176,013 results match your criteria cd4

Mechanisms of exTreg induction.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

CD4 CD25 Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the maintenance of the immune system by regulating immune responses and resolving inflammation. Tregs exert their function by suppressing other immune cells and mediating peripheral self-tolerance. Under homeostatic conditions, Tregs are stable T cell populations. Read More

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Changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cells, and IL-6 and IL-10 levels predict response of pediatric medulloblastoma and germ cell tumors with residual or disseminated disease to craniospinal irradiation.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Radiotherapy modulates immune cells and cytokines resulting in both clinically beneficial and detrimental effects. The changes in peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines during radiotherapy for pediatric brain tumors and the association of these changes with therapeutic outcomes have not been well described.

Methods And Materials: The study population consisted of children (n=83, ages 3∼18) with primary brain tumors (medulloblastoma, glioma, germ cell tumors, and CNS embryonal tumor-NOS), with or without residual or disseminated (R/D) diseases who were starting standard post-operative focal or craniospinal-irradiation (CSI). Read More

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Simlukafusp alfa (FAP-IL2v) immunocytokine is a versatile combination partner for cancer immunotherapy.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1913791

Roche Innovation Center Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Simlukafusp alfa (FAP-IL2v, RO6874281/RG7461) is an immunocytokine comprising an antibody against fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) and an IL-2 variant with a retained affinity for IL-2Rβγ > IL-2 Rβγ and abolished binding to IL-2 Rα. Here, we investigated the immunostimulatory properties of FAP-IL2v and its combination with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibition, CD40 agonism, T cell bispecific and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies. The binding and immunostimulatory properties of FAP-IL2v were investigated and compared with FAP-IL2wt. Read More

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Expansion of GARP-Expressing CD4CD25FoxP3 T Cells and SATB1 Association with Activation and Coagulation in Immune Compromised HIV-1-Infected Individuals in South Africa.

Virol Sin 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Cardio-Metabolic Research in Africa (CARMA), Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa.

Although antiretroviral treatment lowers the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related disease, it does not always result in immunological recovery. This manifests as persistent chronic inflammation, immune activation or exhaustion that can promote the onset of co-morbidities. As the exact function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in HIV remains unclear, this cross-sectional study investigated three expression markers (Forkhead box protein P3 [FOXP3], glycoprotein A repetitions predominant [GARP], special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 [SATB1]) and compared their expansion between CD4CD25 and CD4CD25 T cells. Read More

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Investigation of product derived lymphoma following infusion of piggyBac modified CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cells.

Blood 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

We performed a Phase I clinical trial of donor derived CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor T-cells (CAR T-cells) for B-cell malignancy that relapsed or persisted after matched related allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant. To overcome the cost and transgene capacity limitations of traditional viral vectors, CAR T-cells were produced using the piggyBac transposon system of genetic modification. Following CAR T-cell infusion, one patient developed a gradually enlarging retroperitoneal tumor due to a CAR expressing CD4+ T-cell lymphoma. Read More

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Cbl-b deficiency prevents functional but not phenotypic T cell anergy.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 11;218(7). Epub 2021 May 11.

Russell/Engleman Rheumatology Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

T cell anergy is an important peripheral tolerance mechanism. We studied how T cell anergy is established using an anergy model in which the Zap70 hypermorphic mutant W131A is coexpressed with the OTII TCR transgene (W131AOTII). Anergy was established in the periphery, not in the thymus. Read More

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LILRB4 suppresses immunity in solid tumors and is a potential target for immunotherapy.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 11;218(7). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Immune receptors expressed on TAMs are intriguing targets for tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we found inhibitory receptor LILRB4 on a variety of intratumoral immune cell types in murine tumor models and human cancers, most prominently on TAMs. LILRB4, known as gp49B in mice, is a LILRB family receptor. Read More

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The active human immunodeficiency virus reservoir during antiretroviral therapy: emerging players in viral persistence.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Department, Hospital Universitari Valld'Hebron, Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: To discuss the role of CD4+ T cells with active Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), meaning infected cells with transcriptional and/or translational viral activity during antiretroviral therapy (ART), focusing on new technologies for its detection, potential cell markers for its characterization, and evidences on the contribution of the active HIV reservoir to long-term viral persistence.

Recent Findings: HIV-infected cells expressing viral ribonucleic acid are systematically detected in subjects on long-term ART. In recent years, powerful new tools have provided significant insights into the nature, quantification, and identification of cells with active HIV, including the identification of new cell markers, and the presence of viral activity in specific cell populations located in different cellular and anatomical compartments. Read More

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Differences in HIV clinical outcomes amongst heterosexuals in the United Kingdom by ethnicity.

AIDS 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Infection and Immunity, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK Institute for Global Health, University College London, UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Blood-Borne and Sexually Transmitted Infections, University College London, London, UK.

Objective: We investigated differences in clinical outcomes in heterosexual participants, by ethnicity in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort Study from 2000-2017.

Design: Cohort analysis.

Methods: Logistic/Proportional hazard regression assessed ethnic group differences in CD4+ cell count at presentation, engagement-in-care, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation, viral suppression and rebound. Read More

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Virologic efficacy of tenofovir, lamivudine and dolutegravir as second-line in adults failing a tenofovir-based first-line regimen: a prospective cohort study.

AIDS 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Médecins Sans Frontières South Africa Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa University of Liverpool, Department of Pharmacology, Liverpool, United Kingdom Division of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa University of Stellenbosch, Division of Medical Virology, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: Recycling tenofovir and lamivudine/emtricitabine (XTC) with dolutegravir would provide a more tolerable, affordable, and scalable second-line regimen than dolutegravir with an optimized nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone. We evaluated efficacy of tenofovir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (TLD) in patients failing first-line tenofovir/XTC/efavirenz or nevirapine.

Design: Single arm, prospective, interventional study. Read More

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UMAP as a Dimensionality Reduction Tool for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Biomacromolecules: A Comparison Study.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Research Computing, Center for Drug Discovery, Design, and Delivery (CD4), Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275, United States.

Proteins are the molecular machines of life. The multitude of possible conformations that proteins can adopt determines their free-energy landscapes. However, the inherently high dimensionality of a protein free-energy landscape poses a challenge to deciphering how proteins perform their functions. Read More

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Expectoration of tonsillar metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma after pseudoprogression: A case report.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Hospital Organization Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that grows rapidly and has a poor prognosis. Although no effective treatments have so far been established, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown clinical improvement in some cases of pleomorphic carcinoma. However, pseudoprogression is a major concern for treatment of this carcinoma using ICIs. Read More

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How COVID-19 Has Globalized: Unknown Origin, Rapid Transmission, and the Immune System Nourishment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:119-147

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) profoundly influences T-cell immunity. The counts of total T cells and T-cell subsets, especially CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are decreased in patients with COVID-19. Also, the function of these cells becomes less effective as the expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as Tim3 and PD-1, increases over time during the disease. Read More

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January 2021

Europium sulfide nanoprobes predict antiretroviral drug delivery into HIV-1 cell and tissue reservoirs.

Nanotheranostics 2021 27;5(4):417-430. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 USA.

Delivery of long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to human immunodeficiency virus type one cell and tissue reservoirs underlies next generation antiretroviral therapeutics. Nanotheranostics, comprised of trackable nanoparticle adjuncts, can facilitate ARV delivery through real-time drug tracking made possible through bioimaging platforms. To model HIV-1 therapeutic delivery, europium sulfide (EuS) nanoprobes were developed, characterized and then deployed to cells, tissues, and rodents. Read More

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Kangfuxin Liquid Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Ulcerative Colitis in Mice by Modulating Immune Response and Suppressing Inflammation.

Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2021 May 11;27:e930887. Epub 2021 May 11.

National-Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Entomoceutics, Dali, Yunnan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the effect of kangfuxin liquid (KFXL) on inflammatory response, and its underlying mechanism in treating acute ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Mice were provided drinking water containing DSS (3%) for 7 days to induce acute enteritis. The mice were divided into 6 groups: a control group, a DSS-induced (vehicle) group, a sulfasalazine (SASP) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose kangfuxin liquid groups. Read More

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MHC multimer: A Molecular Toolbox for Immunologists.

Jun Chang

Mol Cells 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

The advent of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimer technology has led to a breakthrough in the quantification and analysis of antigen-specific T cells. In particular, this technology has dramatically advanced the measurement and analysis of CD8 T cells and is being applied more widely. In addition, the scope of application of MHC multimer technology is gradually expanding to other T cells such as CD4 T cells, natural killer T cells, and mucosal-associated invariant T cells. Read More

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Post-Translational Modifications in Transcription Factors that Determine T Helper Cell Differentiation.

Mol Cells 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy and Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses through the differentiation of Th precursor cells into several subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Effector Th and Treg cells are distinguished by the production of signature cytokines and are important for eliminating intracellular and extracellular pathogens and maintaining immune homeostasis. Stimulation of naïve Th cells by T cell receptor and specific cytokines activates master transcription factors and induces lineage specification during the differentiation of Th cells. Read More

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Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Mice Immunized with Vaccinia Virus Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

J Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR;

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, and the development of a successful vaccine will ultimately be required to prevent the continued spread and seasonal recurrence of this disease within the human population. However, very little is known about either the quality of the adaptive immune response or the viral Ag targets that will be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection. In this study, we generated recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing the full-length spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 (VacV-S) to evaluate the cellular and humoral immune response mounted against this viral Ag in mice. Read More

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Plasma pharmacokinetics of high dose oral versus intravenous rifampicin in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a randomized controlled trial.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa.

Higher doses of intravenous rifampicin may improve outcomes in tuberculous meningitis but is impractical in high burden settings. We hypothesized that plasma rifampicin exposures would be similar between oral 35 mg/kg and intravenous 20 mg/kg, which has been proposed for efficacy trials in tuberculous meningitis.We performed a randomized parallel group pharmacokinetic study nested within a clinical trial of intensified antimicrobial therapy for tuberculous meningitis. Read More

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Cytokine-skewed Tfh cells: functional consequences for B cell help.

Trends Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pathology, University of Utah, 15 North Medical Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Electronic address:

CD4 follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play a vital role in providing help for B cells undergoing selection and differentiation into activated antibody-secreting cells in mammalian germinal centers (GCs). Increasing evidence suggests that Tfh cells are a heterogeneous population that generates cytokine-skewed immune responses - a reflection of the microenvironment during differentiation. This has important ramifications for Tfh-mediated B cell help. Read More

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Cross-talk between hepatic stellate cells and T lymphocytes in liver fibrosis.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Center of Chinese Health Ministry on Transplantation Medicine Engineering and Technology, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Fibrosis results from inflammation and healing following injury. The imbalance between extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and degradation leads to the ECM accumulation and liver fibrosis. This process is regulated by immune cells. Read More

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Common and differential effects of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid on helper T-cell responses and associated pathways.

BMB Rep 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Our understanding of the differential effects between specific omega-3 fatty acids is incomplete. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell responses and identify the pathways associated with these responses. Naïve CD4+ T cells were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of palmitate (PA), DHA, or EPA. Read More

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Plasma hemoglobin and the risk of death in HIV/AIDS patients treated with antiretroviral therapy.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 7;13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Previous studies concerning the effect of plasma hemoglobin (HB) and other factors that may modify the risk of death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited.

Results: Higher HB was independently linked to a lower death risk in PLHIV, with a decrease of 29% (13%, 43%) per standard deviation (SD) increment after adjusting for CD4, VL and other potential factors [hazard ratio (HR): 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0. Read More

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Immunoenhancement effects of chitosan-modified ginseng stem-leaf saponins-encapsulated cubosomes as an ajuvant.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 29;204:111799. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China; MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticle delivery of functional molecules and vaccine is a promising method for enhancing the immune response. The objective of this study was to design chitosan (CS)-modified ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS)-encapsulated cubosomes (Cub-GSLS) as a vaccine delivery system and explore its immunologic activity and adjuvanticity. In this study, CS-modified GSLS-encapsulated cubosomes (Cub-GSLS) were prepared. Read More

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Chlorogenic acid is a positive regulator of MDA5, TLR7 and NF-κB signaling pathways mediated antiviral responses against Gammacoronavirus infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 7;96:107671. Epub 2021 May 7.

Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound that has been well studied for its antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immune stimulating properties. This research was aimed to focus on the antiviral properties of CGA on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in vivo and in vitro for the very first time. The outcome of in vitro experiments validated that, out of five previously reported antiviral components, CGA significantly reduced the relative mRNA expression of IBV-N in CEK cells. Read More

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CCR6-CCL20 axis as a therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 7:102846. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune MH-411007, India. Electronic address:

Chemokine receptor CCR6 is expressed on various cells such as B cells, immature dendritic cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), regulatory CD4 T cells, and Th17 cells. CCL20 is the only known high-affinity ligand that binds to CCR6 and drives CCR6 cells' migration in tissues. CCL20 is mainly produced by epithelial cells, and its expression is increased by several folds under inflammatory conditions. Read More

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Relevance of Antibodies against the Chicken Anaemia Virus.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 May 7:104112. Epub 2021 May 7.

Imunova Análises Biológicas, Curitiba, 80215-182, Brazil; Universidade Federal Do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas UFPR, Curitiba, 81531-980, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chicken Infectious Anaemia (CIA) Virus (CAV) inhibits the function of multiple immune compartments. Mortality due to clinical infection is controlled in broilers by passive immunization derived from vaccinated breeders. Therefore, serological tests are often used in chicks to determine maternally-derived antibodies (MDA). Read More

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Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum expressing Nudix hydrolase and 43 kDa proteins confers protection against Trichinella spiralis in BALB/c mice.

Acta Trop 2021 May 7:105947. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of animal production and product quality safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Trichinellosis is a significant food-borne zoonotic parasitic disease caused by parasite Trichinella. Given the side effects of anti-Trichinella drugs (e.g. Read More

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Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. Read More

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The immune protection induced by a serine protease from the Trichinella spiralis adult against Trichinella spiralis infection in pigs.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 10;15(5):e0009408. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Trichinellosis is a major foodborne parasitosis caused by Trichinella spiralis. In the present study, a serine protease gene from an adult T. spiralis (Ts-Adsp) cDNA library was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. Read More

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