owing to lower binding strength between CD4 and MHC class II (MHCII) molecules. Here we show that p:MHCII tetramers engineered by directed evolution for enhanced CD4 binding outperform conventional tetramers for the detection of cognate T cells. Read More

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USP12 promotes CD4 T cell responses through deubiquitinating and stabilizing BCL10.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Molecular Immunology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Deubiquitinases (DUBs) regulate diverse biological processes and represent a novel class of drug targets. However, the biological function of only a small fraction of DUBs, especially in adaptive immune response regulation, is well-defined. In this study, we identified DUB ubiquitin-specific peptidase 12 (USP12) as a critical regulator of CD4 T cell activation. Read More

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