188,972 results match your criteria cd4 cells

Combining urine antigen and blood polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in hospitalized patients with advanced HIV disease.

Med Mycol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Parasitas e Fungos, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo 01246-000, Brazil.

Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is endemic in Latin America and the Caribbean where diagnostic tools are restricted. We carried-out a 1-year prospective cohort study at a referral hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants had > or =18 years old, were hospitalized due to any indication and had CD4+ < 200 cells/µl. Read More

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Intratumour microbiome associated with the infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and patient survival in cutaneous melanoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 4;151:25-34. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The gut microbiome plays an important role in systemic inflammation and immune response. Microbes can translocate and reside in tumour niches. However, it is unclear how the intratumour microbiome affects immunity in human cancer. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles regulate gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and HIV-1 infection of human neural progenitor cells.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 4:105388. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 33136, USA. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through a process that may involve direct or indirect interactions with the CNS cells and alterations of amyloid β (Aβ) homeostasis. The present study focused on the mechanisms of HIV-1 infecting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and affecting NPC intercellular communications with human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC). Despite the lack of the CD4 receptor, hNPCs were effectively infected by HIV-1 via a mechanism involving the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Read More

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Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Differential Expression of HIV Envelope Epitopes on the Surface of HIV-Infected Macrophages and CD4+ T cells.

Antiviral Res 2021 May 4:105085. Epub 2021 May 4.

Life Sciences Discipline, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

HIV-infected macrophages contribute to persistence of HIV reservoirs in people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. A potential strategy to eliminate reservoirs is the use of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against infected cells expressing the HIV envelope (Env) protein on their surface. Designing ADCC strategies requires knowledge of exposed Env epitopes on the cell surface and identifying antibodies capable of opsonising infected cells, yet little is known regarding the ability of HIV-infected macrophages to be targeted with such strategies. Read More

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Low dose of methylprednisolone for pain and immune function after thoracic surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of single low-dose preoperative methylprednisolone (MP) on the immunological function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anesthesia.

Methods: Eighty-one patients who underwent elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to the MP Group or the Control Group. The T lymphocyte subsets of CD3, CD4, and CD8, the CD4/CD8 ratio at T (before anesthesia), T (after surgery), and T (24 h after surgery) were all recorded. Read More

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Antitumor effects of iPSC-based cancer vaccine in pancreatic cancer.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, 265 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cancer cells share cellular similarities and transcriptomic profiles. Here, we show that an iPSC-based cancer vaccine, comprised of autologous iPSCs and CpG, stimulated cytotoxic antitumor CD8 T cell effector and memory responses, induced cancer-specific humoral immune responses, reduced immunosuppressive CD4 T regulatory cells, and prevented tumor formation in 75% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) mice. We demonstrate that shared gene expression profiles of "iPSC-cancer signature genes" and others are overexpressed in mouse and human iPSC lines, PDAC cells, and multiple human solid tumor types compared with normal tissues. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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Ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophages in the rat ileal mucosa.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Animal Molecular Morphology, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501, Japan.

Several types of macrophages have been reported in the intestinal mucosa, but their histological localization remains ambiguous. Here, we obtained detailed information about ultrastructural and phenotypical diversity of macrophage-like cells (MLCs) in the rat ileal mucosa using immunofluorescent analysis and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The results revealed that the cells immunopositive for CD68, the pan-macrophage marker, included CD163CD4, CD163CD4, and CD163CD4 cells in the lamina propria (LP) of the intestinal villus and around the crypt. Read More

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Overexpression of miR-7977 in CD4+ T cells is associated with multiplex autoimmunity in patients with Addison's disease.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

M Ruchala, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 60-355, Poland.

Objective: Autoimmune Addison's disease (AD) results from a combination of the genetic predisposition, unclear environmental triggers and ensuing immune dysfunction. MicroRNA molecules (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of numerous target genes, hence may affect the immune function and promote autoimmunity. A deregulated miRNAs profile was reported in several autoimmune conditions. Read More

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Murine endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis depending on indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 May;135(9):1065-1082

Neuroimmune Interactions Laboratory, Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a huge challenge for scientists, as little translational relevance has been achieved. However, many studies using MSCs have proved their suppressive and regenerative capacity. Thus, there is still a need for a better understanding of MSCs biology and the establishment of newer protocols, or to test unexplored tissue sources. Read More

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Dendritic cells support a proliferative antigen-specific T-cell response in the presence of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Biomaterials are known to modulate immune cell functions, which subsequently determine the host inflammatory and immune responses. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, a biodegradable and biocompatible biomaterial, induces a pro-inflammatory, mature phenotype in antigen presentation cells, namely dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. In vivo, PLGA can boost the humoral immune response to a co-delivered model antigen, a phenomenon known as the PLGA-adjuvant effect. Read More

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Helios serves as a suppression marker to reduce regulatory T cell function in pancreatic cancer patients.

Immunol Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Destabilizing and reprogramming regulatory T (Treg) cells have become a potential strategy to treat tumor. Mounting evidence indicates that the transcription factor Helios is required for the stable differentiation of Treg lineage. Hence, we investigated whether Helios suppression could be a potential treatment option for pancreatic cancer patients. Read More

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Different spatial distribution of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment of ABC and GBC subgroups of diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Clin Exp Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences, and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, Policlinico - Piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) presents a high clinical and biological heterogeneity, and the tumor microenvironment chracteristics are important in its  progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor T, B cells, macrophages and mast cells distribution in GBC and ABC DLBCL subgroups through a set of morphometric parameters allowing to provide a quantitative evaluation of the morphological features of the spatial patterns generated by these inflammatory cells.   Histological ABC and GCB samples were immunostained for CD4, CD8, CD68, CD 163, and tryptase in order to determine both percentage and position of positive cells in the tissue characterizing their spatial distribution. Read More

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The composition of peripheral immunocompetent cell subpopulations and cytokine content in the brain structures of mutant Disc1-Q31L mice.

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Nov;24(7):770-776

Scientific Research Institute of Physiology and Basic Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia.

The DISC1 (disrupted in sсhizophrenia 1) gene is associated with brain dysfunctions, which are involved in a variety of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. This is the first study to examine the immune parameters in Disc1-Q31L mice with a point mutation in the second exon of the DISC1 gene compared to mice of the C57BL/6NCrl strain (WT, wild type). A flow cytometry assay has shown that intact Disc1- Q31L mice differ from the WT strain by an increase in the percentage of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ Т helper cells and CD3+CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and a decrease in CD3+CD8+ T cytotoxic/suppressor cells in the peripheral blood. Read More

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November 2020

Immunological Features of Pediatric Interstitial Pneumonia Due to .

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:651487. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neonatology, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and immunologic mechanism are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia (MPP). However, the role of immune system of pediatric interstitial pneumonia due to infections remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the immunologic features of pediatric interstitial pneumonia due to . Read More

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The Human Cytomegalovirus US31 Gene Predicts Favorable Survival and Regulates the Tumor Microenvironment in Gastric Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:614925. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Wenzhou Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an oncogenic virus associated with tumorigenesis. Our previous study revealed that the HCMV US31 gene interacted with NF-κB2 and mediated inflammation through macrophages. However, there are few reports on the role of US31 in gastric cancer (GC). Read More

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Ketogenic Diet Suppressed T-Regulatory Cells and Promoted Cardiac Fibrosis via Reducing Mitochondria-Associated Membranes and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Function.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:5512322. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiovascular surgery, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Ketogenic diet (KD) is popular in diabetic patients but its cardiac safety and efficiency on the heart are unknown. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects and the underlined mechanisms of KD on cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used db/db mice to model DCM, and different diets (regular or KD) were used. Read More

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Corrigendum: IL-7 During Antigenic Stimulation Using Allogeneic Dendritic Cells Promotes Expansion of CD45RACD62LCD4 Invariant NKT Cells With Th-2 Biased Cytokine Production Profile.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:689959. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020. Read More

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T Cell Response Toward Tissue-and Epidermal-Transglutaminases in Coeliac Disease Patients Developing Dermatitis Herpetiformis.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:645143. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, School of Human Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The reason why only few coeliac patients develop the cutaneous manifestation of the disease, named dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), is still unknown. Epidermal transglutaminase (TG3) has been described as the main autoantigen of humoral immunity in DH but the mechanisms leading to this autoimmune response remain obscure. Here we characterized T cells from skin, gut and peripheral blood of DH and coeliac disease (CD) patients, evaluated the impact of the gluten-free diet on circulating T lymphocytes' phenotype and investigated antigen specific T cell response toward epidermal and tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Read More

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Case Report: A Novel IL2RG Frame-Restoring Rescue Mutation Mimics Early T Cell Engraftment Following Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient With X-SCID.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:644687. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Immunology Outpatient Clinic, Vienna, Austria.

Mutations of the interleukin 2 receptor γ chain (IL2RG) result in the most common form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is characterized by severe and persistent infections starting in early life with an absence of T cells and natural killer cells, normal or elevated B cell counts and hypogammaglobulinemia. SCID is commonly fatal within the first year of life, unless the immune system is reconstituted by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy. We herein describe a male infant with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) diagnosed at 5 months of age. Read More

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Single-Cell Profiling of Kidney Transplant Recipients With Immunosuppressive Treatment Reveals the Dynamic Immune Characteristics.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:639942. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Kidney transplantation is currently the first choice of treatment for various types of end-stage renal failure, but there are major limitations in the application of immunosuppressive protocols after kidney transplantation. When the dose of immunosuppressant is too low, graft rejection occurs easily, while a dose that is too high can lead to graft loss. Therefore, it is very important to explore the immune status of patients receiving immunosuppressive agents after kidney transplantation. Read More

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Single-Cell TCR Sequencing Reveals the Dynamics of T Cell Repertoire Profiling During Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:637500. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

T cell responses play critical roles in host adaptive immunity against . However, the dynamics and diversity of the T cell immune repertoire in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative pneumonia (PCP) remains unclear. In this study, single-cell RNA and single-cell T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing were applied to cells sorted from lung tissues of mice infected with . Read More

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Integrin α4β1/VCAM-1 Interaction Evokes Dynamic Cell Aggregation Between Immune Cells and Human Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells at Infectious Hemolysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:653143. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Hepatopathy, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China.

Bacterial and viral infection is a common cause of pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome. Increasing evidence indicates that red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to immune response and inflammation. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that link RBC and hemolysis to the development and progression of inflammatory pathologies are not entirely understood. Read More

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A single-cell map of intratumoral changes during anti-PD1 treatment of patients with breast cancer.

Nat Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory for Translational Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves pathological complete response in breast cancer. To understand why only a subset of tumors respond to ICB, patients with hormone receptor-positive or triple-negative breast cancer were treated with anti-PD1 before surgery. Paired pre- versus on-treatment biopsies from treatment-naive patients receiving anti-PD1 (n = 29) or patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy before anti-PD1 (n = 11) were subjected to single-cell transcriptome, T cell receptor and proteome profiling. Read More

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Steroid hormone bioavailability is controlled by the lymphatic system.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9666. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.

The steroid hormone progesterone accounts for immune tolerance in pregnancy. Enhanced progesterone metabolism to 6α-OH-pregnanolone occurs in complicated pregnancies such as in preeclampsia with preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction, and in cancer. As lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) promote tumor immunity, we hypothesized that human LECs modify progesterone bioavailability. Read More

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IgE-activated mast cells enhance TLR4-mediated antigen-specific CD4 T cell responses.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9686. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Mast cells are potent mediators of allergy and asthma, yet their role in regulating adaptive immunity remains ambiguous. On the surface of mast cells, the crosslinking of IgE bound to FcεRI by a specific antigen recognized by that IgE triggers the release of immune mediators such as histamine and cytokines capable of activating other immune cells; however, little is known about the mast cell contribution to the induction of endogenous, antigen-specific CD4 T cells. Here we examined the effects of specific mast cell activation in vivo on the initiation of an antigen-specific CD4 T cell response. Read More

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HLA-mismatched allogeneic adoptive immune therapy in severely immunosuppressed AIDS patients.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 May 7;6(1):174. Epub 2021 May 7.

Treatment and Research Center for Infectious Diseases, The Fifth Medical Center, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Severely immunosuppressed AIDS patients with recurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) represent an unmet medical need even in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we report the development of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic adaptive immune therapy (AAIT) for severely immunosuppressed AIDS patients. Twelve severely immunosuppressed AIDS patients with severe OIs were enrolled in this single-arm study. Read More

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Lymphoid markers predict prognosis of pediatric and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Apr 30;107:106603. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Healthy and Life Science School Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a complex and highly aggressive disease. To characterize the prognostic factors of pediatric patients with AML relapse, a retrospective cohort study was performed to collect data from children and adolescents, at a hematological oncology reference center, over 11 years. We selected 51 cases of the disease, diagnosed and treated uniformly, divided into two groups: with complete remission (n = 33; 65 %) and with relapse (n = 18; 35 %). Read More

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Antigen-encapsulating host extracellular vesicles derived from Salmonella-infected cells stimulate pathogen-specific Th1-type responses in vivo.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009465. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a causative agent of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, for which there is a lack of a clinically approved vaccine in humans. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella impacts many cellular pathways. However, the intercellular communication mechanism facilitated by host-derived small extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, is an overlooked aspect of the host responses to this infection. Read More

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