61,325 results match your criteria captured

Regulatory Considerations in the Development of Radiation-Drug Combinations.

Amanda J Walker

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Health Care and Surgery Center6420 Rockledge Dr. Bethesda, MD 20817, 301-896-2012, 301-896-6331. Electronic address:

Radiation therapy remains a fundamental treatment for patients with cancer. Despite an increasing number of targeted molecular therapies that are FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic disease, there has been very little progress made in terms of drugs used concurrently with radiation. This article reviews the existing regulatory framework in which cancer drugs may be developed for use in combination with radiation therapy from the perspective of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More

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Revealing protein-protein interactions at the transcriptome scale by sequencing.

Mol Cell 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

We describe PROPER-seq (protein-protein interaction sequencing) to map protein-protein interactions (PPIs) en masse. PROPER-seq first converts transcriptomes of input cells into RNA-barcoded protein libraries, in which all interacting protein pairs are captured through nucleotide barcode ligation, recorded as chimeric DNA sequences, and decoded at once by sequencing and mapping. We applied PROPER-seq to human embryonic kidney cells, T lymphocytes, and endothelial cells and identified 210,518 human PPIs (collected in the PROPER v. Read More

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Can One Measure Resonance Raman Optical Activity?

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

University of Alberta, Chemistry Department, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, T6G 2G2, Edmonton, CANADA.

Resonance Raman optical activity (RROA) is commonly measured as the difference in intensity of Raman scattered right and left circularly polarized light, I R - I L , when a randomly polarized light is in resonance with a chiral molecule. Strong and sometimes mono-signate experimental RROA spectra of several chiral solutes were reported previously, although their signs and relative intensities could not be reproduced theoretically. By examining multiple light-matter interaction events which can occur simultaneously under resonance, we show that a new form of chiral Raman spectroscopy, eCP-Raman , a combination of electronic circular dichroism and circularly polarized Raman, prevails. Read More

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Engagement with a digital therapeutic for smoking cessation designed for persons with psychiatric illness fully mediates smoking outcomes in a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Transl Behav Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27705, USA.

Understanding the mechanisms of change of digital therapeutics is a critical step to improve digital health outcomes and optimize their development. Access to and engagement with digital content is arguably a core mechanism of change of these interventions. However, the mediational role of app engagement has been largely unexamined. Read More

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A Progressive Generative Adversarial Method for Structurally Inadequate Medical Image Data Augmentation.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Aug 4;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

The generation-based data augmentation method can overcome the challenge caused by the imbalance of medical image data to a certain extent. However, most of the current research focus on images with unified structure which are easy to learn. What is different is that ultrasound images are structurally inadequate, making it difficult for the structure to be captured by the generative network, resulting in the generated image lacks structural legitimacy. Read More

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Learning Brain Functional Networks with Latent Temporal Dependency for MCI Identification.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Aug 4;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

AbstractResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has become a popular non-invasive way of diagnosing neurological disorders or their early stages by probing functional connectivity between different brain regions of interest (ROIs) across subjects. In the past decades, researchers have proposed many methods to estimate brain functional networks (BFNs) based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals captured by rs-fMRI. However, most of the existing methods estimate BFNs under the assumption that signals are independently sampled, which ignores the temporal dependency and sequential order of different time points (or volumes). Read More

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Microbial Metal Resistance within Structured Environments is Inversely Related to Environmental Pore Size.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Aug 4:AEM0100521. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

The physical environments in which microorganisms naturally reside rarely have homogeneous structure, and changes in their porous architecture can have a profound effect on microbial activities - effects that are not typically captured in conventional laboratory studies. Here, to investigate the influence of environmental structure on microbial responses to stress, we constructed structured environments with different pore properties (determined by X-ray Computed Tomography). First, using glass beads in different arrangements and inoculated with the soil yeast , increases in the average equivalent spherical diameters (ESD) of a structure's porous architecture led to decreased survival of the yeast under a toxic metal challenge. Read More

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Rapid Naked-Eye Tracking of On-Cell Phenotype Based on Dual-Aptamer-Weaved Cascade Assembly of Nanostructures.

Anal Chem 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Phenotypic plasticity is an emerging paradigm for providing biological and clinical insights into cancer initiation, progression, and resistance to therapy. However, it is a great challenge to track phenotypic information on live cells with high levels of sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity, when a specific cancer-cell subset is being targeted. In this work, we have successfully achieved cascade assembly of nanoparticles on the surface of specific cancer cells by designing a dual-aptamer-weaved molecular AND logic system. Read More

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A three-dimensional hydrogel-modified indium tin oxide electrode with enhanced performance for electrochemical detection of extracellular HO.

Analyst 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, PR China. and National Facility for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, PR China.

Two different electrochemical sensors (Hemin-G4/Au/GCE and Hemin-G4/Au/ITO) were developed and applied to explore the electrocatalytic capacity of H2O2 reduction. Due to the excellent catalytic activity of Hemin-G4 and high conductivity of gold nanoparticles, both electrodes show excellent electrochemical performances towards H2O2 with a low LOD (0.67 μM for Hemin-G4/Au/GCE and 0. Read More

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Light-absorption properties of brown carbon aerosols in the Asian outflow: Implications of a combination of filter and ground remote-sensing observations at Fukue Island, Japan.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;797:149155. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Yokohama 2360001, Japan.

Brown carbon (BrC) aerosols have important warming effects on Earth's radiative forcing. However, information on the evolution of the light-absorption properties of BrC aerosols in the Asian outflow region is limited. In this study, we evaluated the light-absorption properties of BrC using in-situ filter measurements and sky radiometer observations of the ground-based remote sensing network SKYradiometer NETwork (SKYNET) made on Fukue Island, western Japan in 2018. Read More

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A mixed-methods study to explore opportunities and challenges with using a mHealth approach to engage men who have sex with men in HIV prevention, treatment and care in Lomé, Togo.

Mhealth 2021 20;7:47. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Association de Soutien à l'Autopromotion Sanitaire Urbaine (ASAPSU), Cellule de recherche opérationnelle, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Background: In Togo, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionately high rates of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV), with prevalence at 13% compared to the countrywide general HIV prevalence of 2.5%. Mobile phone adoption has grown rapidly in West Africa in recent years and mobile health (mHealth) provides an opportunity to engage high-risk populations in HIV prevention, treatment and care (PTC). Read More

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optical coherence tomography analysis of gold and silver nanoparticles in endodontic irrigating solutions: An study.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 14;22(3):992. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Applied Optics Group, School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, UK.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, non-radioactive optical diagnostic method based on low-coherence interferometry, which achieves images with different orientation. In dentistry, its major advantage is represented by the localization and characterization of the smallest defects in hard dental tissues, dental materials and of the smallest details in dental anatomy (supplementary canals, recesses, isthmuses, or intra-radicular connections). The aim of the present study was to evaluate using c-scan optical coherence tomography, the optical opacity, and the distribution inside the root canal lumen of several extracted human teeth of silver and gold nanoparticles from special irrigating solutions used in endodontic treatment. Read More

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September 2021

Modelling, prediction and design of COVID-19 lockdowns by stringency and duration.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 3;11(1):15708. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

The implementation of lockdowns has been a key policy to curb the spread of COVID-19 and to keep under control the number of infections. However, quantitatively predicting in advance the effects of lockdowns based on their stringency and duration is a complex task, in turn making it difficult for governments to design effective strategies to stop the disease. Leveraging a novel mathematical "hybrid" approach, we propose a new epidemic model that is able to predict the future number of active cases and deaths when lockdowns with different stringency levels or durations are enforced. Read More

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Mechanism of LolCDE as a molecular extruder of bacterial triacylated lipoproteins.

Nat Commun 2021 Aug 3;12(1):4687. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Cell Biology, Blavatnik Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Lipoproteins are important for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance. These proteins use lipid acyl chains attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue to anchor on the outer surface of cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, many lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane (OM), a process dependent on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LolCDE which extracts the OM-targeted lipoproteins from the cytoplasmic membrane. Read More

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Implementing a three-hourly feeding schedule in stable preterm infants to decrease maternal fatigue.

BMJ Open Qual 2021 Jul;10(Suppl 1)

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Background: A three-hourly feeding schedule has been shown to be as safe as a two-hourly schedule in preterm neonates. It saves nursing time and may be less tiring for the mothers. However, tradition and apprehensions have prevented its wider acceptance. Read More

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Impact of drug diversity on treatment effectiveness in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Germany between 2010 and 2018: real-world data from the German NeuroTransData multiple sclerosis registry.

BMJ Open 2021 08 3;11(8):e042480. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

NeuroTransData GmbH, Neuburg an der Donau, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of drug diversity on treatment effectiveness in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Germany.

Design: This study employs real-world data captured in-time during clinical visits in 67 German neurology outpatient offices of the NeuroTransData (NTD) multiple sclerosis (MS) registry between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2019, including 237 976 visits of 17 553 patients with RRMS. Adherence and clinical effectiveness parameters were analysed by descriptive statistics, time-to-event analysis overall and by disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) stratified by administration modes (injectable, oral and infusion). Read More

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J Parasitol 2021 Jul;107(4):600-605

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 S. Webster Street, PO Box 7921, Madison, Wisconsin 53707.

Under Wisconsin state law, the greater prairie chicken (GRPC; Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) has been listed as a threatened species since 1976. In 2014-15, we conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence and intensity of gapeworms (Syngamus spp.) in female Wisconsin GRPCs collected from 2 monitored populations. Read More

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Plasma lipoprotein(a) measured in the routine clinical care is associated to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease during a 14-year follow-up.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, H7 Medicine Huddinge, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: To investigate plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels measured in routine clinical care and their association with mortality and cardiovascular disease.

Methods And Results: This retrospective registry-based observational cohort study includes all individuals with plasma Lp(a) results measured at the Karolinska University Laboratory 2003-17. Outcome data were captured in national outcome registries. Read More

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Assessment of Clonotypic Rearrangements and Minimal Residual Disease in Lymphoid Malignancies: A Large Cancer Center Experience Using clonoSEQ.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Malignant Hematology (Shah, Pinilla-Ibarz, Shain), Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Context.—: Measurable (minimal) residual disease (MRD) is an independent prognostic factor for survival outcomes in patients with lymphoid and plasma cell malignancies and has been incorporated into consensus criteria regarding treatment response, strategy, and clinical trial endpoints. clonoSEQ (a next-generation sequencing [NGS]-MRD assay) uses multiplex polymerase chain reaction and NGS to identify clonotypic rearrangements at the immunoglobulin (Ig) H, IgK, IgL, T-cell receptor (TCR)-β, and TCR-γ loci, and translocated B-cell lymphoma 1/IgH and 2/IgH sequences for MRD assessment. Read More

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Impact of large choroidal vessels on choriocapillaris flow deficit analyses in optical coherence tomography angiography.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0254955. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Vienna Clinical Trial Center (VTC), Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To investigate the impact of large choroidal vessels (LCV) on Choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficit (FD) analyses with swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA).

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study.

Methods: Macular 6x6mm SS-OCTA scans were obtained from intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD) and healthy eyes. Read More

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Capturing Magnesium Ions Microfluidic Hydrogel Microspheres for Promoting Cancellous Bone Regeneration.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Bone and Joint Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Second Road, Shanghai 200025, People's Republic of China.

Metal ions are important trace elements in the human body, which directly affect the human metabolism and the regeneration of damaged tissues. For instance, the advanced combination of magnesium ions (Mg) and bone repair materials make the composite materials have the function of promoting vascular repair and enhancing the adhesion of osteoblasts. Herein, inspired by magnets to attract metals, we utilized the coordination reaction of metal ion ligand to construct a bisphosphonate-functionalized injectable hydrogel microsphere (GelMA-BP-Mg) which could promote cancellous bone reconstruction of osteoporotic bone defect via capturing Mg. Read More

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Studying Microtemporal, Within-Person Processes of Diet, Physical Activity, and Related Factors Using the APPetite-Mobile-App: Feasibility, Usability, and Validation Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 5;23(7):e25850. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Diet and physical activity (PA) have a major impact on physical and mental health. However, there is a lack of effective strategies for sustaining these health-protective behaviors. A shift to a microtemporal, within-person approach is needed to capture dynamic processes underlying eating behavior and PA, as they change rapidly across minutes or hours and differ among individuals. Read More

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Posttranslational modifications in systems biology.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 17;127:93-126. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

The biological complexity cannot be captured by genes or proteins alone. The protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) impart functional diversity to the proteome and regulate protein structure, activity, localization and interactions. Their dynamics drive cellular signaling, growth and development while their dysregulation causes many diseases. Read More

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Big data, integrative omics and network biology.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 20;127:127-160. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

A cell integrates various signals through a network of biomolecules that crosstalk to synergistically regulate the replication, transcription, translation and other metabolic activities of a cell. These networks regulate signal perception and processing that drives biological functions. The biological complexity cannot be fully captured by a single -omics discipline. Read More

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Directional infrasound sensing using acoustic metamaterials.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 Jul;150(1):367

Simulation Modeling Sciences, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, USA.

Natural and anthropogenic infrasound may travel vast distances, making it an invaluable resource for monitoring phenomena such as nuclear explosions, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, and many others. Typically, these waves are captured using pressure sensors, which cannot encode the direction of arrival-critical information when the source location is not known beforehand. Obtaining this information therefore requires arrays of sensors with apertures ranging from tens of meters to kilometers depending on the wavelengths of interest. Read More

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In situ microscopy for plasma erosion of complex surfaces.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jul;92(7):073701

Plasma and Space Propulsion Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

A novel method for the in situ visualization and profilometry of a plasma-facing surface is demonstrated using a long-distance microscope. The technique provides valuable in situ monitoring of the microscopic temporal and morphological evolution of a material surface subject to plasma-surface interactions, such as ion-induced sputter erosion. Focus variation of image stacks enables height surface profilometry, which allows a depth of field beyond the limits associated with high magnification. Read More

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Electric pulse heating device for the analysis of solid/solid phase transformations.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jul;92(7):074703

Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Ohmic pulse heating is applied to investigate diffusion and interface controlled solid-state phase transformations. The developed device uses extensive solid-state electronics providing a high current, low voltage approach that overcomes the limitations of existing setups, most notably the use of sample geometries that allow for the reliable measurement of local temperatures and their assignment to microstructures. Power for heating is supplied by a capacitor array with adjustable voltage, and the process is controlled by microcontrollers and a solid-state relay, which allows for controlled pulses that are adjustable in microseconds. Read More

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Analytical gradients for core-excited states in the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) framework.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(4):044106

Department of Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

Expressions for analytical molecular gradients of core-excited states have been derived and implemented for the hierarchy of algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) methods up to extended second-order within the core-valence separation (CVS) approximation. We illustrate the use of CVS-ADC gradients by determining relaxed core-excited state potential energy surfaces and optimized geometries for water, formic acid, and benzene. For water, our results show that in the dissociative lowest core-excited state, a linear configuration is preferred. Read More

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Mesoscopic model reduction for the collective dynamics of sparse coupled oscillator networks.

Chaos 2021 Jul;31(7):073116

School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The behavior at bifurcation from global synchronization to partial synchronization in finite networks of coupled oscillators is a complex phenomenon, involving the intricate dynamics of one or more oscillators with the remaining synchronized oscillators. This is not captured well by standard macroscopic model reduction techniques that capture only the collective behavior of synchronized oscillators in the thermodynamic limit. We introduce two mesoscopic model reductions for finite sparse networks of coupled oscillators to quantitatively capture the dynamics close to bifurcation from global to partial synchronization. Read More

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Automatic skull defect restoration and cranial implant generation for cranioplasty.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 20;73:102171. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, Graz 8010, Austria; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 2, Graz 8036, Austria; Computer Algorithms for Medicine Laboratory, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, Graz 8010, Austria. Electronic address:

A fast and fully automatic design of 3D printed patient-specific cranial implants is highly desired in cranioplasty - the process to restore a defect on the skull. We formulate skull defect restoration as a 3D volumetric shape completion task, where a partial skull volume is completed automatically. The difference between the completed skull and the partial skull is the restored defect; in other words, the implant that can be used in cranioplasty. Read More

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