67,811 results match your criteria cancers lead


Effect of ultraviolet radiation on the Nrf2 signalling pathway in skin cells.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jul 31:1-48. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, Olomouc.

Purpose: Excessive exposure of skin to solar radiation is associated with greatly increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) resulting in oxidative stress (OS), inflammation, immunosuppression, the production of matrix-metalloproteases, DNA damage and mutations. These events lead to increased incidence of various skin disorders including photoageing and both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. The ultraviolet (UV) part of sunlight, in particular, is responsible for structural and cellular changes across the different layers of the skin. Read More

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Quantifying the Effect of Location Matching on Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Prior to Prostate Biopsy-A Multicentre Study.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2020 Jul 12;20:28-36. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Urology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has shown promise to improve detection of prostate cancer over conventional methods. However, most studies do not describe whether the location of mpMRI lesions match that of cancer found at biopsy, which may lead to an overestimation of accuracy.

Objective: To quantitate the effect of mapping locations of mpMRI lesions to locations of positive biopsy cores on the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of mpMRI. Read More

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Doublecortin-Like Kinase 1 (DCLK1) Is a Novel NOTCH Pathway Signaling Regulator in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:677051. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Despite recent advancements, the 5 year survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) hovers at 60%. DCLK1 has been shown to regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as well as serving as a cancer stem cell marker in colon, pancreatic and renal cancer. Although it was reported that DCLK1 is associated with poor prognosis in oropharyngeal cancers, very little is known about the molecular characterization of DCLK1 in HNSCC. Read More

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High-affinity T-cell receptor specific for MyD88 L265P mutation for adoptive T-cell therapy of B-cell malignancies.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Adoptive transfer of engineered T cells has shown remarkable success in B-cell malignancies. However, the most common strategy of targeting lineage-specific antigens can lead to undesirable side effects. Also, a substantial fraction of patients have refractory disease. Read More

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Histone demethylase AMX-1 is necessary for proper sensitivity to interstrand crosslink DNA damage.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 30;17(7):e1009715. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Histone methylation is dynamically regulated to shape the epigenome and adjust central nuclear processes including transcription, cell cycle control and DNA repair. Lysine-specific histone demethylase 2 (LSD2) has been implicated in multiple types of human cancers. However, its functions remain poorly understood. Read More

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Association between thiamine decrease and neuropsychiatric symptoms in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 15;141:111929. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Departmentof Pharmacy, The IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

Background: Clinical evidence of thiamine-related neuropsychiatric symptoms, including the initial stage, is limited because serum thiamine levels tend to be evaluated only for patients who develop severe neuropsychiatric symptoms suspected to be related to severe thiamine deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between thiamine decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms, including initial symptoms, and the effect of chemotherapy on serum thiamine levels in gastrointestinal and hematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

Method: We retrospectively identified 87 patients who were diagnosed with gastrointestinal and hematological cancers at our hospital. Read More

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Bilateral pleural effusion associated with atezolizumab in a patient with Lynch syndrome-related urothelial carcinoma: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jeonbuk National University Hospital-Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Republic of Korea; Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited syndrome associated with an increased risk of cancer caused by abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported to lead to a good response in cancers accompanied by LS. However, ICI therapy can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Read More

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Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with renal dysfunction: Pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment challenges.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul;27(26):4104-4142

Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taipei 105, Taiwan.

The population of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) overlaps to a high degree with those for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The degrees of renal dysfunction vary, from the various stages of CKD to dialysis-dependent ESRD, which often affects the prognosis and treatment choice of patients with HCC. In addition, renal dysfunction makes treatment more difficult and may negatively affect treatment outcomes. Read More

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Small molecule inhibition of deubiquitinating enzyme JOSD1 as a novel targeted therapy for leukemias with mutant JAK2.

Leukemia 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Mutations in the Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) gene resulting in constitutive kinase activation represent the most common genetic event in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a group of diseases involving overproduction of one or more kinds of blood cells, including red cells, white cells, and platelets. JAK2 kinase inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib, provide clinical benefit, but inhibition of wild-type (wt) JAK2 limits their clinical utility due to toxicity to normal cells, and small molecule inhibition of mutated JAK2 kinase activity can lead to drug resistance. Here, we present a strategy to target mutated JAK2 for degradation, using the cell's intracellular degradation machinery, while sparing non-mutated JAK2. Read More

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Identification of Thieno[3,2-]pyrimidine Derivatives as Dual Inhibitors of Focal Adhesion Kinase and FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3.

J Med Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Graduate School of Medical Science, Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in highly invasive and metastatic cancers. To identify novel FAK inhibitors, we designed and synthesized various thieno[3,2-]pyrimidine derivatives. An intensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study led to the identification of as a lead. Read More

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Pancreatic Cancer Related Pain: Review of Pathophysiology and Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Pain Management.

Authors:
Gabriel Carvajal

Pain Physician 2021 Aug;24(5):E583-E594

Centro Nacional de Control del Dolor y Cuidados Paliativos Interventional Pain Management Unit, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal cancers and is the eleventh most common cancer worldwide. This disease is characterized by an often-fatal evolution and a high burden of symptoms, particularly pain. Several studies have demonstrated that pancreatic cancer patients have a high prevalence of pain, with up to 82% of patients reporting pain, often requiring systemic strong opioids as mainstay treatment. Read More

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Association of RAD51 and XRCC2 Gene Polymorphisms with Cervical Cancer Risk in the Bangladeshi Women.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2099-2107. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pharmacy, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali, Bangladesh.

Objective: Alterations in common DNA repair genes (RAD51 and XRCC2) may lead to cervical cancer (CC) development. In the present study, we analyzed the association between RAD51 rs1801320 and XRCC2 rs3218536 polymorphisms and CC.

Methods: Variants were selected based on their associations with some cancers in several ethnicities and the risk allele frequency (>0. Read More

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Effect of Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-aza-CdR) in Comparison with Vorinostat (Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid, SAHA) on DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, HDAC 1-3, SOCS 1, SOCS 3, JAK2, and STAT3 Gene Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma HLE and LCL-PI 11 Cell Lines.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2089-2098. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Departments of Anatomical Sciences, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Background: Epigenetic alterations play an important role in tumorigenesis. Hypermethylation of CpG islands within the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and histone deacetylation lead to the silencing of the genes resulting in cancer induction. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of this family has been reported in several cancers, the protein of the SOCS family inhibit the cytokine-activated Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway to modulate cellular responses. Read More

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The prostate health index and the percentage of [-2]proPSA maintain their diagnostic performance when calculated with total and free PSA from different manufacturers.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Pathology, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal.

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the prostate health index (PHI) and of the percentage of [-2]proPSA (%[-2]proPSA) calculated with total and free PSA from non-Beckman Coulter manufacturers (Roche and Abbott), and compare it with the fully Beckman Coulter [-2]proPSA derivatives.

Methods: In this study, 237 men (PSA: 2-10 μg/L) scheduled for prostate biopsy were enrolled. %[-2]proPSA and PHI were calculated with total and free PSA from three manufacturers. Read More

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Genome instability and pressure on non-homologous end joining drives chemotherapy resistance via a DNA repair crisis switch in triple negative breast cancer.

NAR Cancer 2021 Jun 15;3(2):zcab022. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Cancer and Ageing Research Program, Centre for Genomics and Personalised Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba QLD 4121, Australia.

Chemotherapy is used as a standard-of-care against cancers that display high levels of inherent genome instability. Chemotherapy induces DNA damage and intensifies pressure on the DNA repair pathways that can lead to deregulation. There is an urgent clinical need to be able to track the emergence of DNA repair driven chemotherapy resistance and tailor patient staging appropriately. Read More

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Synthetic circular miR-21 RNA decoys enhance tumor suppressor expression and impair tumor growth in mice.

NAR Cancer 2020 Sep 31;2(3):zcaa014. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Section for Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle, Germany.

Naturally occurring circular RNAs efficiently impair miRNA functions. Synthetic circular RNAs may thus serve as potent agents for miRNA inhibition. Their therapeutic effect critically relies on (i) the identification of optimal miRNA targets, (ii) the optimization of decoy structures and (iii) the development of efficient formulations for their use as drugs. Read More

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September 2020

Chondromyxoid fibroma affecting the maxilla in a 1-year-old child: Immunohistochemical analysis and literature review.

Oral Oncol 2021 Jul 24:105467. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Oral Pathology, Department of Stomatology, Public Oral Health, and Forensic Dentistry, Ribeirão Preto Dental School (FORP/USP), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a benign chondroid/myxoid matrix-producing tumor that often develops in the long bones of young adults. CMF is rarely reported in the craniofacial skeleton, with most cases presenting with bone erosion or destruction, which may lead to a misdiagnosis. To date, approximately 129 cases of CMF in the craniofacial region have been reported, with only three cases in patients aged less than 1 year. Read More

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Ribosome ADP-ribosylation inhibits translation and maintains proteostasis in cancers.

Cell 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Defects in translation lead to changes in the expression of proteins that can serve as drivers of cancer formation. Here, we show that cytosolic NAD synthesis plays an essential role in ovarian cancer by regulating translation and maintaining protein homeostasis. Expression of NMNAT-2, a cytosolic NAD synthase, is highly upregulated in ovarian cancers. Read More

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Wound Healing on the Dorsal Hands: An Intrapatient Comparison of Primary Closure, Purse-String Closure, and Secondary Intention.

Cutis 2021 Jun;107(6):318-319

Drs. Miedema and Varma are from the Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Miedema also is from the Department of Pathology. Dr. Hsia is from the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston.

Nonmelanoma skin cancers are common on the dorsal hands where reserve tissue is limited. We highlight the case of an elderly man who had 3 nonmelanoma skin cancers on the left hand that were treated on the same day and left similar wounds. The wounds were repaired by primary closure, secondary intention, and purse-string circumferential closure. Read More

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The role of YTH domain containing 2 in epigenetic modification and immune infiltration of pan-cancer.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) is the largest N6-Methyladenosine (m A) binding protein of the YTH protein family and the only member containing ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. For further analysing its biological role in epigenetic modification, we comprehensively explored YTHDC2 from gene expression, genetic alteration, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, immune infiltration, diagnostic value and prognostic value in pan-cancer, using a series of databases and bioinformatic tools. We found that YTHDC2 with Missense mutation could cause a different prognosis in uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC), and its different methylation level could lead to a totally various prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC), lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and UCEC. Read More

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The impact of preoperative immune checkpoint inhibitors on kidney and bladder cancer surgeries: a systematic review.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Jul 8:100765. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Urology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brázil. Electronic address:

Therapies based on the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab, have proven effective in the treatment of metastatic urological neoplasms. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the use of this type of treatment prior to surgery could lead to an increased difficulty in renal and bladder surgeries. The literature concerning this topic, however, is still scarce and non-consensual. Read More

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Acute abdominal pain induced by renal leiomyoma in a young patient: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jul;49(7):3000605211032802

Department of Urology, Tungwah Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Dongguan, China.

Renal leiomyoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the kidney that predominantly originates from the renal capsule or pelvis. However, because of its nonspecific clinical and imaging features, renal leiomyoma remains poorly characterized and may even lead to radical or partial nephrectomy on the basis of preoperative suspicion of renal carcinoma. We herein present a case involving a 12-year-old boy with acute abdominal pain who was diagnosed with renal leiomyoma based on both clinical imaging and histopathological examination. Read More

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Role of Lipogenesis Rewiring in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Metabolic rewiring is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Altered de novo lipogenesis is one of the pivotal metabolic events deregulated in cancers. Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) controls the transcription of major enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis, including ACLY, ACACA, FASN, and SCD. Read More

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The dark side of homology-directed repair.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jul 17;106:103181. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, United States; Department of Genetics & Development, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, 10032, United States. Electronic address:

DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are cytotoxic lesions that can lead to genome rearrangements and genomic instability, which are hallmarks of cancer. The two main DSB repair pathways are non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination (HR). While HR is generally highly accurate, it has the potential for rearrangements that occur directly or through intermediates generated during the repair process. Read More

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Development of the PARP inhibitor talazoparib for the treatment of advanced and mutated breast cancer.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Jul 26:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Program), University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: and ( mutation breast cancers constitute an uncommon, but unique group of breast cancers that present at a younger age, and are underscored by genomic instability and accumulation of DNA damage. Talazoparib is a potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that exploits impaired DNA damage response mechanisms in this population of patients and results in significant efficacy. Based on the results of the EMBRACA trial, talazoparib was approved for the treatment of patients with advanced germline mutant breast cancer. Read More

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Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Biomarking the Gastrointestinal Diseases.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2021 Jul 25:1-24. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in cell-cell communication and regulation of various cellular functions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions through transferring their cargo to recipient cells. Molecular constituents of EVs are a fingerprinting profile of secreting cells which can be used as promising prognostic, diagnostic, and drug-response biomarkers in clinical settings.

Areas Covered: The present study provides a brief introduction about the biology of EVs and reviews methodologies used for EV isolation and characterization as well as high-throughput strategies to analyze EV contents. Read More

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Metabolic and Immunological Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer Reveal Potential Therapeutic Opportunities.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:667852. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States.

Background: Esophageal cancer has the sixth highest rate of cancer-associated deaths worldwide, with many patients displaying metastases and chemotherapy resistance. We sought to find subtypes to see if precision medicine could play a role in finding new potential targets and predicting responses to therapy. Since metabolism not only drives cancers but also serves as a readout, metabolism was examined as a key reporter for differences. Read More

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Role of Metastasis Suppressor KAI1/CD82 in Different Cancers.

J Oncol 2021 9;2021:9924473. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Metastasis is one of the characteristics of malignant tumors and the main cause of death worldwide. The process of metastasis is mainly affected by tumor metastasis genes, tumor metastasis suppressor genes, tumor microenvironment, extracellular matrix degradation, and other factors. Thus, it is essential to elucidate the mechanism of metastasis and find the therapeutic targets in order to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Read More

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The Pandora's box of novel technologies that may revolutionize lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jul 19;159:34-41. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Queensland University of Technology, Centre for Genomics and Personalised Health, Cancer and Ageing Research Program, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia; Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia; Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common cancers globally and has a 5-year survival rate ~20%. Immunotherapies have demonstrated long-term and durable responses in NSCLC patients, although they appear to be effective in only a subset of patients. A more comprehensive understanding of the underlying tumour biology may contribute to identifying those patients likely to achieve optimal outcomes. Read More

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Should we distinguish between intra and extrapericardial pulmonary artery involvement in NSCLC? A multicenter retrospective case-control study.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Vascular Sciences, Padua University Hospital, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: T4 tumours comprise a heterogeneous group of locally invasive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Intrapericardial and extrapericardial involvement of the pulmonary artery (PA) may have a different prognosis. We compared the short and long-term surgery outcomes for NSCLC of the PA with intrapericardial or extrapericardial involvement. Read More

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