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Compared to conventional PET/CT scanners, silicon-photomultiplier-based PET/CT scanners show higher arterial 18F-FDG uptake in whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Radiology, Fukuoka Memorial PET Imaging and Medical Checkup Center Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University Department of Radiology, Fukuoka Memorial Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objectives: To clarify differences in arterial 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake between silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based and conventional PET/CT scanners, and to compare clinical and phantom results.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-six patients with lung tumours underwent serial SiPM-based and conventional PET/CT scans on the same day. We compared the target-to-background ratios [TBRsi (SiPM), TBRc (conventional)] and the percentage difference between TBRsi and TBRc (ΔTBR) in the carotid artery, aorta and peripheral arteries. Read More

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Carotid intima media thickness measurements coupled with stroke severity strongly predict short-term outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke: a machine learning study.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Laboratory of Research in Applied Immunology, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

Acute ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity, functional disability and mortality worldwide. The objective was to evaluate IS risk factors and imaging variables as predictors of short-term disability and mortality in IS. Consecutive 106 IS patients were enrolled. Read More

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How to Use Statins in Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Diseases: from the Beneficial Early Initiation to the Potentially Unfavorable Discontinuation.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Center of Clinical, Experimental Surgery, and Translational Research, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, 4, Soranou Ephesius str, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Statins, a class of lipid-lowering drugs, reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with established atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease. Early initiation of statin therapy after admission for acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stroke, or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Moreover, high-dose statin treatment prior to coronary or carotid revascularization has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in these patients. Read More

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Vasa vasorum of proximal cerebral arteries after dural crossing - potential imaging confounder in diagnosing intracranial vasculitis in elderly subjects on black-blood MRI.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Oberduerrbacher Straße 6, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Objectives: Vessel wall enhancement (VWE) may be commonly seen on MRI images of asymptomatic subjects. This study aimed to characterize the VWE of the proximal internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA) in a non-vasculitic elderly patient cohort.

Methods: Cranial MRI scans at 3 Tesla were performed in 43 patients (aged ≥ 50 years) with known malignancy for exclusion of cerebral metastases. Read More

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Augmented reality enhanced tele-proctoring platform to intraoperatively support a neuro-endovascular surgery fellow.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Aug 4:15910199211035304. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neuroscience, 21755Valley Baptist Medical Center, USA.

Background: Remote tele-proctoring has been conducted in neuro-endovascular surgery, however, evidence to support its use in the fellowship training is limited. We demonstrate a novel augmented reality tele-proctoring platform to enable a remote attending to guide a fellow.

Methods: A consecutive series of neuro-endovascular cases were performed by a neuro-endovascular fellow with remote guidance from an attending surgeon. Read More

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Utility of quantitative magnetic resonance angiography and non-invasive optimal vessel analysis for identification of complications and long-term hemodynamic changes in post-pipeline embolization patients.

Interv Neuroradiol 2021 Aug 4:15910199211034668. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, 232890Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, NY, USA.

Introduction: Quantitative magnetic resonance angiography and non-invasive optimal vessel analysis serve as powerful tools to collect and analyze hemodynamic data from pipeline embolization patients. At our institution, patients receive post-embolization quantitative magnetic resonance angiography within 24 h of treatment and within 6 months for follow-up to evaluate pipeline patency. Here, we aim to elucidate the long-term hemodynamic changes following pipeline embolization device placement and report two cases in which in-stent stenosis was detected. Read More

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Increasing Utilization of Emergency Department Neuroimaging from 2007 to 2017.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

The volume of emergency department (ED) visits and neuroimaging have grown since the start of the century. Little is known about this growth in the commercially insured and Medicare Advantage populations. To evaluate changing emergency department utilization of neuroimaging from 2007 to 2017 in both commercially insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees. Read More

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Cohort study examining the relationship between remoteness and requirement for surgery to treat peripheral artery disease at a tertiary hospital in North Queensland.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Objective: To assess whether outcomes of peripheral artery disease (PAD) were related to remoteness from the treating tertiary vascular centre.

Setting And Participants: Participants with a variety of types of occlusive and aneurysmal diseases were recruited from a tertiary hospital in North Queensland, Australia. Remoteness was assessed by residence outside Townsville and estimated distance to the vascular centre. Read More

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Association between circulating Galectin-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults.

Vasa 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin associated tissue fibrosis and inflammation. There is limited understanding of the relationship between gal-3 and vascular health. Our aim was to assess the association between gal-3 and arterial stiffness in older adults. Read More

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Increased pulsatility index is associated with adverse outcomes in left ventricular assist device recipients.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Cardiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Aims: Recipients of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are exposed to increased risk of adverse clinical events. One of the potential contributing factors is non-pulsatile flow generated by LVAD. We evaluated the association of flow patterns in carotid arteries and of increased arterial stiffness with death and cerebrovascular events in LVAD recipients. Read More

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Central nervous system vasculopathy and Seckel syndrome: case illustration and systematic review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: To systematically review reported cases of Seckel syndrome (SS) and point out cases associated with central nervous system (CNS) vasculopathy and provide a summary of their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes including our illustrative case.

Methods: We conducted a search on the MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases using the keywords "Seckel + syndrome." We identified 127 related articles reporting 252 cases of SS apart from our case. Read More

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Staged strategy using a transcarotid approach for acute tandem occlusions with left common carotid artery origin steno-occlusive lesion.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 19;12:364. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ohnishi Neurological Centre, Akashi, Hyogo, Japan.

Background: Endovascular treatment for acute tandem occlusion (ATO) of the combination of an ipsilateral extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive lesion with concurrent intracranial artery occlusion is challenging. Whether extracranial lesions, especially in cases of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) origin steno-occlusive lesions, should be treated after recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery by mechanical thrombectomy simultaneously in the same session has not been established. We report two cases of successful ATO with LCCA origin steno-occlusive lesions treated by staged retrograde transcarotid LCCA stenting followed emergent mechanical thrombectomy in two sessions because of the tortuous aortic arch. Read More

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Coil embolization with overlapping horizontal low-profile stents to treat a giant thrombosed fetal posterior cerebral artery aneurysm using contralateral approach through anterior communicating artery: Case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 12;12:347. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.

Background: The treatment of internal carotid artery (ICA) - posterior communicating artery aneurysms (ICPC aneurysms) is challenging when a fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) arises from the saccular neck. This complex angioarchitecture renders endovascular approaches difficult. Giant thrombosed IC-PC aneurysms are also hard to treat by endovascular coiling because its flow-diversion effect is insufficient. Read More

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Posttraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage related to concomitant carotid artery dissection and ruptured basilar trunk aneurysm: A case report and literature review.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 12;12:344. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Carotid artery dissections (CADs) are a relatively rare disorder, whereas intracranial aneurysms (IAs) form a common cerebrovascular pathology. Since both vascular entities share similar risk factors and associations with connective tissue and vascular disorders, a common pathogenesis has been suggested. Here, we present a case of the concomitant occurrence of a CAD and a ruptured basilar trunk aneurysm (BTA). Read More

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High-flow bypass surgery using a radial artery graft for an extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm: Case reports and literature review.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 6;12:333. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Nippon Medical School, Inzai, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms are rare. Surgery may be difficult when vessels are tortuous and on a high cervical level. We report two patients whose tortuous extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm located on a high cervical level was successfully treated by ICA ligation and a high-flow bypass using a radial artery (RA) graft between the external carotid- and the middle cerebral artery. Read More

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Remarkable shrinkage of a thrombosed giant aneurysm by stent-assisted jam-packed coil embolization.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 6;12:328. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Background: Large and giant aneurysms are known to involve intra-aneurysmal thrombosis and present a poor prognosis because of compression of the surrounding brain tissue with enlargement of the aneurysm. These aneurysms are difficult to cure by endovascular treatment due to involvement of the vasa vasorum in their pathology. We report this technical note to describe stent-assisted jam-packed coil embolization for the treatment of a giant thrombosed aneurysm. Read More

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A case of intracranial vasospasm in a patient with extensive retropharyngeal cellulitis.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Sep 15;16(9):2697-2700. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.

Retropharyngeal cellulitis/abscesses are deep neck infections that may become life-threatening if airway compromise occurs. This condition is more common in children than in adults, and associated intracranial vessel narrowing has been reported. We report an adult patient with extensive retropharyngeal cellulitis and intracranial vasospasm. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-centre cross-sectional study on vascular remodelling in children following successful coarctation correction.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Coarctation of the aorta is an arteriopathy with life-long sequelae, with remarkably increased cardiovascular events in young adults even after successful repair and despite blood pressure status. There are data on arterial remodelling in adults after coarctation correction, however, these data are scarce in childhood. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate changes in arterial wall function and morphology in children following successful coarctation repair and to compare these changes among patients with different blood pressure status and coarctation correction modes. Read More

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COVID-19-associated ischaemic stroke due to underlying carotid artery thrombosis in a healthy young woman.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Aug 3;14(8). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vascular Surgery, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 has proven its versatility in host presentations; one such presentation is a hypercoagulable state causing large-vessel thrombosis. We report a case on a previously asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patient presenting with an acute ischaemic stroke and an incidental left internal carotid artery thrombus. The patient's medical, social and family history and hypercoagulability screening excluded any other explanation for the left carotid thrombus or stroke, except for testing positive for the COVID-19. Read More

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Carotid sheath xanthoma: A rare manifestation of lipid disorders.

J Clin Lipidol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Wuhou District, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Xanthomas are visibly deformed cholesterol deposits that are commonly associated with lipid disorders, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or rare sitosterolemia. We present the first report of two cases of carotid sheath xanthomas in patients with lipid disorders. Case 1 involved a 26-year-old woman presenting with two heterogeneous mutations on the ABCG5 gene-as noted on genetic testing-who was finally diagnosed with sitosterolemia. Read More

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Metabolic profiling links cardiovascular risk and vascular end organ damage.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Medical Faculty, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: An untargeted metabolomics approach allows for a better understanding and identification of new candidate metabolites involved in the etiology of vascular disease. We aimed to investigate the associations of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors with the metabolic fingerprint and macro- and microvascular health in an untargeted metabolomic approach in predefined CV risk groups of aged individuals.

Methods: The metabolic fingerprint and the macro- and microvascular health from 155 well-characterized aged (50-80 years) individuals, based on the EXAMIN AGE study, were analysed. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Optical Frequency Domain Imaging for Identifying Necrotic Cores with Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Advanced Human Carotid Plaques.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan.

This study investigated whether optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) can identify carotid artery vulnerable plaque characteristics, focusing on lipid-rich necrotic core (NC) and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH). Fourteen patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent OFDI scan during preoperative angiography. Atherosclerotic plaque specimens obtained from carotid endarterectomy were cut every 3-4 mm into 4-μm transverse cross-sections and stained with standard methods. Read More

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Circulating levels of FAM19A5 are inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Aug 3;21(1):153. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Background: Family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C-C motif)-like) member A5 (FAM19A5) is a newly identified adipokine. There is a limited number of studies linking FAM19A5 to metabolic disorders. In the current study, we aimed to explore if FAM19A5 is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Read More

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[Xanthomas with bilateral carotid artery involvements: a case report].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):769-771

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

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[Clinical management strategies of pulsatile tinnitus with transverse sinus stenosis].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;56(7):704-712

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

To study the clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies for vein-related pulsatile tinnitus patients with transverse sinus stenosis. The clinical data of patients with vein-related pulsatile tinnitus, from January 2015 to August 2019, were collected,whose digital subtraction angiography showing transverse sinus stenosis. Taking December 2019 as the last follow-up time, we analyzed the clinical characteristics, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography results, lumbar puncture pressure and cerebrospinal fluid composition, and other auxiliary examination results (pure tone audiometry, fundus examination of papilledema, carotid ultrasonography, bone density screening, endocrinous test), as well as tinnitus handicap inventory, treatment options and follow-up results. Read More

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Elevated cerebral perfusion and preserved cognition in elite Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu athletes; evidence for neuroprotection.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, UK, CF37 4AT.

Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) is a popular martial art that exposes participants to recurrent intermittent asphyxiation due to controlled application of neck chokes. To what extent the sport impacts the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cognition has not been examined. This study compared eleven elite Brazilian Jiu Jitsu athletes (aged 30 ± 8 y) who trained 12 ± 6 hours/week for 8 ± 4 years against eleven cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)- and age-matched controls. Read More

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Nimodipine reduces delayed cerebral vasospasm after intracranial tumor surgery: A Retrospective Study.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China.

Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a frequent and serious neurosurgical complication, without sufficient therapy. This retrospective study was performed to analyze if nimodipine can improve prognosis and reduces ischemia secondary to delayed CVS after intracranial tumor surgery. A retrospective review was performed over the years 2011 to 2012 for patients with an anterior cranial fossa tumor and underwent intracranial tumor surgery. Read More

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The aortic-femoral arterial stiffness gradient is blood pressure independent in older adults: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Sport and Exercise, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester Department of Sport, Exercise & Health, University of Winchester, Winchester Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York Department of Epidemiology, The Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland Section of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.

Background: Aortic arterial stiffness is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, its dependence on mean arterial pressure (MAP) limits its clinical utility. The aortic-femoral arterial stiffness gradient (af-SG), a novel marker of CVD risk, may be a promising alternative, but its dependence on MAP is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MAP and the af-SG in healthy older adults and those with established disease, including hypertension and diabetes. Read More

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Relationships between subendocardial perfusion impairment, arterial stiffness and orthostatic hypotension in hospitalized elderly individuals.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Surgery, Dentistry, Pediatric and Gynecology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Orthostatic hypotension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness has been shown to be a pathophysiological mechanism linking orthostatic hypotension and increased cardiovascular risk. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between arterial stiffness, orthostatic hypotension and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and moreover to identify the main predictors of orthostatic hypotension, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV-cf) and SEVR. Read More

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Stenting as a treatment for cranio-cervical artery dissection: Improved major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Neurology, Radiology and Neurosurgery, Prisma Health Richland, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Introduction: Cranio-cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a common cause of cerebrovascular events in young subjects with no clear treatment strategy established. We evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in CeAD patients treated with and without stent placement.

Methods: COMParative effectiveness of treatment options in cervical Artery diSSection (COMPASS) is a single high-volume center observational, retrospective longitudinal registry that enrolled consecutive CeAD patients over a 2-year period. Read More

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