4,379 results match your criteria cannabis users


Effect of preoperative cannabis use on perioperative outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Introduction: The reported use of cannabis within surgical population is increasing. Cannabis use is potentially associated with increased harms and varied effects on pain control. These have important implications to perioperative care. Read More

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Influence of pregabalin maintenance on cannabis effects and related behaviors in daily cannabis users.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Biostatistics.

No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD), though a small clinical trial demonstrated that the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) ligand gabapentin reduced cannabis use in treatment seekers. VDCCs are modulated by cannabinoid (CB) ligands, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and VDCC ligands. This overlapping neuropharmacology and the initial clinical results supported the evaluation of pregabalin, a "next-generation" VDCC ligand, as a CUD medication. Read More

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Migraine prevalence in visual snow with prior illicit drug use (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder) versus without.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background/objective: To investigate migraine prevalence in persons with Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) presenting as visual snow syndrome (VSS).

Methods: Persons with visual snow as persisting symptom after illicit drug use (HPPD) were recruited via a Dutch consulting clinic for recreational drug use. A structured interview on (visual) perceptual symptomatology, details of drugs use, medical and headache history was taken. Read More

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Impact of cannabis use on outcomes of patients admitted to an involuntary psychiatric unit: A retrospective cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 30;138:507-513. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry, CHU Nimes, Univ Montpellier, Nimes, France; INSERM et Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France; CIBERSAM, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Cannabis is associated with an increased risk of mental disorders, including the onset or adverse evolution of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. The aim of our study was to examine how cannabis use influences length of stay and readmissions in a unit of involuntary care.

Method: All patients admitted to one secure adult psychiatry unit in France in 2016 were included (n = 370). Read More

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Cognitive performance and lifetime cannabis use in patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2021 May 11:1-16. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Introduction: Cognitive impairment is among the core features of schizophrenia. In a healthy population, the cognitive deficit is often linked with cannabis abuse, and although the same would be expected in patients with schizophrenia, research has presented contradictory results.

Methods: Participants were patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) spectrum disorder who had been lifetime cannabis users ( = 30), FES non-users ( = 53) as well as healthy controls (HC) also divided into cannabis users ( = 20) and non-users ( = 49). Read More

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Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young adulthood by age and college attendance.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health.

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Read More

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Availability of Illegal Drugs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Western Germany.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:648273. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, LVR-Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

In response to the COVID-19-pandemic, a lockdown was established in the middle of March 2020 by the German Federal Government resulting in drastic reduction of private and professional traveling in and out of Germany with a reduction of social contacts in public areas. We seek evidence on whether the lockdown has led to a reduced availability of illegal drugs and whether subjects with substance-related problems tried to cope with possible drug availability issues by increasingly obtaining drugs via the internet, replacing their preferred illegal drug with novel psychoactive substances, including new synthetic opioids (NSO), and/or by seeking drug treatment. A questionnaire was anonymously filled in by subjects with substance-related disorders, typically attending low-threshold settings, drug consumption facilities, and inpatient detoxification wards from a range of locations in the Western part of Germany. Read More

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Sex and dependence related neuroanatomical differences in regular cannabis users: findings from the ENIGMA Addiction Working Group.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 6;11(1):272. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neuroscience of Addiction & Mental Health Program, Healthy Brain and Mind Research Centre, School of Behavioural & Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Males and females show different patterns of cannabis use and related psychosocial outcomes. However, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying such differences are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map sex differences in the neurobiology (as indexed by brain volumes) of dependent and recreational cannabis use. Read More

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Development and verification of a linked ᵪB;-THC/11-OH-THC physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model in healthy, non-pregnant population and extrapolation to pregnant women.

Drug Metab Dispos 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, United States

Conducting clinical trials to understand the exposure-risk/benefit relationship of cannabis use is not always feasible. Alternatively, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be used to predict exposure of the psychoactive cannabinoid, THC, and its active metabolite 11-OH-THC. Here, we first extrapolated in vitro mechanistic PK information previously quantified to build a linked THC/11-OH-THC PBPK model, and verified the model with observed data after intravenous and inhalation administration of THC in a healthy, non-pregnant population. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cardiovascular toxicity of medical cannabinoids.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Background: Several systematic reviews (SRs) have summarized the potential effectiveness of medical cannabinoids, but it is unclear to what extent safety-related outcomes were incorporated.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular toxicity associated with medical use of cannabinoids.

Methods: A 2-stage systematic review (SR) approach was undertaken to assess the current evidence on cannabinoid-associated cardiovascular events reported among randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

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Structural correlates of sensorimotor dysfunction in heavy cannabis users.

Addict Biol 2021 May 5:e13032. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

Sensorimotor dysfunction has been previously reported in persons with cannabis dependence. Such individuals can exhibit increased levels of neurological soft signs (NSS), particularly involving motor coordination and sensorimotor integration. Whether such abnormalities may also apply to non-dependent individuals with heavy cannabis use (HCU) is unknown, as much as the neural correlates underlying such deficits. Read More

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Correlates of Self-Reported HIV Testing Among Patients in Specialized Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in South Africa.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.

Substance use is a recognized risk factor for HIV acquisition, transmission and progression in South Africa. Persons who use drugs (PWUD) and access specialist substance abuse treatment centers (SSATCs) are a potentially critical target group for HIV services because of the severity of their substance use and associated health risks. SSATCs represent an opportunity for integrated programming, particularly HIV testing services (HTS), to reach PWUD who are at an increased risk of or living with HIV. Read More

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The Relationship Between Behavioral Inhibition and Approach Motivation Systems (BIS/BAS) and Intrinsic Brain Network Connectivity in Adult Cannabis Users.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Center for BrainHealth, 2200 W. Mockingbird Lane, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.

Dampened behavioral inhibition and overactive behavioral approach motivation systems (i.e., BIS/BAS) are associated with cannabis use disorder (CUD), although the underlying neural mechanisms of these alterations have not yet been examined. Read More

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Complementary and alternative medicine in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma-A SIOPE DIPG Network and Registry study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 May 4:e29061. Epub 2021 May 4.

Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and aggressive childhood brainstem malignancy with a 2-year survival rate of <10%. This international survey study aims to evaluate the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in this patient population.

Methods: Parents and physicians of patients with DIPG were asked to participate in a retrospective online survey regarding CAM use during time of illness. Read More

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Use of medical cannabis by patients with fibromyalgia in Canada after cannabis legalisation: a cross-sectional study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department Internal Medicine I, Klinikum Saarbrücken, and Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität München, Germany.

Objectives: Medications have only small to moderate effects on symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). Cannabinoids, including medical cannabis (MC) may have potential to fill this gap. Since recreational legalisation of cannabis in Canada, patients have easier access and may be self-medicating with cannabis. Read More

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Opioid use in medical cannabis authorization adult patients from 2013 to 2018: Alberta, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 1;21(1):843. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Public Health, 2-040 Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, University of Alberta, 11203-87 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada.

Background: The opioid overdose epidemic in Canada and the United States has become a public health crisis - with exponential increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been an increasing body of evidence focusing on the opioid-sparing effects of medical cannabis use (reduction of opioid use and reliance), and medical cannabis as a potential alternative treatment for chronic pain. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of medical cannabis authorization on opioid use (oral morphine equivalent; OME) between 2013 and 2018 in Alberta, Canada. Read More

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Sensory gating in tobacco-naïve cannabis users is unaffected by acute nicotine administration.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Psychology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Objectives: Long-term cannabis use has been associated with the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments; however these studies may be confounded by concomitant use of tobacco by cannabis users. We aimed to determine if previously observed cannabis-associated deficits in sensory gating would be seen in cannabis users with no history of tobacco use, as evidenced by changes in the P50, N100, and P200 event-related potentials. A secondary objective of this study was to examine the effects of acute nicotine administration on cannabis users with no tobacco use history. Read More

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A mixed-methods study to inform the clarity and accuracy of cannabis-use and cannabis-tobacco co-use survey measures.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 21;224:108697. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 530 Parnassus Ave. Ste 366, San Francisco, CA, 94143, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Legalization of medical and recreational cannabis in US states has been accompanied by increases in availability, acceptability, and diversity in methods of cannabis use, as well as an increase in devices and methods for cannabis-tobacco co-use. Updated and specific survey measures of cannabis and cannabis-tobacco co-use are needed.

Methods: We employed a mixed-methods approach to identify sources of specification and measurement error in cannabis and cannabis-tobacco co-use measures. Read More

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CANreduce 2.0 Adherence-Focused Guidance for Internet Self-Help Among Cannabis Users: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 30;23(4):e27463. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiciton, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Despite increasing demand for treatment among cannabis users in many countries, most users are not in treatment. Internet-based self-help offers an alternative for those hesitant to seek face-to-face therapy, though low effectiveness and adherence issues often arise.

Objective: Through adherence-focused guidance enhancement, we aimed to increase adherence to and the effectiveness of internet-based self-help among cannabis users. Read More

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Predictors of medicinal cannabis users' willingness to utilise a new prescription Medicinal Cannabis Scheme in New Zealand.

N Z Med J 2021 Apr 30;134(1534):66-75. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Technical Officer, SHORE & Whāriki Research Centre, Massey University, New Zealand.

Aim: To investigate medicinal cannabis users' intentions to transition to the new prescription Medicinal Cannabis Scheme (MCS) in New Zealand.

Method: An online survey of 3,634 past-year medicinal cannabis users completed prior to implementation of the MCS in New Zealand in April 2020. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of intended future engagement with the MCS. Read More

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Are researchers getting the terms used to denote different types of recreational cannabis right?-a user perspective.

J Cannabis Res 2021 Apr 29;3(1):12. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

Background: While current cannabis research has advanced our understanding into the effects of its individual components, there is a pressing need to identify simple terminology that is understood in the same way by researchers and users of cannabis. Current categorisation in research focuses on the two main cannabinoids: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD); and two different species of cannabis: indica and sativa. Recreational cannabis has also been categorised by researchers as 'skunk' or 'hash'. Read More

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Cannabis use, sedentary behavior, and physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

Harm Reduct J 2021 Apr 29;18(1):48. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, Chapman University, 1 University Drive, Orange, CA, 92866, USA.

Background: Prior research examining the relationship between cannabis use, sedentary behavior, and physical activity has generated conflicting findings, potentially due to biases in the self-reported measures used to assess physical activity. This study aimed to more precisely explore the relationship between cannabis use and sedentary behavior/physical activity using objective measures.

Methods: Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Read More

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Aggressive Driving Behaviours in Cannabis Users. The Influence of Consumer Characteristics.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 8;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Vision Sciences and Applications, Department of Optics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

This study analysed dangerous driving behaviours in twenty young occasional cannabis users through objective and self-reported data, studying the relationship between the two aspects. Visual function was assessed in a baseline session and after smoking cannabis, as well as speed-related behaviour in a driving simulator. The participants responded to questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, their consumption profile, and the incidence of dangerous behaviours (Dula Dangerous Driving Index; DDDI). Read More

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Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 7;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion and INSERM 1073, Rouen University Hospital and Rouen Normandie University, 76000 Rouen, France.

This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the use of neuroenhancers, the motivations and factors associated with their use in French and Romanian university students. Students from two universities in France (Rouen and Opal Coast University) and one in Romania (Cluj-Napoca) were asked to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, either online or on paper, about the use of three different categories of substance: Prescription drugs (methylphenidate, modafinil, and beta-blockers), drugs of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines), and soft enhancers (coffee, vitamins, caffeine tablets, and energy drinks). In total, 1110 students were included: The users were 2. Read More

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Role of Neonatal Biomarkers of Exposure to Psychoactive Substances to Identify Maternal Socio-Demographic Determinants.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 4;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, Balearic Islands Health Research Institute (IdISBa), Valldemossa Road, 79, 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Background: The accurate assessment of fetal exposure to psychoactive substances provides the basis for appropriate clinical care of neonates. The objective of this study was to identify maternal socio-demographic profiles and risk factors for prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse by measuring biomarkers in neonatal matrices.

Methods: A prospective, observational cohort study was completed. Read More

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Comparing older nonmedical and medical cannabis users: health-related characteristics, cannabis use patterns, and cannabis sources.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2021 Apr 29:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Steve Hicks School of Social Work, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

: US epidemiologic data show that nearly one in 10 individuals aged 50+ report past-year cannabis use, and nearly one in five users report medical use. However, research on older cannabis users, especially medical cannabis users, is scant.: We examined medical and nonmedical cannabis users aged 50+ on health-related characteristics, cannabis use patterns, and cannabis sources. Read More

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Prevalence and correlates of daily blunt use among U.S. African American, Hispanic, and White adults from 2014 to 2018.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Addiction Sciences Division.

Objective: Blunt smoking presents unique public health concerns relative to other methods of marijuana use, including greater exposure to toxins and carcinogens as well as increased risk for cannabis use disorder. This study examines correlates of self-reported daily blunt use among a nationally representative sample of adult blunt users in the United States.

Method: We pooled and analyzed 5 years of cross-sectional data from = 10,826 adult blunt smokers in the United States using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2014-2018). Read More

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Self-Reported Cannabis Use and Markers of Inflammation in Men Who Have Sex With Men With and Without HIV.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Apr 15;6(2):165-173. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Chronic inflammation contributes to aging and organ dysfunction in the general population, and is a particularly important determinant of morbidity and mortality among people with HIV (PWH). The effect of cannabis use on chronic inflammation is not well understood among PWH, who use cannabis more frequently than the general population. We evaluated participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) beginning in 2004 with available data on cannabis use and inflammatory biomarkers. Read More

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HCV Cure and Cannabis Abstinence Facilitate Tobacco Smoking Quit Attempts in HIV-HCV Co-Infected Patients (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH Cohort Study).

AIDS Behav 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Économiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale, Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.

In Western countries, tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the era of antiretrovirals and HCV cure, smoking-related health damages contribute greatly to morbidity and mortality in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. We used longitudinal data from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort to identify the correlates of tobacco smoking quit attempts (TSQA) in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Read More

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Use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other substances during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe: a survey on 36,000 European substance users.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 04 26;16(1):36. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Chemnitzer Str. 46, 01187, Dresden, Germany.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe.

Methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Read More

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