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Differences in cerebral blood flow measurement using arterial spin labeling MRI between patients with moyamoya disease and patients with arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease.

Acta Radiol 2022 Jan 17:2841851211069245. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, 13100Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: It is unclear whether the accuracy of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the same between moyamoya disease (MMD), which is known to have markedly elevated cerebral blood volume (CBV), and atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis (AS), which has relatively less elevated CBV.

Purpose: To investigate how the differences in hemodynamics affect measurement of ASL-cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ASL for patients with MMD and AS.

Material And Methods: Fourteen MMD and ten AS patients were evaluated with ASL-MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and O-gas positron emission computed tomography (PET). Read More

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January 2022

A Comparison of Single- and Multiparametric MRI Models for Differentiation of Recurrent Glioblastoma from Treatment-Related Change.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Dec 6;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

To evaluate single- and multiparametric MRI models to differentiate recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) and treatment-related changes (TRC) in clinical routine imaging. Selective and unselective apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and minimum, mean, and maximum cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements in the lesion were performed. Minimum, mean, and maximum ratios (CBV to CBV) were computed. Read More

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December 2021

Whole-Brain Volume CT Angiography can Effectively Detect Early Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 Dec 5. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

Handan City Central Hospital, Handan, Hebei Province, 056001. China.

Objective: To investigate the role of whole-brain volume computed tomography (CT) perfusion in assessing early ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two patients with early ischemic cerebrovascular diseases who had undergone routine CT scan and 320-row volume CT whole-brain perfusion imaging within 8 h after admission were retrospectively enrolled in this one-center case-sectional study. The perfusion parameters of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), and dynamic CT angiogram (4D-CTA) were obtained and analyzed. Read More

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December 2021

Hypovascular Cellular Tumor in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma is Associated with Treatment Resistance: Tumor Habitat Analysis Using Physiologic MRI.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 Jan 25;43(1):40-47. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (S.Y.J., J.E.P., H.S.K.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: The microenvironment of lymphomas is known to be highly variable and closely associated with treatment resistance and survival. We tried to develop a physiologic MR imaging-based spatial habitat analysis to identify regions associated with treatment resistance to facilitate the prediction of tumor response after initial chemotherapy in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Materials And Methods: Eighty-one patients with pathologically confirmed primary central nervous system lymphoma were enrolled. Read More

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January 2022

Perfusion Imaging Collateral Scores Predict Infarct Growth in Non-Reperfused DEFUSE 3 Patients.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jan 22;31(1):106208. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Stanford University, Departments of Neurology.

Objective: This study evaluated the associations of perfusion imaging collateral profiles with radiographic and clinical outcome in late presenting, non-reperfused patients in the DEFUSE 3 clinical trial.

Methods: Non-reperfused patients in both treatment arms were included. Baseline ischemic core, Tmax >6s, and Tmax >10s perfusion volumes were calculated with RAPID software; infarct volumes obtained 24 hours after randomization were manually determined from DWI or CT. Read More

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January 2022

Perfusion CT detects alterations in local cerebral flow of glioma related to IDH, MGMT and TERT status.

BMC Neurol 2021 Nov 24;21(1):460. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor biology and values of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), time to peak (TTP), permeability surface (PS) of tumor in patients with glioma.

Methods: Forty-six patients with glioma were involved in the study. Histopathologic and molecular pathology diagnoses were obtained by tumor resection, and all patients accepted perfusion computed tomography (PCT) before operation. Read More

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November 2021

Visit-to-Visit Blood PressureVariations and Hemodynamic Deterioration in Atherosclerotic Major Cerebral ArteryDisease.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Jan 12;31(1):106206. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Division of PET Imaging, Shiga Medical Center Research Institute, 5-4-30 Moriyama, Moriyama 524-8524, Japan.

Objective: Visit-to-visit variations in blood pressure (BP) in patients with atherosclerotic major cerebral artery disease could impair the function of cerebral collaterals, leading to hemodynamic deterioration at follow-up. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between visit-to-visit BP variability and changes in hemodynamic parameters at follow-up.

Materials And Methods: We evaluated 35 medically treated patients with atherosclerotic internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery disease with no ischemic episodes during follow-up (mean: 35 ± 20 months); these patients had a three-time visit for positron emission tomography examinations with O-gas. Read More

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January 2022

Long-term heart transplant recipients: heart rate-related effects on augmented transfer function coherence during repeated squat-stand maneuvers in males.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 12 3;321(6):R925-R937. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Cerebrovascular Concussion Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Previous research has highlighted that squat-stand maneuvers (SSMs) augment coherence values within the cerebral pressure-flow relationship to ∼0.99. However, it is not fully elucidated if mean arterial pressure (MAP) leads to this physiological entrainment independently, or if heart rate (HR) and/or the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco) also have contributing influences. Read More

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December 2021

Application of Cluster Analysis of Time Evolution for Magnetic Resonance Imaging -Derived Oxygen Extraction Fraction Mapping: A Promising Strategy for the Genetic Profile Prediction and Grading of Glioma.

Front Neurosci 2021 4;15:736891. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygen metabolism and angiogenesis are core hallmarks of glioma, unveiling that genetic aberrations associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phenotypes may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of glioma. To explore the predictability of MRI-based oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping using cluster analysis of time evolution (CAT) for genetic profiling and glioma grading. Ninety-one patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma were examined with CAT for quantitative susceptibility mapping and quantitative blood oxygen level-dependent magnitude-based OEF mapping and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Read More

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October 2021

Identification of a plausible serum uric acid cut-off value as prognostic marker of stroke: the Uric Acid Right for Heart Health (URRAH) study.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Geriatric and Intensive Care Medicine, Careggi Hospital and University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The Working Group on Uric Acid and Cardiovascular Risk of the Italian Society of Hypertension conceived and designed an ad hoc study aimed at searching for prognostic cut-off values of serum uric acid (SUA) in predicting combined (fatal and non-fatal) cerebrovascular (CBV) events in the whole database. The URic acid Right for heArt Health study is a nationwide, multicenter, observational cohort study involving data on subjects aged 18-95 years recruited on a regional community basis from all the territory of Italy under the patronage of the Italian Society of Hypertension with a mean follow-up period of 120.7 ± 61. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanical Behavior of Blood Vessels: Elastic and Viscoelastic Contributions.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Aug 26;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Centro Zaragoza, Crtra. 232, km. 273, 50690 Pedrola, Spain.

The mechanical properties of the cerebral bridging veins (CBVs) were studied using advanced microtensile equipment. Detailed high-quality curves were obtained at different strain rates, showing a clearly nonlinear stress-strain response. In addition, the tissue of the CBVs exhibits and a under cyclic loading, unequivocal indications of viscoelastic behavior. Read More

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Dynamic susceptibility MR perfusion imaging of the brain: not a question of contrast agent molarity.

Neuroradiology 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Radiology, University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Purpose: Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) is increasingly used in clinical neuroimaging for a range of conditions. More highly concentrated GBCAs (e.g. Read More

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September 2021

Perfusion parameters derived from MRI for preoperative prediction of IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastomas.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 11 8;83:189-195. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University & Henan Cancer Hospital, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility for preoperative prediction of IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastomas(GBMs) by intravoxel incoherent motion(IVIM) and dynamic susceptibility contrast(DSC).

Methods: Preoperative IVIM and DSC images of 71 patients(IDH mutation:45, IDH wildtype: 26; MGMT methylation: 31, MGMT unmethylation:40) with glioblastomas were analyzed retrospectively. Perfusion parameters including microcirculation perfusion coefficient(D*), perfusion fraction(f), cerebral blood volume(CBV) and cerebral blood flow(CBF) were measured. Read More

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November 2021

Contrast Bolus Interference in a Multimodal CT Stroke Protocol.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 10 19;42(10):1807-1814. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Neuroradiology (A.R., T.D., H.U.), Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Whether CTP is performed before or after CTA varies within multimodal CT stroke protocols. CTA after CTP might show venous filling, and CTP metrics might be disturbed by prior CTA. Therefore, we compared CTP metrics conducted before and after CTA in a large cohort of patients with stroke and analyzed interferences of the CTA bolus with the CTP measurement. Read More

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October 2021

Study on Model Iterative Reconstruction Algorithm vs. Filter Back Projection Algorithm for Diagnosis of Acute Cerebral Infarction Using CT Images.

J Healthc Eng 2021 5;2021:5000102. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shaoyang College, Shaoyang 422039, Hunan, China.

The aim was to explore the application value of computed tomography (CT) perfusion (CTP) imaging based on the iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (ACI). 80 patients with ACI, admitted to hospital, were selected as the research objects and divided randomly into a routine treatment group (group A) and a low-dose group (group B) (each group with 40 patients). Patients in group A were scanned at 80 kV-150 mAs, and the traditional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm was employed to reconstruct the images; besides, 80 kV-30 mAs was adopted to scan the patients in group B, and the images were reconstructed by IMR1, IMR2, IMR3, iDose4 (a kind of hybrid iterative reconstruction technology), and FBP, respectively. Read More

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December 2021

Tumor habitat analysis by magnetic resonance imaging distinguishes tumor progression from radiation necrosis in brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery.

Eur Radiol 2022 Jan 6;32(1):497-507. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The identification of viable tumor after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is important for future targeted therapy. This study aimed to determine whether tumor habitat on structural and physiologic MRI can distinguish viable tumor from radiation necrosis of brain metastases after SRS.

Method: Multiparametric contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were obtained from 52 patients with 69 metastases, showing enlarging enhancing masses after SRS. Read More

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January 2022

Salt stress on Lotus tenuis triggers cell wall polysaccharide changes affecting their digestibility by ruminants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 12;166:405-415. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía, Departamento de Biología Aplicada y Alimentos, Cátedra de Química de Biomoléculas. Av. San Martín, 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Agronomía. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas- Centro de Investigación de Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR-CONICET, UBA), Av. San Martín, 4453, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Lotus tenuis is a glycophytic forage legume (Fabaceae) used in feeding ruminants that can grow under salinity and waterlogging stresses. Plants obtained in controlled conditions were affected negatively in their growth by the effect of salt. Results from sequential extraction of plant cell wall polysaccharides and chemical characterization were related to those from nutritional parameters used to assess ruminants feedstuffs (Van Soest detergent system). Read More

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September 2021

Radiogenomics of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs): correlation of histological and biological characteristics with multimodal MRI features.

Eur Radiol 2021 Dec 18;31(12):8913-8924. Epub 2021 May 18.

Pediatric Radiology Department, AP-HP, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, F-75015, Paris, France.

Objectives: The diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are now defined by the type of histone H3 mutated at lysine 27. We aimed to correlate the multimodal MRI features of DIPGs, H3K27M mutant, with their histological and molecular characteristics.

Methods: Twenty-seven treatment-naïve children with histopathologically confirmed DIPG H3K27M mutant were prospectively included. Read More

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December 2021

Three-dimensional whole-brain mapping of cerebral blood volume and venous cerebral blood volume using Fourier transform-based velocity-selective pulse trains.

Magn Reson Med 2021 09 6;86(3):1420-1433. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of MR Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Purpose: To develop 3D MRI methods for cerebral blood volume (CBV) and venous cerebral blood volume (vCBV) estimation with whole-brain coverage using Fourier transform-based velocity-selective (FT-VS) pulse trains.

Methods: For CBV measurement, FT-VS saturation pulse trains were used to suppress static tissue, whereas CSF contamination was corrected voxel-by-voxel using a multi-readout acquisition and a fast CSF T scan. The vCBV mapping was achieved by inserting an arterial-nulling module that included a FT-VS inversion pulse train. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative collateral assessment evaluated by cerebral blood volume measured by CT perfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 18;30(7):105797. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Soka Municipal Hospital, 2-21-1, Soka, Soka city, Saitama 340-8560, Japan.

Objectives: Collateral status (CS) is considered a predictor of clinical outcome after reperfusion therapy (RT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We proposed a quantitative assessment of CS using cerebral blood volume (CBV) measured by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Read More

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Non-invasive assessment of heterogeneity of gliomas using diffusion and perfusion MRI: correlation with spatially co-registered PET.

Acta Radiol 2021 Apr 15:2841851211006913. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Background: Heterogeneity of gliomas challenges the neuronavigated biopsy and oncological therapy. Diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the cellular and hemodynamic heterogeneity of tumors. Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI is expected to be a non-invasive imaging approach to characterizing glioma. Read More

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Prediction of an oxygen extraction fraction map by convolutional neural network: validation of input data among MR and PET images.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 Nov 5;16(11):1865-1874. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita Cerebrospinal and Cardiovascular Center, 6-10 Senshu-Kubota-machi, Akita, 010-0874, Japan.

Purpose: Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a biomarker for the viability of brain tissue in ischemic stroke. However, acquisition of the OEF map using positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 gas is uncomfortable for patients because of the long fixation time, invasive arterial sampling, and radiation exposure. We aimed to predict the OEF map from magnetic resonance (MR) and PET images using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and to demonstrate which PET and MR images are optimal as inputs for the prediction of OEF maps. Read More

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November 2021

Dynamics of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation parameters following endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Jan 24;14(1). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Background: We studied the effects of endovascular treatment (EVT) and the impact of the extent of recanalization on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation parameters in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and large vessel occlusion (LVO).

Methods: Forty-seven patients with anterior LVO underwent computed tomography perfusion (CTP) before and immediately after EVT. The entire ischemic region (T >6 s) was segmented before intervention, and tissue perfusion (time-to-maximum (T), time-to-peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF)) and oxygenation (coefficient of variation (COV), capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH), metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF)) parameters were quantified from the segmented area at baseline and the corresponding area immediately after intervention, as well as within the ischemic core and penumbra. Read More

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January 2022

Promoter Methylation Status in Initial and Recurrent Glioblastoma: Correlation Study with DWI and DSC PWI Features.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 05 25;42(5):853-860. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology (S.-H.P.), Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: () promoter methylation status in primary and recurrent glioblastoma may change during treatment. The purpose of this study was to correlate promoter methylation status changes with DWI and DSC PWI features in patients with recurrent glioblastoma after standard treatment.

Materials And Methods: Between January 2008 and November 2016, forty patients with histologically confirmed recurrent glioblastoma were enrolled. Read More

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A non-invasive reference-based method for imaging the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by PET/MR: theory and error analysis.

Phys Med Biol 2021 03 4;66(6):065009. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.

Positron emission tomography (PET) remains the gold standard for quantitative imaging of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO); however, it is an invasive and complex procedure that requires accounting for recirculating [O]HO (RW) and the cerebral blood volume (CBV). This study presents a non-invasive reference-based technique for imaging CMRO that was developed for PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the goal of simplifying the PET procedure while maintaining its ability to quantify metabolism. The approach is to use whole-brain (WB) measurements of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to calibrate [O]O-PET data, thereby avoiding the need for invasive arterial sampling. Read More

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Spatiotemporal habitats from multiparametric physiologic MRI distinguish tumor progression from treatment-related change in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 10;31(8):6374-6383. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to develop multiparametric physiologic MRI-based spatial habitats and to evaluate whether temporal changes in these habitats help to distinguish tumor progression from treatment-related change in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Methods: This retrospective, single-institution study included patients with glioblastoma treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy who had newly developed or enlarging, measurable contrast-enhancing mass. Contrast-enhancing mass was divided into three spatial habitats by K-means clustering of voxel-wise ADC and CBV values. Read More

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Integrated PET/MRI scanner with oxygen-15 labeled gases for quantification of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Apr 27;35(4):421-428. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikariga-oka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Objectives: Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO) by PET with oxygen-15 labeled gases is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. In the present study, CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO were measured using the integrated design of PET/MRI scanner system. This is a first attempt to measure cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism using PET/MRI with oxygen-15 labeled gases. Read More

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Measuring global impairment of cerebral perfusion using dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors: A prospective preliminary study.

J Neuroradiol 2021 Sep 17;48(5):379-384. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: This study aimed to assess the global impairment and prognostic performance of cerebral perfusions (CP) measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients after sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).

Materials And Methods: This is a single-centre, prospective observational study. OHCA patients performed DSC-PWI within 8 h after ROSC were enrolled. Read More

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September 2021

Classification of Primary Cerebral Lymphoma and Glioblastoma Featuring Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient.

Brain Sci 2020 Nov 20;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

This study aimed to differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and glioblastoma (GBM) via multimodal MRI featuring radiomic analysis. MRI data sets of patients with histological proven PCNSL and GBM were analyzed retrospectively. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging were evaluated to differentiate contrast enhancing intracerebral lesions. Read More

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November 2020

Noise dependency in vascular parameters from combined gradient-echo and spin-echo DSC MRI.

Phys Med Biol 2020 11 17;65(22):225020. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Diagnostic Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging is a widely used technique for assessment of cerebral blood volume (CBV). With combined gradient-echo and spin-echo DSC techniques, measures of the underlying vessel size and vessel architecture can be obtained from the vessel size index (VSI) and vortex area, respectively. However, how noise, and specifically the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), affect the estimations of these parameters has largely been overlooked. Read More

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November 2020