73 results match your criteria category-specific impairments

No fruits without color: Cross-modal priming and EEG reveal different roles for different features across semantic categories.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0234219. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

Category-specific impairments witnessed in patients with semantic deficits have broadly dissociated into natural and artificial kinds. However, how the category of food (more specifically, fruits and vegetables) fits into this distinction has been difficult to interpret, given a pattern of deficit that has inconsistently mapped onto either kind, despite its intuitive membership to the natural domain. The present study explores the effects of a manipulation of a visual sensory (i. Read More

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Object recognition and visual object agnosia.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:155-173

Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The term visual agnosia is used to refer to recognition disorders that are confined to the visual modality, that are not due to an impairment in sensory functions, and that cannot be explained by other cognitive deficits or by general reduction in intellectual ability. Here, we describe the different types of visual agnosia that have been reported (form agnosia, integrative agnosia, associative agnosia, transformational and orientation agnosia as well as category-specific impairments such as pure alexia and prosopagnosia) and how they relate to the current understanding of visual object recognition. Together with related disorders such as simultanagnosia, texture agnosia, aphantasia, and optic aphasia, these visual perceptual impairments can have severe consequences for those affected. Read More

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January 2021

Aging and pathological aging signatures of the brain: through the focusing lens of SIRT6.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 9;13(5):6420-6441. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel.

Brain-specific SIRT6-KO mice present increased DNA damage, learning impairments, and neurodegenerative phenotypes, placing SIRT6 as a key protein in preventing neurodegeneration. In the aging brain, SIRT6 levels/activity decline, which is accentuated in Alzheimer's patients. To understand SIRT6 roles in transcript pattern changes, we analyzed transcriptomes of young WT, old WT and young SIRT6-KO mice brains, and found changes in gene expression related to healthy and pathological aging. Read More

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Effects of aging on encoding of walking direction in the human brain.

Neuropsychologia 2020 04 21;141:107379. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Max Planck Research Group NeuroCode, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Aging Research, Berlin, Germany, and London, United Kingdom.

Human aging is characterized by impaired spatial cognition and reductions in the distinctiveness of category-specific fMRI activation patterns. Yet, little is known about age-related decline in neural distinctiveness of information that humans use when navigating spatial environments. Here, we asked whether neural tuning functions of walking direction are broadened in older versus younger adults. Read More

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The functional relevance of dorsal motor systems for processing tool nouns- evidence from patients with focal lesions.

Neuropsychologia 2020 04 14;141:107384. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Freie Universität Berlin, Brain Language Laboratory, Department of Philosophy and Humanities, Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Cluster of Excellence Matters of Activity, Image Space Material, Berlin, Germany; Einstein Center for Neurosciences Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin, Germany.

This study asks whether lesions in different parts of the brain have different effects on the processing of words typically used to refer to objects with and without action affordances, for example tools and animal-related nouns. A cohort of neurological patients with focal lesions participated in a lexical decision paradigm where nouns semantically related to tools, foods and animals were presented along with matched pseudo-words. Differences in semantic features between the categories were confirmed using extensive semantic ratings whereas all semantic word categories were matched for relevant psycholinguistic variables. Read More

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Integrating functional connectivity and MVPA through a multiple constraint network analysis.

Neuroimage 2020 03 30;208:116412. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, United States.

Traditional general linear model-based brain mapping efforts using functional neuroimaging are complemented by more recent multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) that apply machine learning techniques to identify the cognitive states associated with regional BOLD activation patterns, and by connectivity analyses that identify networks of interacting regions that support particular cognitive processes. We introduce a novel analysis representing the union of these approaches, and explore the insights gained when MVPA and functional connectivity analyses are allowed to mutually constrain each other within a single model. We explored multisensory semantic representations of concrete object concepts using a self-paced multisensory imagery task. Read More

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Anomia for musical entities.

Aphasiology 2019 1;33(4):382-404. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2155 RCP, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Background: Previous work has investigated extensively the neuroanatomical correlates of lexical retrieval for words for concrete entities. Musical entities, such as musical instruments, are often included in studies of category-specific naming deficits, but have rarely been the focus of such work.

Aims: This article reviews a program of research investigating the neuroanatomical basis for lexical retrieval of words for unique (i. Read More

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December 2017

Plasticity versus chronicity: Stable performance on category fluency 40 years post-onset.

J Neuropsychol 2020 03 15;14(1):20-27. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK.

What is the long-term trajectory of semantic memory deficits in patients who have suffered structural brain damage? Memory is, per definition, a changing faculty. The traditional view is that after an initial recovery period, the mature human brain has little capacity to repair or reorganize. More recently, it has been suggested that the central nervous system may be more plastic with the ability to change in neural structure, connectivity, and function. Read More

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Impairments in the Comprehension of Indoor Object/Body Part Words and Family Relationships in a Patient with Aphasia due to Cerebral Infarction of the Left Parietal and Temporal Lobes.

Case Rep Neurol 2018 May-Aug;10(2):181-192. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fukui General Hospital, Fukui, Japan.

The present report discusses the case of a 73-year-old right-handed man who exhibited signs of aphasia caused by cerebral infarction in the left temporoparietal region. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed that he had difficulty in comprehending words related to indoor objects, body parts, and family relationships, compared to his vocabulary comprehension in other semantic categories. Although several reports have described cases in whom category-specific impairments in word comprehension are observed, few have documented cases in whom these impairments are accompanied by impairments in the comprehension of words indicating family relationships. Read More

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Neuropsychological evidence for the temporal dynamics of category-specific naming.

Vis cogn 2017 6;25(1-3):79-99. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Multiple accounts have been proposed to explain category-specific recognition impairments. Some suggest that category-specific deficits may be caused by a deficit in recurrent processing between the levels of a hierarchically organized visual object recognition system. Here, we tested predictions of interactive processing theories on the emergence of category-selective naming deficits in neurologically intact observers and in patient GA, a single case showing a category-specific impairment for natural objects after a herpes simplex encephalitis infection. Read More

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Evidence of semantic processing impairments in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease.

Curr Opin Neurol 2017 Dec;30(6):617-622

Department of Neurology and Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations. Read More

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December 2017

Category-Specific Visual Recognition and Aging from the PACE Theory Perspective: Evidence for a Presemantic Deficit in Aging Object Recognition.

Exp Aging Res 2016 Oct-Dec;42(5):431-446

a Laboratoire de psychologie EA4139 , Université Victor Segalen-Bordeaux 2 , Bordeaux , France.

Background/Study Context: The objective of this study was to investigate the object recognition deficit in aging. Age-related declines were examined from the presemantic account of category effects (PACE) theory perspective (Gerlach, 2009, Cognition, 111, 281-301). This view assumes that the structural similarity/dissimilarity inherent in living and nonliving objects, respectively, can account for a wide range of category-specific effects. Read More

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Segregation of anterior temporal regions critical for retrieving names of unique and non-unique entities reflects underlying long-range connectivity.

Cortex 2016 Feb 6;75:1-19. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; Integrated Brain Imaging Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Lesion-deficit studies support the hypothesis that the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a critical role in retrieving names of concrete entities. They further suggest that different regions of the left ATL process different conceptual categories. Here we test the specificity of these relationships and whether the anatomical segregation is related to the underlying organization of white matter connections. Read More

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February 2016

Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

Front Psychol 2015 12;6:1661. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Brain Language Laboratory, Department of Philosophy and Humanities, Freie Universität Berlin Berlin, Germany ; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin Berlin, Germany.

Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e. Read More

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November 2015

Attenuated sensitivity to the emotions of others by insular lesion.

Front Psychol 2015 1;6:1314. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Department of Psychology, Keio University Tokyo, Japan.

The insular cortex has been considered to be the neural base of visceral sensation for many years. Previous studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience have accumulated evidence indicating that interoception is an essential factor in the subjective feeling of emotion. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that anterior insular cortex activation is associated with accessing interoceptive information and underpinning the subjective experience of emotional state. Read More

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September 2015

A Model of Emergent Category-specific Activation in the Posterior Fusiform Gyrus of Sighted and Congenitally Blind Populations.

J Cogn Neurosci 2015 Oct 4;27(10):1981-99. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Theories about the neural bases of semantic knowledge tend between two poles, one proposing that distinct brain regions are innately dedicated to different conceptual domains and the other suggesting that all concepts are encoded within a single network. Category-sensitive functional activations in the fusiform cortex of the congenitally blind have been taken to support the former view but also raise several puzzles. We use neural network models to assess a hypothesis that spans the two poles: The interesting functional activation patterns reflect the base connectivity of a domain-general semantic network. Read More

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October 2015

Comparative semantic profiles in semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

Brain 2013 Aug 3;136(Pt 8):2497-509. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, Drexel University, 245 North 15th Street, 7th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA.

Patients with the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, also known as semantic dementia, and Alzheimer's disease have deficits in semantic memory. However, few comparative studies have been performed to determine whether these patient groups have distinct semantic memory impairments. We asked 15 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and 57 patients with Alzheimer's disease to judge semantic category membership of coloured photos and printed words that are members of familiar natural and manufactured categories, and we related performance to grey matter atrophy. Read More

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Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects.

Brain 2012 Dec;135(Pt 12):3757-69

Memory Clinic, Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, CH, Switzerland.

Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Read More

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December 2012

A common processing system for the concepts of artifacts and actions? Evidence from a case of a disproportionate conceptual impairment for living things.

Cogn Neuropsychol 2011 Feb;28(1):1-43

Institute of Psychological Sciences and Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

We report the results of a single-case study carried out with a brain-damaged patient, G.C., whose conceptual knowledge of living things (animals and plants) was significantly more impaired than his knowledge of artifacts and his knowledge of actions, which were similarly impaired. Read More

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February 2011

Face and body perception in schizophrenia: a configural processing deficit?

Psychiatry Res 2012 Jan 30;195(1-2):9-17. Epub 2011 Jul 30.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Dept. of Neuropsychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitätsstraße 150, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.

Face and body perception rely on common processing mechanisms and activate similar but not identical brain networks. Patients with schizophrenia show impaired face perception, and the present study addressed for the first time body perception in this group. Seventeen patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were compared to 17 healthy controls on standardized tests assessing basic face perception skills (identity discrimination, memory for faces, recognition of facial affect). Read More

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January 2012

A domain-specific system for representing knowledge of both man-made objects and human actions. Evidence from a case with an association of deficits.

Neuropsychologia 2011 Jul 17;49(9):2321-41. Epub 2011 Apr 17.

Université catholique de Louvain, Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgium.

We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to conceptual knowledge of actions at the functional level. We first found that JJG's conceptual knowledge of both man-made objects and actions was similarly impaired while his conceptual knowledge of living things was spared as well as his knowledge of unique entities. Read More

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Anatomical correlates for category-specific naming of living and non-living things.

Neuroimage 2011 May 4;56(1):323-9. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

Centres Hospitalo-Universitaires, F-31059 Toulouse, France.

Introduction: Selective naming categories impairments for living and non-living things are widely reported in brain damaged patients. Electrostimulation mapping was used to study the possible anatomical segregation of living/non-living categories in a prospective series of patients operated on for tumor removal.

Materials And Methods: Fifty brain mappings (patients with no language impairment; range: 14-80 years; mean: 48 years; 26 males; 5 left handed) were performed in 46 left and 4 right hemispheres using two linguistically controlled tasks (naming for living and non-living things) during an awake surgery procedure. Read More

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A new selective developmental deficit: Impaired object recognition with normal face recognition.

Cortex 2011 May 21;47(5):598-607. Epub 2010 May 21.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Introduction: Studies of developmental deficits in face recognition, or developmental prosopagnosia, have shown that individuals who have not suffered brain damage can show face recognition impairments coupled with normal object recognition (Duchaine and Nakayama, 2005; Duchaine et al., 2006; Nunn et al., 2001). Read More

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Face and object imagery in congenital prosopagnosia: a case series.

Cortex 2010 Oct 31;46(9):1189-98. Epub 2010 Mar 31.

Department of Psychology, Vivian Tower, Swansea University, Wales, UK.

It has been reported that congenital prosopagnosics may have a general imagery deficit or an imagery deficit specific to faces. However, much of this evidence is based on self-report questionnaires, rather than experimentally based testing (Grüter et al., 2007, 2009). Read More

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October 2010

Category specific deficits in Alzheimer's disease: fact or artefact?

Cortex 2007 Oct;43(7):907-20

Department of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Impairments in semantic memory commonly occur in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) but do these occur along category-specific lines? We administered a confrontation naming task comprising living and nonliving items to 68 individuals with AD and 59 age-matched control participants, in a study designed to address some of the methodological issues affecting investigation of category effects. In Experiment 1, stimuli were matched for familiarity and word frequency and also visual complexity, and the AD group showed a differential deficit in nonliving things. In Experiment 2, however, living and nonliving stimuli were matched for age-of-acquisition, name agreement, word frequency, and naming accuracy of elderly controls and there was no categorical impairment in the AD group. Read More

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October 2007

Recognition of category-related visual stimuli in Parkinson's disease: before and after pharmacological treatment.

Neuropsychologia 2007 Oct 16;45(13):2931-41. Epub 2007 Jun 16.

Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via s. Niccolò 93, 50125 Firenze, Italy.

Visual-sensory dysfunctions and semantic processing impairments are widely reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) research. The present study investigated the category-specific deficit in object recognition as a function of both the semantic category and spatial frequency content of stimuli. In the first experiment, the role of dopamine in object-recognition processing was assessed by comparing PD drug naïve (PD-DN), PD receiving levodopa treatment (PD-LD), and control subjects. Read More

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October 2007

Neural basis of category-specific semantic deficits for living things: evidence from semantic dementia, HSVE and a neural network model.

Brain 2007 Apr;130(Pt 4):1127-37

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Studies of patients with semantic impairments following brain damage offer key insights into the cognitive and neural organization of semantic memory. Especially important in this regard are studies of category-specific semantic impairment. We report a direct comparison of semantic deficits in two groups suffering from different diseases: semantic dementia (SD) and herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE). Read More

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[Alzheimer's disease, category-specific impairment and relevant variables in object naming].

Rev Neurol 2007 Feb 1-15;44(3):129-33

Facultad de Psicología, UNED, Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: The study of the dissociations or category-specific effects between the domains of living beings and non-living beings in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a controversial issue in the cognitive neurosciences. The lack of agreement among the different studies may be due to deficient control of certain cognitive and psycholinguistic variables that affect processing of the items.

Aim: To determine whether the presence of category-specific effects in AD can be caused by inadequate control of variables, such as the typicality or familiarity of the items. Read More

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Neural foundations for understanding social and mechanical concepts.

Cogn Neuropsychol 2003 ;20(3-6):575-87

National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, USA.

Motivated by neuropsychological investigations of category-specific impairments, many functional brain imaging studies have found distinct patterns of neural activity associated with different object categories. However, the extent to which these category-related activation patterns reflect differences in conceptual representation remains controversial. To investigate this issue, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to record changes in neural activity while subjects interpreted animated vignettes composed of simple geometric shapes in motion. Read More

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October 2012

[Conceptual structures, representation of objects and object relations].

Can J Exp Psychol 2006 Mar;60(1):7-23

Université de Poitiers.

This article provides an overview of psychological studies of object concepts, highlighting the more recent re-conceptualizations, and the latest developments in research in this field. These developments have tended to focus on the notion of context, as well as on the notion of causal relations between features. Our theoretical analysis of this field is backed up by experimental illustrations. Read More

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