125,160 results match your criteria cd4+t cells


Pembrolizumab induces HIV latency reversal in people living with HIV and cancer on antiretroviral therapy.

Sci Transl Med 2022 Jan 26;14(629):eabl3836. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

In people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), virus persists in a latent form where there is minimal transcription or protein expression. Latently infected cells are a major barrier to curing HIV. Increasing HIV transcription and viral production in latently infected cells could facilitate immune recognition and reduce the pool of infected cells that persist on ART. Read More

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January 2022

Detection of the HIV-1 accessory proteins Nef and Vpu by flow cytometry represents a new tool to study their functional interplay within a single infected CD4+ T cell.

J Virol 2022 Jan 26:jvi0192921. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Centre de Recherche du CHUM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The HIV-1 Nef and Vpu accessory proteins are known to protect infected cells from antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses by limiting exposure of CD4-induced (CD4i) envelope (Env) epitopes at the cell surface. Although both proteins target the host receptor CD4 for degradation, the extent of their functional redundancy is unknown. Here, we developed an intracellular staining technique that permits the intracellular detection of both Nef and Vpu in primary CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry. Read More

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January 2022

Persistent Autoimmune Activation and Proinflammatory State in Post-COVID Syndrome.

J Infect Dis 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Center for Autoimmune Diseases Research (CREA), School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, Colombia.

Background: The immunopathological pathways enabling post-COVID syndrome (PCS) development are not entirely known. We underwent a longitudinal analysis of patients with COVID-19 who developed PCS aiming to evaluate the autoimmune and immunological status associated with this condition.

Methods: Thirty-three patients were included for longitudinal clinical and autoantibody analyses of whom 12 patients were assessed for cytokines and lymphocyte populations. Read More

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January 2022

Long-acting and extended-release implant and nanoformulations with a synergistic antiretroviral two-drug combination controls HIV-1 infection in a humanized mouse model.

Bioeng Transl Med 2022 Jan 26;7(1):e10237. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases Yale University School of Medicine New Haven Connecticut USA.

The HIV pandemic has affected over 38 million people worldwide with close to 26 million currently accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A major challenge in the long-term treatment of HIV-1 infection is nonadherence to ART. Long-acting antiretroviral (LA-ARV) formulations, that reduce dosing frequency to less than once a day, are an urgent need that could tackle the adherence issue. Read More

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January 2022

A randomized phase 2 study of bicalutamide with or without metformin for biochemical recurrence in overweight or obese prostate cancer patients (BIMET-1).

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Hematology Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, 19111, USA.

Background: Metformin may have anticancer effects that are independent of its hypoglycemic effects. Retrospective studies have shown that metformin use is associated with decreased incidence of prostate cancer and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Preclinical studies suggesting additive anticancer effects of combining metformin and bicalutamide prompted this clinical trial (NCT02614859). Read More

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January 2022

Characterization of the cell-mediated immune response to Takeda's live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine in adolescents participating in a phase 2 randomized controlled trial conducted in a dengue-endemic setting.

Vaccine 2022 Jan 22. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Takeda Vaccines Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: As robust dengue-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses are essential for protective immunity, we assessed cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to a DENV-2-based dengue tetravalent vaccine candidate (TAK-003) in adolescents living in Panama, a dengue-endemic country.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from a subset of 67 participants ≥ 10 years old included in a phase 2 clinical trial of TAK-003 (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02302066). Read More

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January 2022

Babesia bovis AMA-1, MSA-2c and RAP-1 contain conserved B and T-cell epitopes, which generate neutralizing antibodies and a long-lasting Th1 immune response in vaccinated cattle.

Vaccine 2022 Jan 22. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Immunology and Vaccines Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico. Electronic address:

Vaccines against bovine babesiosis must, ideally, induce a humoral immune response characterized by neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes and a cellular Th1 immune response. In Babesia bovis, proteins such as AMA-1, MSA-2c, and RAP-1 have been characterized and antibodies against these proteins have shown a neutralizing effect, demonstrating the implication of B and T-cell epitopes in the immune response. There is evidence of the existence of B and T-cell epitopes in these proteins, however, it remains to be defined, the presence of conserved peptides in strains from around the world containing B and T-cell epitopes, and their role in the generation of a long-lasting immunity. Read More

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January 2022

Downregulation of CD73 on CD4+ T cells from patients with chronic Chikungunya infection.

Hum Immunol 2022 Jan 22. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Federal University of Paraiba, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, João Pessoa 58051-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chikungunya is an important mosquito-borne disease caused by the arthritogenic chikungunya virus, characterized by sporadic outbreaks all around the world. Although CD4+ T cells seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of chikungunya, the mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully elucidated. The ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73, also expressed by CD4 T lymphocytes, are involved in the hydrolysis of pro-inflammatory extracellular ATP and generation of immunosuppressive adenosine and seem to be modulated in some arthritogenic pathologies. Read More

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January 2022

[Correlation between TOPA2A gene expression and the number of CD4 T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical prognostic significance].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jan;38(1):24-31

Department of Human Anatomy, Digital Medicine and Smart Health Anhui Key Laboratory, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233030, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To analyze the correlation between the expression of TOP2A gene and the proportion of CD4T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical prognostic significance. Methods The expression of TOP2A mRNA in normal liver tissues and HCC tissues and its significance for survival and prognosis of HCC patients were analyzed by BioGPS, GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier Plotter databases. The coexpression gene of TOP2A and its GO function were analyzed using GENE and Metascape databases, along with the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Read More

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January 2022

[Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes and immune cell infiltration in primary biliary cholangitis patients with poor response to ursodeoxycholic acid therapy].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jan;38(1):16-23

Department of Hepatic Diseases, Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Chongqing 400021, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in patients with poor response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy and to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Methods The GEO database was searched to obtain UDCA response related gene chip dataset. The DEGs were screened and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Read More

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January 2022

4'-Modified Nucleosides for Antiviral Drug Discovery: Achievements and Perspectives.

Authors:
Junbiao Chang

Acc Chem Res 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Henan Key Laboratory of Organic Functional Molecules and Drug Innovation, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.

ConspectusModified nucleosides show therapeutic promise for antiviral therapies. However, issues including the emergence of drug resistance, toxicity, and coinfections have posed new challenges for nucleoside-based antiviral drug discovery, particularly in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Chemical manipulation could impact the antiviral potency, safety, and drug resistance of nucleosides. Read More

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January 2022

Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 and T-lymphocytes of chronic amphetamine and alcohol abuse.

Arch Ital Biol 2021 Dec;159(3-4):123-133

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Email:

Introduction: Drug and alcohol abuse has significant negative impacts on individuals' life, health status and communities. They have also been implicated immunity system diseases. Therefore we aim to investigate the impact of chronic amphetamine abuse or co-abuse of alcohol with amphetamine on immunity, especially CD3 T cells, as well as the response of CD4 and CD8 T cells. Read More

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December 2021

Commensal oral microbiota induces osteoimmunomodulatory effects separate from systemic microbiome in mice.

JCI Insight 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States of America.

Commensal microbes critically regulate skeletal homeostasis, yet the impact of specific microbiota communities on osteoimmune response mechanisms is unknown. To discern osteoimmunomodulatory effects imparted by the commensal oral microbiota that are distinct from the systemic microbiota, osteoimmunology studies were performed in both alveolar bone and non-oral skeletal sites of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) vs. germ-free (GF) mice, and SPF mice subjected to saline vs. Read More

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January 2022

Integrative bioinformatics and experimental analysis revealed TEAD as novel prognostic target for hepatocellular carcinoma and its roles in ferroptosis regulation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2022 Jan 25;14(undefined). Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China.

Objective: Transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) family consists of four members TEAD1/2/3/4 that regulate cell growth, stem cell functions and organ development. As the downstream of Hippo signaling pathway, TEAD family is involved in the progression of several cancers. However, the precise biology functions of TEAD family in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been reported yet. Read More

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January 2022

Do Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured on PLA Scaffolds Induce Expression of CD28/CTLA-4 by T Lymphocytes?

J Funct Biomater 2022 Jan 11;13(1). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

E. Meshalkin National Medical Research Center, The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 15, Rechkunovskaya Str., 630055 Novosibirsk, Russia.

Many research groups have developed various types of tissue-engineered cardiac constructs. However, the immunological properties of such artificial tissues are not yet fully understood. Previously, we developed microfiber scaffolds carrying human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM). Read More

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January 2022

Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis (of Youth).

Dermatopathology (Basel) 2022 Jan 16;9(1):23-31. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), 00167 Rome, Italy.

About 20 years after its first description, Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis of Youth (ALDY) is recognized as a distinctive lichenoid dermatosis with specific clinical and histological features. The disease occurs mostly in young persons all over the world, runs a chronic course, and has an obscure etiopathogenesis. Clinically, lesions consist of persistent, asymptomatic erythematous macules and round-oval annular patches with a red-violaceous non-scaling border and central hypopigmentation, mostly localized on the groin and flanks. Read More

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January 2022

Platelets modulate CD4 T Cell function in Covid-19 Through A PD-L1 Dependent Mechanism.

Br J Haematol 2022 Jan 25. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA)-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Severe COVID-19 is associated with a systemic inflammatory response and progressive CD4 T cell lymphopenia and dysfunction. We evaluated whether platelets might contribute to CD4 T cell dysfunction in COVID-19. We observed a high frequency of CD4 T cell-platelet aggregates in COVID-19 inpatients that inversely correlated with lymphocyte counts. Read More

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January 2022

Opposing roles for sMAdCAM and IL-15 in COVID-19 associated cellular immune pathology.

J Leukoc Biol 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Biochemistry & Virology, ICMR-NIRRH, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Immune cell dysregulation and lymphopenia characterize COVID-19 pathology in moderate to severe disease. While underlying inflammatory factors have been extensively studied, homeostatic and mucosal migratory signatures remain largely unexplored as causative factors. In this study, we evaluated the association of circulating IL-6, soluble mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule (sMAdCAM), and IL-15 with cellular dysfunction characterizing mild and hypoxemic stages of COVID-19. Read More

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January 2022

Rapid urine-based screening tests increase the yield of same-day tuberculosis diagnoses among patients living with advanced HIV disease.

AIDS 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, UK Clinical Academic Group in Infection and Immunity, St George's University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses (CHARM), National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), South Africa MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, University of Exeter, UK Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town, South Africa Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa Centre for Tuberculosis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the NHLS, South Africa Centre for HIV & STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a Division of the NHLS, South Africa Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Botswana.

Objective: Investigation of the diagnostic yield of urine-based tuberculosis (TB) screening in patients with advanced HIV disease.

Design: Cross-sectional screening study.

Setting: HIV outpatient clinics and wards at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa between June 2015 and October 2017. Read More

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January 2022

Improved prognosis and evidence of enhanced immunogenicity in tumor and circulation of high-risk melanoma patients with unknown primary.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 Jan;10(1)

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) represents a poorly understood group of patients both clinically and immunologically. We investigated differences in prognosis and candidate immune biomarkers in patients with unknown compared with those with known primary melanoma enrolled in the E1609 adjuvant trial that tested ipilimumab at 3 and 10 mg/kg vs high-dose interferon-alfa (HDI).

Patients And Methods: MUP status was defined as initial presentation with cutaneous, nodal or distant metastasis without a known primary. Read More

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January 2022

Ipilimumab alone or in combination with nivolumab in patients with advanced melanoma who have progressed or relapsed on PD-1 blockade: clinical outcomes and translational biomarker analyses.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 Jan;10(1)

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: There are no validated biomarkers that can aid clinicians in selecting who would best benefit from anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monotherapy versus combination checkpoint blockade in patients with advanced melanoma who have progressive disease after programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade.

Methods: We conducted a randomized multicenter phase II trial in patients with advanced melanoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1 mg/kg of nivolumab plus 3 mg/kg of ipilimumab or 3 mg/kg of ipilimumab every 3 weeks for up to four doses. Read More

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January 2022

Mice with genetic and induced B-cell deficiency as a model for disseminated encephalitozoonosis.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Dec 31;81:101742. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista - Unip, Rua José Maria Whitaker 290, CEP 05622-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an intracellular pathogen, lives in a balanced relationship with immunocompetent individuals based on the activity of T lymphocytes. We previously highlighted the greater susceptibility of B-1 cell-deficient mice (XID mice) to encephalitozoonosis. This study aimed to develop a model of disseminated and severe encephalitozoonosis in mice with combined immunodeficiency to elucidate the role of B cells. Read More

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December 2021

Preexisting memory CD4 T cells in naïve individuals confer robust immunity upon hepatitis B vaccination.

Elife 2022 Jan 25;11. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Antwerp Unit for Data Analysis and Computation in Immunology and Sequencing, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Antigen recognition through the T cell receptor (TCR) αβ heterodimer is one of the primary determinants of the adaptive immune response. Vaccines activate naïve T cells with high specificity to expand and differentiate into memory T cells. However, antigen-specific memory CD4 T cells exist in unexposed antigen-naïve hosts. Read More

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January 2022

Engineering T-Cell Resistance to HIV-1 Infection via Knock-In of Peptides from the Heptad Repeat 2 Domain of gp41.

mBio 2022 Jan 25:e0358921. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Center for Precision Genome Editing and Genetic Technologies for Biomedicine, Institute of Gene Biologygrid.419021.f RAS, Moscow, Russia.

Previous studies suggest that short peptides from the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain of gp41 expressed on the cell surface are more potent inhibitors of HIV-1 entry than soluble analogs. However, their therapeutic potential has only been examined using lentiviral vectors. Here, we aimed to develop CRISPR/Cas9-based fusion inhibitory peptide knock-in (KI) technology for the generation and selection of HIV-1-resistant T cells. Read More

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January 2022

MicroRNA-31 regulates T-cell metabolism via HIF1α and promotes chronic GVHD pathogenesis in mice.

Blood Adv 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major obstacle impeding successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). MicroRNAs (miRs) play key roles in immune regulation during acute GVHD development. Preclinical studies to identify miRs that impact cGVHD pathogenesis are required to develop these as potential life-saving interventions. Read More

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January 2022

Physiological levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D induce a suppressive CD4 T cell phenotype not reflected in the epigenetic landscape.

Scand J Immunol 2022 Jan 24:e13146. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Hematology and Medical Oncology, University Medical Center of Regensburg, Germany.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) D ), the active metabolite of vitamin D3 has a strong impact on the differentiation and function of immune cells. Here we analyzed the influence of its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D ) on the differentiation of human CD4 T cells applying physiological concentrations in vitro. Our data show that 25(OH)D is converted to its active form 1,25(OH) D by T cells, which in turn supports FOXP3, CD25 and CTLA-4 expression and inhibits IFN-γ production. Read More

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January 2022

Endogenously produced catecholamines improve the regulatory function of TLR9-activated B cells.

PLoS Biol 2022 Jan 24;20(1):e3001513. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Rheumatology, Hiller Research Center Rheumatology, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Germany.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contributes to immune balance by promoting anti-inflammatory B cells. However, whether B cells possess a self-regulating mechanism by which they modulate regulatory B cell (Breg) function is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the ability of B cells to synthesize their own catecholamines upon stimulation with different B cell activators and found that expression of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), required to generate catecholamines, is up-regulated by Toll-like receptor (TLR)9. Read More

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January 2022

Outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy treated by Interleukin- 7.

Ann Neurol 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Objective: Restoring anti-JC virus (JCV) immunity is the only treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Interleukin-7 is a cytokine that increases number and function of T cells. We analyzed a population of PML patients who received recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) to estimate survival and its determinants. Read More

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January 2022

Azithromycin modulates release of steroid-insensitive cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Adv Respir Med 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Belarusian Research Center for Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, Borovlyany, Belarus.

Introduction: Oxidative stress reduces responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). Azithromycin was shown to modulate corticosteroid resistance mechanisms in COPD patients. However, its ability to enhance anti-inflammatory properties of GCs on the production of cytokines by PBMCs has not well been elucidated. Read More

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January 2022

Low-dose intralesional injection of 5-fluorouracil and triamcinolone reduces tissue resident memory T cells in chronic eczema.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Jan;10(1):166-176

Department of Dermatology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai 201318, China.

Background: Tissue resident memory T (T) cells have been reported to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and relapse of chronic eczema.

Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of the intralesional injection of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and triamcinolone (TA) with those associated with TA alone for the treatment of chronic eczema.

Methods: A total of 168 patients were randomized to 5-FU+TA or TA groups and received a one-time intralesional injection of 5-FU+TA or TA only. Read More

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January 2022