498 results match your criteria cbx cbx


Evaluation of the prognostic value of CBXs in gastric cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12375. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Hainan Medical University, Longhua District, No.3 Xueyuan Road, Haikou, 570216, China.

Chromobox (CBX) proteins were suggested to exert epigenetic regulatory and transcriptionally repressing effects on target genes and might play key roles in the carcinogenesis of a variety of carcinomas. Nevertheless, the functions and prognostic significance of CBXs in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. The current study investigated the roles of CBXs in the prognosis of GC using the Oncomine, The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and cBioPortal databases. Read More

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Prognosis and Immune Infiltration of Chromobox Family Genes in Sarcoma.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:657595. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Chromobox family genes (CBXs) are known to play roles in numerous modifications of the chromatin in order to inhibit the transcription of target genes. CBXs have been shown to be expressed at high levels in many types of cancer and can also serve as a target gene for therapeutic purposes. However, little is known about the expression and prognostic value of CBXs in human sarcomas. Read More

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Astrocytes in the rostral ventromedial medulla contribute to the maintenance of oro-facial hyperalgesia induced by late removal of dental occlusal interference.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Center for Oral and Jaw Functional Diagnosis, Treatment and Research, Department of Prosthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Background: Astrocytes in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) contribute to descending pain modulation, but their role in oro-facial pain induced by persistent experimental dental occlusal interference (PEOI) or following EOI removal (REOI) is unknown.

Objective: To explore the involvement of RVM astrocytes in PEOI-induced oro-facial hyperalgesia or its maintenance following REOI.

Methods: Male rats were randomly assigned into five groups: sham-EOI, postoperative day 6 and 14 of PEOI (PEOI 6 d and PEOI 14 d), postoperative day 6 following REOI on day 3 (REOI 3 d) and postoperative day 14 following REOI on day 8 (REOI 8 d). Read More

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CBX7 suppresses urinary bladder cancer progression via modulating AKR1B10-ERK signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 25;12(6):537. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Fudan University, 200032, Shanghai, China.

The chromobox (CBX) proteins mediate epigenetic gene silencing and have been implicated in the cancer development. By analyzing eight CBX family members in TCGA dataset, we found that chromobox 7 (CBX7) was the most strikingly downregulated CBX family member in urinary bladder cancer (UBC), as compared to normal tissues. Though dysregulation of CBX7 has been reported in multiple cancers, its specific role and clinical relevance in UBC remain unclear. Read More

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Carbenoxolone has the potential to ameliorate acute incision pain in rats.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jul 20;24(1). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730030, P.R. China.

Carbenoxolone (CBX) is primarily used to relieve various types of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, little is known concerning the role of CBX in acute pain and its functional mechanisms therein and this was investigated in the present study. Rats underwent toe incision and behavioral tests were performed to assess mechanical hypersensitivity. Read More

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A Potent, Selective CBX2 Chromodomain Ligand and Its Cellular Activity During Prostate Cancer Neuroendocrine Differentiation.

Chembiochem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, College of Pharmacy, 201 S. University St., West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that facilitate both embryonic development and cancer progression. PcG proteins form Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). PRC2 trimethylates histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a histone mark recognized by the N-terminal chromodomain (ChD) of the CBX subunit of canonical PRC1. Read More

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Caloric restriction modifies spatiotemporal calcium dynamics in mouse hippocampal astrocytes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Jun 6;1868(7):119034. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya street 16/10, Moscow 117997, Russia; Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

We analysed spatiotemporal properties of Ca signals in protoplasmic astrocytes in the CA1 stratum radiatum of hippocampal slices from young (2-3 months old) mice housed in control conditions or exposed to a caloric restriction (CR) diet for one month. The astrocytic Ca events became shorter in duration and smaller in size; they also demonstrated reduced velocity of expansion and shrinkage following CR. At the same time, Ca signals in the astrocytes from the CR animals demonstrated higher amplitude and the faster rise and decay rates. Read More

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A conserved BAH module within mammalian BAHD1 connects H3K27me3 to Polycomb gene silencing.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 05;49(8):4441-4455

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is important for gene silencing and imprinting, (epi)genome organization and organismal development. In a prevalent model, the functional readout of H3K27me3 in mammalian cells is achieved through the H3K27me3-recognizing chromodomain harbored within the chromobox (CBX) component of canonical Polycomb repressive complex 1 (cPRC1), which induces chromatin compaction and gene repression. Here, we report that binding of H3K27me3 by a Bromo Adjacent Homology (BAH) domain harbored within BAH domain-containing protein 1 (BAHD1) is required for overall BAHD1 targeting to chromatin and for optimal repression of the H3K27me3-demarcated genes in mammalian cells. Read More

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Species Differences in Microsomal Metabolism of Xanthine-Derived A Adenosine Receptor Ligands.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-Nuclear Chemistry (INM-5), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich, Germany.

Tracer development for positron emission tomography (PET) requires thorough evaluation of pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and dosimetry of candidate radioligands in preclinical animal studies. Since variations in pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a compound occur in different species, careful selection of a suitable model species is mandatory to obtain valid data. This study focuses on species differences in the in vitro metabolism of three xanthine-derived ligands for the A adenosine receptor (AAR), which, in their F-labeled form, can be used to image AAR via PET. Read More

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Aspiration fluid cytology during single operator cholangioscopy with targeted biopsy to improves the diagnostic yield in indeterminate biliary strictures.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 Jun 23;49(6):768-772. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Gastroenterology Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: Sensitivities of various sampling methods to detect malignant biliary strictures remain suboptimal. Irrigation during digital single operator cholangioscopy (dSOC) is done routinely for visualization of the duct. The aim of this study was to evaluate improvement of the sensitivity for detecting malignant biliary strictures when adding aspiration fluid cytology (AFC) from the irrigated fluid during cholangioscopy to cholangioscopic biopsy (CBx). Read More

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In silico and experimental studies of bovine serum albumin-encapsulated carbenoxolone nanoparticles with reduced cytotoxicity.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jun 3;202:111670. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Sector-125, Noida, 201313, India. Electronic address:

Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a semi-synthetic plant derivative with pleiotropic pharmacological properties like anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities. Though approved for treatment of gastric ulcers, its use is limited due to adverse effects such as cytotoxicity. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a natural, non-toxic protein with high water-solubility and low immunogenicity, and is widely used as a nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery. Read More

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High extracellular ATP levels released through pannexin-1 channels mediate inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle fibres of diet-induced obese mice.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 12;64(6):1389-1401. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Centro de Estudios de Ejercicio, Metabolismo y Cáncer, Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Aims/hypothesis: Skeletal muscle is a key target organ for insulin's actions and is the main regulator of blood glucose. In obese individuals and animal models, there is a chronic low-grade inflammatory state affecting highly metabolic organs, leading to insulin resistance. We have described that adult skeletal muscle fibres can release ATP to the extracellular medium through pannexin-1 (PANX1) channels. Read More

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11ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases regulate circulating glucocorticoids but not central gene expression.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 4;305:113734. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Brain Research Institute UCLA, Box 951761, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, 610 Charles E Young Drive E, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Los Angeles, 621 Charles E Young Drive S, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Regulation of glucocorticoids (GCs), important mediators of physiology and behavior at rest and during stress, is multi-faceted and dynamic. The 11ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases 11ß-HSD1 and 11ß-HSD2 catalyze the regeneration and inactivation of GCs, respectively, and provide peripheral and central control over GC actions in mammals. While these enzymes have only recently been investigated in just two songbird species, central expression patterns suggest that they may function differently in birds and mammals, and little is known about how peripheral expression regulates circulating GCs. Read More

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Serotonin Plays a Key Role in the Development of Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia in Mice.

J Pain 2021 Jun 16;22(6):715-729. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Division of Anesthesiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata City, Japan.

Opioid usage for pain therapy is limited by its undesirable clinical effects, including paradoxical hyperalgesia, also known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). However, the mechanisms associated with the development and maintenance of OIH remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of serotonin inhibition by the 5-HT receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND), as well as serotonin deprivation via its synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine, on mouse OIH models, with particular focus on astrocyte activation. Read More

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Neuroprotective effects of carbenoxolone against amyloid-beta 1-42 oligomer-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in rats.

Neurotoxicology 2021 03 4;83:89-105. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biophysics, Basic Medical Sciences Block II, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

The aggregation of Aβ plays a major role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and induces neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Recent studies have shown that the soluble aggregates of Aβ are the major culprits in the development of these aberrations inside the brain. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of carbenoxolone (Cbx), which has been found to possess anti-inflammatory and nootropic properties. Read More

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Advances allowing feasible pyrG gene editing by a CRISPR-Cas9 system for the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii.

Fungal Genet Biol 2021 Feb 2;147:103509. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

For decades, the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) has been cultivated as important raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries in most of Asian countries, especially in China. Unfortunately, the generation and improvement of new cultivars are very difficult since there are many barriers which have not been solved thoroughly by gene editing tools, even though the CRISPR-Cas9 technique has been widely applied in other species. Read More

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February 2021

Multiomics integrative analysis reveals antagonistic roles of CBX2 and CBX7 in metabolic reprogramming of breast cancer.

Mol Oncol 2021 May 13;15(5):1450-1465. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, India.

Striking similarity exists between metabolic changes associated with embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Chromobox proteins-CBX2/4/6/7/8, core components of canonical polycomb repressor complex 1, play essential roles in embryonic development and aberrantly expressed in breast cancer. Understanding how altered CBX expression relates to metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer may reveal vulnerabilities of therapeutic pertinence. Read More

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Human Pannexin 1 channel: Insight in structure-function mechanism and its potential physiological roles.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Mar 4;476(3):1529-1540. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Pannexins, large non-gap junction super family exists in vertebrates, play multiple roles in different cellular functions through their ATP release. Panx1-mediated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release plays a vital role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and is known major extracellular molecule in purinergic signaling. To modulate their function in vivo, a proper regulation of channel is necessary. Read More

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[Regulatory effect of the pannexin1 channel on invasion and migration of testicular cancer Tcam-2 cells and its possible mechanism].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Jan;26(1):24-30

Department of Pathophysiology, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, Anhui 233000, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of the pannexin-1 (Panx1) protein in the invasion and migration of testicular cancer Tcam-2 cells and its possible action mechanism.

Methods: Tcam-2 cells were treated with carbenoxolone (CBX) at 100 μmol/L and probenecid (PBN) 200 μmol/L. Then the intercellular fluorescence transmission was assessed by real-time fluorescence assay, the extracellular ATP concentration measured by chemi-luminescence immunoassay, the invasive and migratory abilities of the Tcam-2 cells detected by Transwell assay, and the expressions of the proteins Panx1, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, vimentin, MMP-9 and E-cadherin in the TM3 Leydig cells and testicular cancer Tcam-2 cells determined by Western blot. Read More

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January 2020

Identification of the Roles of Chromobox Family Members in Gastric Cancer: A Study Based on Multiple Datasets.

Biomed Res Int 2020 5;2020:5306509. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Orthopaedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 283 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: As the important components in polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), Chromobox (CBX) family members are involved in epigenetic regulatory function, transcriptional repression, and other cellular metabolisms. Increasing studies have indicated significant associations between CBX and tumorigenesis, which is a progression in different types of cancers. However, the information about the roles of each CBX in gastric cancer is extremely limited. Read More

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November 2020

Carbenoxolone and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated endothelial cell calcium signalling and depolarise mitochondria.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Feb 17;178(4):896-912. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

Background And Purpose: Coordinated endothelial control of cardiovascular function is proposed to occur by endothelial cell communication via gap junctions and connexins. To study intercellular communication, the pharmacological agents carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) are used widely as connexin inhibitors and gap junction blockers.

Experimental Approach: We investigated the effects of CBX and 18βGA on intercellular Ca waves, evoked by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP ) in the endothelium of intact mesenteric resistance arteries. Read More

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February 2021

Lead-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis by inhibiting gap junction intercellular communication via autophagy activation.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Mar 23;337:109331. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, 250062, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) is one of the most common heavy metal contaminants in the environment. Pb can cause pathophysiological changes in several organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The study aimed to study the effects of Pb on Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and its role in Pb-induced apoptosis. Read More

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Expression and prognostic value of Chromobox family members in gastric cancer.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2020 Oct;11(5):983-998

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Hernia Center, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Institute of Gastroenterology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The Chromobox (CBX) protein family, which is a crucial part of the epigenetic regulatory complex, plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer; however, the function and prognostic value of CBX family members in gastric cancer is not clear.

Methods: we investigated the relationship between CBX members and gastric cancer using a range of tools and databases: Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier plotter, cBioPortal, ULCAN, Metascape, and GEPIA.

Results: The results showed that, relative to normal gastric tissue, mRNA expression levels of CBX1-6 were significantly higher in gastric cancer tissue, whereas the level of CBX7 was significantly lower. Read More

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October 2020

Comprehensive analysis of the prognosis for chromobox family in gastric cancer.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2020 Oct;11(5):932-951

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: Chromobox (CBX) family proteins are a class of transcriptional repressors involved in epigenetic regulation and developmental processes of various tumors, including gastric cancer. However, the function and prognosis of different CBXs in gastric cancer remain unknown.

Methods: This study addresses this issue by synthesizing several mainstream databases (Oncomine, GEPIA2, cBioportal, and Kaplan-Meier plotter, among others) that currently contain many tumor samples and provide very reliable analysis results, investigating the role of CBXs in the prognosis of gastric cancer. Read More

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October 2020

Bioinformatic analysis of the expression and prognostic value of chromobox family proteins in human breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 10 20;10(1):17739. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Breast Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Alley, Wuhou District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Chromobox (CBX) family proteins control chromatin structure and gene expression. However, the functions of CBXs in cancer progression, especially breast cancer, are inadequately studied. We assessed the significance of eight CBX proteins in breast cancer. Read More

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October 2020

Structural assembly of Polycomb group protein and Insight of EZH2 in cancer progression: A review.

J Cancer Res Ther 2020 Oct 13. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Human Genetics, Punjabi University, Patiala, India.

Polycomb group proteins (PcG) are multi-subunit structure, consisting of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), PRC2/3, and pleiohomeotic repressive complex. PRC1 is made up of PHC, BMI-1, CBX, and Ring 1A/B. PRC2 protein complex included embryonic ectoderm development, PCL, SUZ12, SET domain, enhancer of zeste homolog-2 protein (EZH2), and Nurf55. Read More

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October 2020

Phase-Separated Transcriptional Condensates Accelerate Target-Search Process Revealed by Live-Cell Single-Molecule Imaging.

Cell Rep 2020 10;33(2):108248

Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA. Electronic address:

Compartmentalization by liquid-liquid phase separation is implicated in transcription. It remains unclear whether and how transcriptional condensates accelerate the search of transcriptional regulatory factors for their target sites. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms by which regulatory factors nucleate on chromatin to assemble transcriptional condensates remain incompletely understood. Read More

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October 2020

Comprehensive Analysis of Prognostic Value and Immune Infiltration of Chromobox Family Members in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 4;10:582667. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the common malignant tumors worldwide. Chromobox (CBX) family proteins are important components of epigenetic regulation complexes and are implicated in the development of multiple cancers by blocking differentiation and promoting proliferation. However, little is known about the function of distinct CBX proteins in colorectal cancer. Read More

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September 2020

Gap Junction Dependent Cell Communication Is Modulated During Transdifferentiation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Towards Neuron-Like Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 31;8:869. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Cell Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany.

transdifferentiation of patient-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) into neurons is of special interest for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are encouraging studies, little is known about physiological modulations during this transdifferentiation process. Here, we focus on the analysis of gap junction dependent cell-cell communication and the expression pattern of gap junction-building connexins during small molecule-induced neuronal transdifferentiation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs. Read More

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Biological functions of chromobox (CBX) proteins in stem cell self-renewal, lineage-commitment, cancer and development.

Bone 2021 02 24;143:115659. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States of America.

Epigenetic regulatory proteins support mammalian development, cancer, aging and tissue repair by controlling many cellular processes including stem cell self-renewal, lineage-commitment and senescence in both skeletal and non-skeletal tissues. We review here our knowledge of epigenetic regulatory protein complexes that support the formation of inaccessible heterochromatin and suppress expression of cell and tissue-type specific biomarkers during development. Maintenance and formation of heterochromatin critically depends on epigenetic regulators that recognize histone 3 lysine trimethylation at residues K9 and K27 (respectively, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), which represent transcriptionally suppressive epigenetic marks. Read More

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February 2021