5,573 results match your criteria caudal cranial


Emissary Foramina of the External Occipital Protuberance: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2021 Sep-Oct 01;45(5):753-758

From the Department of Neurological Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba.

Objective: The posterior interparietal region is known to be a distinct area of the skull, predisposing to a variety of bony variants and congenital anomalies. The bony canals in this region have not yet been explored in detail. This study aimed to characterize them. Read More

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September 2021

Emissary Foramina of the External Occipital Protuberance: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

From the Department of Neurological Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba Division of Radiological Technology, Medical Satellite Yaesu Clinic, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: The posterior interparietal region is known to be a distinct area of the skull, predisposing to a variety of bony variants and congenital anomalies. The bony canals in this region have not yet been explored in detail. This study aimed to characterize them. Read More

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September 2021

Dome Laminotomies at Adjacent Segments in Cervical Laminoplasty.

Int J Spine Surg 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Background: Cervical laminoplasty is an established and effective surgical treatment for neurologic dysfunction associated with cervical myelopathy. "Dome laminotomies" involve undercutting the laminae adjacent to the laminoplasty levels to decompress and prevent spinal cord kinking on the lamina edges. The technique allows for a decrease in the number of instrumented laminae, smaller surgical exposure, and preservation of muscular attachments at the top of C2 and C7. Read More

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September 2021

Ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract of toco toucans (Ramphastos toco).

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Botucatu, Brazil.

Baseline data for wall thickness in healthy toucans can be used to diagnose disease in sick individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for the examination of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy toco toucans (Ramphastos toco). Ten non-anaesthetized healthy adult toco toucans were evaluated. Read More

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September 2021

Diaphragm Based Position Verification to Improve Daily Target Dose Coverage in Proton and Photon Radiotherapy Treatment of Distal Esophageal Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In modern conformal radiotherapy of distal esophageal cancer, target coverage can be affected by variations in the diaphragm position. We investigated if daily position verification (PV) extended by a diaphragm position correction would optimize target dose coverage for esophageal cancer treatment.

Materials And Methods: For fifteen esophageal cancer patients, intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were computed. Read More

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September 2021

Non-uniform Segmental Range of Motion of the Thoracic Spine During Maximal Inspiration and Exhalation in Healthy Subjects.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:699357. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Spine Surgery Unit, Hospital Infanta Cristina, Badajoz, Spain.

To analyse the range of motion of the thoracic spine by radiographically measuring changes in the sagittal profile of different thoracic segments during maximal inspiration and exhalation. The starting hypothesis was that forced deep breathing requires an active, but non-uniform widening of the lordotic-kyphotic range of motion of the different thoracic segments. Cross-sectional study. Read More

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Influence of eye movement on lens dose and optic nerve target coverage during craniospinal irradiation.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Nov 29;31:28-33. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Optic nerves are part of the craniospinal irradiation (CSI) target volume. Modern radiotherapy techniques achieve highly conformal target doses while avoiding organs-at-risk such as the lens. The magnitude of eye movement and its influence on CSI target- and avoidance volumes are unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Evaluation of lung tumor motion in a large sample: Target-related and clinical factors influencing tumor motion based on four-dimensional CT.

Cancer Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background And Purpose: We aimed to analyze the influence of target-related and clinical factors on lung tumor motion based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT), and clarify the motion based on subgroups in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.

Materials And Methods: 4DCT image data of 267 tumors from 246 patients were analyzed. The coordinates in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and cranial-caudal (CC) directions of the center of mass (COM) of the gross tumor volumes in 10 phases of 4DCT were measured. Read More

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September 2021

Diversity in cranial muscles: Origins and developmental programs.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 Sep 6;73:110-116. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Stem Cells & Development Unit, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France; UMR CNRS 3738, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Cranial muscles have been the focus of many studies over the years because of their unique developmental programs and relative resistance to illnesses. In addition, head muscles possess clonal relationships with heart muscles and have been highly remodeled during vertebrate evolution. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings that have helped to redefine the boundaries and lineages of cranial mesoderm. Read More

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September 2021

Morphology of the stifle in agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha, Wagler 1831).

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Morphology, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Piaui, Teresina, Brazil.

The agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha, Wagler 1831) is a wild rodent of great zootechnical potential, a fact that enables anatomical and morphological studies to support management actions with this animal. In this perspective, this study aimed to describe the anatomy and histology of the agouti stifle joint. Four adult agoutis were used, two females and two males. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of the Dynamic Morphometry of the Caudal Cervical Intervertebral Disc Spaces of Small Dogs and Cats.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:706452. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Clinic for Small Animal Surgery, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The objective of this study was to provide a morphometric description of the caudal cervical intervertebral disc (IVD) spaces of small-breed dogs and cats. Specimens consisting of C4 through C7 from five small-breed dogs and six cats were positioned in neutral, flexion, extension, and lateral bending positions; and CT images were acquired. Height and width of the cranial and caudal vertebral endplates (VEPs), angle between the VEPs (IVD wedge angle), and craniocaudal distance (IVD width) between VEPs for the four loading positions were measured and compared for three segments (C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7). Read More

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Improved Posterolateral Lumbar Spinal Fusion Using a Biomimetic, Nanocomposite Scaffold Augmented by Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:622099. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.

Remodeling of the human bony skeleton is constantly occurring with up to 10% annual bone volume turnover from osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity. A shift toward resorption can result in osteoporosis and pathologic fractures, while a shift toward deposition is required after traumatic, or surgical injury. Spinal fusion represents one such state, requiring a substantial regenerative response to immobilize adjacent vertebrae through bony union. Read More

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Petrosal Anatomy of the Paleocene Eutherian Mammal (Cope, 1881).

J Mamm Evol 2021 Aug 31:1-20. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque, New Mexico United States of America.

We describe the tympanic anatomy of the petrosal of an enigmatic Paleocene mammal based on cranial specimens recovered from New Mexico, U.S.A. Read More

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Impact of an intraoperative coronal spinal alignment measurement technique using a navigational tool for a 3D spinal rod bending system in adult spinal deformity cases.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 3:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Objective: In corrective spinal surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD), the focus has been on achieving optimal spinopelvic alignment. However, the correction of coronal spinal alignment is equally important. The conventional intraoperative measurement methods currently used for coronal alignment are not ideal. Read More

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September 2021

Blood supply to the corticospinal tract: A pictorial review with application to cranial surgery and stroke.

Clin Anat 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: The corticospinal tract (CST) is the main neural pathway responsible for conducting voluntary motor function in the central nervous system. The CST condenses into fiber bundles as it descends from the frontoparietal cortex, traveling down to terminate at the anterior horn of the spinal cord. The CST is at risk of injury from vascular insult from strokes and during neurosurgical procedures. Read More

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September 2021

The effects of a proprietary Manuka honey and essential oil hydrogel on the healing of acute full-thickness wounds in dogs.

Vet Surg 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of a proprietary Manuka honey essential oil hydrogel on the healing of acute, full-thickness wounds in dogs.

Study Design: Prospective, controlled, randomized, experimental study.

Animals: Purpose-bred, adult, female beagles (n = 10). Read More

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September 2021

Biomechanical effects of uncinate process excision in cervical disc Arthroplasty.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Aug 14;89:105451. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Center for NeuroTrauma Research, Department of Neurosurgery, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Medical College of Wisconsin, Zablocki Veterans Administration Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Background: Studies on the role of uncinate process have been limited to responses of the intact spine and patient's outcomes, and procedures to perform the excision. The aim of this study was to determine the role of uncinate process on the biomechanical response at the index and adjacent levels in three artificial discs used in cervical disc arthroplasty.

Methods: A validated finite element model of cervical spine was used. Read More

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Applied anatomy of the skull in the Arabian horse: A computed tomographic, cross-sectional, volumetric and morphometric study.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

This study was conducted to present a comprehensive and integrative computed tomography (CT) - anatomical cross sections atlas of skull, volumetric properties of the paranasal sinuses, and morphometric values for surface cranial nerves in the adult Arabian horse. Ten heads of Arabian horse breed were used. The different structures in the nasal, oral and cranial cavities were determined and labelled in the anatomical sections and their corresponding CT scan images. Read More

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Morphology of the genital organs of male and female giant anteaters ().

PeerJ 2021 11;9:e11945. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Institute for Anatomy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The giant anteater belongs to the supraorder Xenarthra which occupies a systematically isolated position among placental mammals. The species is categorized as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and understanding its reproductive characteristics is critical for future conservation efforts.

Methods: Gross and microscopic anatomy of the genital organs of 23 male and 21 female adult and young roadkill giant anteaters in Brazil were studied. Read More

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Versatile Surface Electrodes for Combined Electrophysiology and Two-Photon Imaging of the Mouse Central Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 10;15:720675. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Molecular Physiology, Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine (CIPMM), University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany.

Understanding and modulating CNS function in physiological as well as pathophysiological contexts remains a significant ambition in research and clinical applications. The investigation of the multifaceted CNS cell types including their interactions and contributions to neural function requires a combination of the state-of-the-art electrophysiology and imaging techniques. We developed a novel type of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) surface micro-electrode manufactured in three customized designs with up to 16 channels for recording and stimulation of brain activity. Read More

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The Modular Concept in Skull Base Surgery: Anatomical Basis of the Median, Paramedian and Lateral Corridors.

Acta Biomed 2021 08 26;92(S4):e2021411. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy..

Introduction A thorough understanding of skull base anatomy is imperative to perform safely and effectively any skull base approach. In this article, we examine the microsurgical anatomy of the skull base by proposing a modular topographic organization in the median, paramedian, and lateral surgical corridors in relation to transcranial and endoscopic approaches. Methods Five dry skulls were studied focusing on the intracranial and exocranial skull base. Read More

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Factors affecting successful ultrasound-guided injection into the podotrochlear bursa using a palmarolateral approach.

Vet Surg 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Objective: To evaluate potential factors affecting ultrasonographic visibility of the suprasesamoidean region and the success rate of ultrasound-guided injection (USGI) into the podotrochlear bursa (PB).

Study Design: Ex vivo, experimental study.

Animals: 24 cadaveric forelimbs. Read More

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A neck-like vertebral motion in fish.

Authors:
Ariel L Camp

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Aug 25;288(1957):20211091. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Musculoskeletal and Ageing Science, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Tetrapods use their neck to move the head three-dimensionally, relative to the body and limbs. Fish lack this anatomical neck, yet during feeding many species elevate (dorsally rotate) the head relative to the body. Cranial elevation is hypothesized to result from the craniovertebral and cranial-most intervertebral joints acting as a neck, by dorsally rotating (extending). Read More

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Comparison of electrical dyssynchrony parameters between electrocardiographic imaging and a simulated ECG belt.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Aug 8;68:117-123. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College, London, UK; Department of Cardiology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: Electrocardiographic imaging (ECGi) and the ECG belt are body surface potential mapping systems which can assess electrical dyssynchrony in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). ECGi-derived dyssynchrony metrics are calculated from reconstructed epicardial potentials based on body surface potentials combined with a thoracic CT scan, while the ECG belt relies on body surface potentials alone. The relationship between dyssynchrony metrics from these two systems is unknown. Read More

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Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision-a combined medial to lateral and caudal to cranial approach.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Manipal Comprehensive Cancer Care Center, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India.

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Arterial supply to the rat colon.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Sep 19;50(5):853-860. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Rats are often used as animal models in studies such as on intestinal transplantation and anastomosis healing, which require colectomy. Although detailed information regarding arterial supply is important to establish accurate and reproducible experimental procedures, this has not been studied in the rat colon. Therefore, we analysed the detailed arterial distribution pattern and its individual variations in the colon of 34 rats. Read More

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September 2021

[Anatomical observation of the right retroperitoneal fascia and its clinical significance in complete mesocolic excision for right colon cancer].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;24(8):704-710

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.

To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the right retroperitoneal fascia and its surgical implementation while performing complete mesocolic excision (CME) for right colon cancer. A descriptive study was carried out. (1) Clinicopathological data and surgical videos of 17 non-consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy (extended right hemicolectomy) with CME for right colon cancer at Department of Colorectal Surgery of Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University between January 2020 and October 2020 were retrospectively collected. Read More

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Is the fusion order of the cranial and caudal levels different in two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for cervical spondylopathy? A retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 16;16(1):500. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the fusion order between the cranial and caudal levels in two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with a zero-profile device in the treatment of cervical spondylopathy. Fusion is the standard used to judge the success of ACDF. Read More

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Oncoplastic breast surgery combining partial mastectomy with resection of double equilateral triangular skin flaps.

Surg Today 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, 890-8520, Japan.

The treatment of early breast cancer using oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS) has been gradually increasing in popularity and is recognized for its efficacy in local control and excellent cosmetic results. We herein report a useful technique for obtaining symmetry of the breast shape for an early breast lesion located in an outer area, close to the nipple-areola, in a Japanese patient with ptotic, fatty breasts. We designed two equilateral triangles: one just upon the resected area and the other on the axilla. Read More

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3D Reconstruction of the Clarified Rat Hindbrain Choroid Plexus.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:692617. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The choroid plexus (CP) acts as a regulated gate between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Despite its simple histology (a monostratified cuboidal epithelium overlying a vascularized stroma), this organ has remarkably complex functions several of which involve local interaction with cells located around ventricle walls. Our knowledge of CP structural organization is mainly derived from resin casts, which capture the overall features but only allow reconstruction of the vascular pattern surface, unrelated to the overlying epithelium and only loosely related to ventricular location. Read More

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