311,463 results match your criteria cancers irradiation

DNA damage response and repair in pancreatic cancer development and therapy.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Apr 15;103:103116. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among fatal malignancies, with a dismal prognosis and a low survival rate of 5-10%. In both sporadic and inherited PC, gene alterations, such as BRCA1/2, PALB2, and ATM, can occur frequently. Currently, surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy are the most common therapeutic strategies for treating this cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A systematic review of craniospinal irradiation for leptomeningeal disease: past, present, and future.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) is a rare but deadly complication of cancer in which the disease spreads to the cerebrospinal fluid and seeds the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) involves treatment of the entire CNS subarachnoid space and is occasionally used as a last-resort palliative therapy for LMD.

Methods: This review examined literature describing the role of CSI for LMD from solid and hematologic malignancies in adults. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Triggers and oncologic outcome of salvage radical prostatectomy, salvage radiotherapy and active surveillance after focal therapy of prostate cancer.

World J Urol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinic of Urology, Urooncology, Robotic-Assisted and Focal Therapy, Medical Faculty and University Clinics of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: Due to the tissue preserving approach of focal therapy (FT), local cancer relapse can occur. Uncertainty exists regarding triggers and outcome of salvage strategies.

Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (PCa) after FT for localized PCa from 2011 to 2020 at eight tertiary referral hospitals in Germany that underwent salvage radical prostatectomy (S-RP), salvage radiotherapy (S-RT) or active surveillance (AS) were reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prognostic Factors for Patients with Esophageal Cancer Receiving Definitive Radiotherapy Alone: A Retrospective Analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 13;13:3229-3234. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The First School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can improve the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors relevant to the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer who received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) alone.

Patient And Methods: Data of 103 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer who were admitted to our hospital between October 2011 and November 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

NBTXR3 Radiotherapy-Activated Functionalized Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticles Show Efficient Antitumor Effects Across a Large Panel of Human Cancer Models.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 12;16:2761-2773. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Nanobiotix, Paris, France.

Purpose: The side effects of radiotherapy induced on healthy tissue limit its use. To overcome this issue and fully exploit the potential of radiotherapy to treat cancers, the first-in-class radioenhancer NBTXR3 (functionalized hafnium oxide nanoparticles) has been designed to amplify the effects of radiotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Thanks to its physical mode of action, NBTXR3 has the potential to be used to treat any type of solid tumor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sequential chemotherapy regimen of induction with panitumumab and paclitaxel followed by radiotherapy and panitumumab in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer unfit for platinum derivatives. The phase II, PANTERA/TTCC-2010-06 study.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Medical Oncology Service, Institut Català D'Oncologia (ICO) Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Sequential treatment of Panitumumab (Pb) plus Paclitaxel (Px) as induction treatment (IT) followed by concurrent bioradiotherapy (Bio-RT) with Pb may be an alternative for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN) in patients ineligible for high-dose cisplatin therapy.

Methods: Phase II, single-arm, multicentre study, with two-stage design, in patients ≥ 18 years with stage III-IVa-b LA-SCCHN unfit for platinum. Patients received Px + Pb (9 weeks) as IT followed by Bio-RT + Pb. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What's new in the pathogenesis and treatment of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms.

Blood 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

2Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Italy.

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) include diseases onsetting in patients treated with chemo- and/or radiotherapy for a primary cancer, or an autoimmune disorder. Genomic variants, in particular in familial cancer genes, may play a predisposing role. Recent advances in deep sequencing techniques have shed light on the pathogenesis of t-MN, identifying clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) as a frequent first step in the multi-hit model of t-MN. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dose-Volume Predictors for Patient-reported Late Diarrhoea, Faecal Incontinence and Urgency after Pelvic Radiotherapy.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, UK; School of Medicine, Institute of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff University, Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, UK.

Aims: Pelvic radiotherapy adds significantly to the curative treatment of many pelvic malignancies. However, this cure comes at a cost for many patients, where late bowel toxicities, such as faecal incontinence, urgency and diarrhoea, adversely affect quality of life. Despite the implementation of advanced radiotherapy techniques in many centres, there are deficiencies in our knowledge of how to make best use of these techniques to minimise these late toxicities, with dose-volume constraints specifically for late effects needing definition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Construction of Intelligent Nano-Drug Delivery System for Targeting Extranodal Nasal Natural Killer/Thymus Dependent Lymphocyte.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):487-500

Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is highly aggressive and malignant. Owing to the lack of multi-center prospective controlled studies, there is not a unified standard for the current clinical best treatment model. In recent years, new nano-drug delivery systems have made great progress in the field of tumor treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Literature Review and Our Experience With Bleomycin-Based Electrochemotherapy for Cutaneous Vulvar Metastases From Endometrial Cancer.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211010134

Department of Gynecological Oncology, 68196Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy and the fifth most common malignancy in women. The worldwide incidence is 15.9 new cases per 100,000 women per year, and the incidence in Europe is 22. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Small Cell Lung Cancer].

Pneumologie 2021 Apr 19;75(4):304-318. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive cancer entity and characterized by rapid progression, early distant metastasis and poor prognosis. Only the minority of patients presents with a non-metastatic stage disease where chemo-radiotherapy or - in very selected cases - even surgical resection may be discussed. For most patients, the efficacy of systemic therapy is crucial. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

BRAF mutations and BRAF mutation functional class have no negative impact on the clinical outcome of advanced NSCLC and associate with susceptibility to immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 16;149:211-221. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Division of Thoracic Oncology, West German Cancer Center, University Medicine Essen - Ruhrlandklinik, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Objective: BRAF mutations have been subtyped in three functional classes with different oncogenic modes of action. The clinical impact of BRAF mutational subtypes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be defined. So far, ambiguous results were reported from analyses of heterogeneous patient cohorts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unilateral versus bilateral nodal irradiation: Current evidence in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Head Neck 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

International Head and Neck Scientific Group, Udine, Italy.

Cancers of the head and neck region often present with nodal involvement. There is a long-standing convention within the community of head and neck radiation oncology to irradiate both sides of the neck electively in almost all cases to include both macroscopic and microscopic disease extension (so called elective nodal volume). International guidelines for the selection and delineation of the elective lymph nodes were published in the early 2000s and were updated recently. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

LIM domain only 1: an oncogenic transcription cofactor contributing to the tumorigenesis of multiple cancer types.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hebei Key Laboratory of Cancer Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA.

Abstract: The LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) gene belongs to the LMO family of genes that encodes a group of transcriptional cofactors. This group of transcriptional cofactors regulates gene transcription by acting as a key "connector" or "scaffold" in transcription complexes. All LMOs, including LMO1, are important players in the process of tumorigenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiosensitization in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Targets, Resistance and Developments.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:662209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neuro-oncology, Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. These epigenetically dysregulated tumors often harbor mutations in genes encoding , which contributes to a stem cell-like, therapy-resistant phenotype. Furthermore, pHGG are characterized by a diffuse growth pattern, which, together with their delicate location, makes complete surgical resection often impossible. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nipple-Areola Complex Reconstruction Using a Skin Graft and Nipple Sharing after Wise-pattern Central Lumpectomy.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Apr 15;9(4):e3539. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Northside Hospital Gwinnett, Northside Gwinnett Surgical Associates, Lawrenceville, Ga.

Patients with central breast cancers historically underwent mastectomy, as the aesthetic implications of removing the nipple-areola complex and central breast tissue left disfiguring defects after breast conservation. The introduction of oncoplastic techniques allowed for central lumpectomies in ptotic patients, as the excess skin and gland could be mobilized centrally to fill the defect and even immediately reconstruct a nipple and areola. These reconstructions used excess skin on the Wise pattern vertical limbs to create a nipple, or on a "neopedicle" where both the areola and nipple were reconstructed and then mobilized superiorly into position as would be performed for a conventional mastopexy or reduction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of a combined therapy of bortezomib and ionizing radiation on chondrosarcoma three-dimensional spheroid cultures.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 30;21(6):428. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Chondrosarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of primary bone cancers that are characterized by hyaline cartilaginous neoplastic tissue and are predominantly resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. However, adjuvant radiotherapy is often recommended in inoperable cases or after incomplete resections. To improve the efficiency of treatment, the present study tested a combination therapy with ionizing radiation (IR) and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Subjective Sleep Disturbances in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Radiotherapy Department.

Front Psychiatry 2021 18;12:648896. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

The factors associated with sleep disturbances in cancer patients remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of sleep disorders and predictors associated with sleep disturbance in cancer patients from a radiotherapy department. Patients with cancers were recruited before the start of radiotherapy from our institution between January 2019 and February 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Will the Use of Biomarkers Improve Bladder Cancer Radiotherapy Delivery?

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Advances in the field of cancer biology and molecular techniques have led to a better understanding of the molecular underpinnings driving cancer development and outcomes. Simultaneously, advances in imaging have allowed for improved sensitivity in initial staging, radiotherapy planning and follow-up of numerous cancers. These two phenomena have led to the development of biomarkers that can guide therapy in multiple malignancies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Precise engineering of hybrid molecules-loaded macromolecular nanoparticles shows and antitumor efficacy toward the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):776-786

Department of Radiation Oncology, Henan Cancer Hospital, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Cancers continue to be the second leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the development and improvement of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in cancer management, effective tumor ablation strategies are still in need due to high cancer patient mortality. Hence, we have established a new approach to achieve treatment-actuated modifications in a tumor microenvironment by using synergistic activity between two potential anticancer drugs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Brain Metastases: An Update on Multi-disciplinary Approach of Clinical Management.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, UW Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Importance: Brain metastasis (BM) is the most common malignant intracranial neoplasm in adults with over 100,000 new cases annually in the United States and outnumbering primary brain tumors 10:1.

Observations:  The incidence of BM in adult cancer patients ranges from 10-40%, and is increasing with improved surveillance, effective systemic therapy, and an aging population. The overall prognosis of cancer patients is largely dependent on the presence or absence of brain metastasis, and therefore, a timely and accurate diagnosis is crucial for improving long-term outcomes, especially in the current era of significantly improved systemic therapy for many common cancers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Combination of tumors of different histogenesis in pediatric neurosurgery].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):80-90

Almazov National Medical Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Multiple gliomas are determined by synchronous two or more tumors located in different brain regions. It is important to distinguish multiple primary tumors and metastatic brain lesion. In the first case, tumor spread can`t be explained by dissemination along the cerebrospinal fluid pathways, commissural fibers or local metastases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Stereotactic irradiation in the complex treatment of patients with intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):34-46

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Complex management of patients with intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) consists of surgical treatment, drug therapy (mainly in young children) and radiotherapy. For many years, radiotherapy (RT) has been a standard for residual tumors, recurrence or continued growth of PA. Currently, stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy are preferred for PA, because these procedures are characterized by high conformity and selectivity, precise irradiation of tumor with minimal damage to surrounding intact tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Influence of resection quality on postoperative outcomes in children with atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):17-25

Voino-Yasenetsky Research and Practical Center for Specialized Medical Care, Moscow, Russia.

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of resection quality on overall survival and disease-free survival in children with atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). The study included children younger than 18 years old for the period from 2008 to 2019. There were 134 interventions in 105 patients with ATRT including 11 redo resections («second-look» surgery) and 18 procedures for tumor recurrence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Central neurocytomas: long-term treatment outcomes].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):5-16

Burdenko Neurosurgical Center, Moscow, Russia.

Central neurocytoma is a rare benign brain tumor. These tumors may be giant and accompanied by compression of ventricular system and surrounding structures. Modern treatment of brain neurocytoma includes extended resection and restoration of normal CSF circulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A case of delayed cyst formation post brain AVM stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation: Case report.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 4;87:17-19. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Royal Brisbane and Women Hospital, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a rare cause of cerebrovascular abnormality with incidence of about 1 in 100,000 people per year and point prevalence of about 0.2%. AVMs are associated with serious complications such as intracranial haemorrhage (2-4% a year, 16% and 29% at 10 and 20 years after diagnosis), seizures (10-30%), focal neurologic deficits, and headaches. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The impact of modern radiotherapy on radiation-induced late sequelae: focus on early-stage mediastinal classical Hodgkin Lymphoma. A critical review by the Young Group of the Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO).

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Apr 13:103326. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Introduction: The historically feared radiation-induced secondary cancers and cardiac toxicities observed among mediastinal classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) patients may still negatively burden the benefit of radiotherapy among long-term survivors. Modern radiotherapy (RT) delivery techniques, including intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) and deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) solutions, are drastically changing this scenario. Results of a literature overview are reported and discussed in this paper. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Development and Evaluation of Nomograms to Predict the Cancer-Specific Mortality and Overall Mortality of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 29;2021:1658403. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type among primary liver cancers (PLC). With its poor prognosis and survival rate, it is necessary for HCC patients to have a long-term follow-up. We believe that there are currently no relevant reports or literature about nomograms for predicting the cancer-specific mortality of HCC patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Optimizing the Treatment Schedule of Radiotherapy Combined With Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Immunotherapy in Metastatic Cancers.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:638873. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been approved for a variety of malignant tumors and are widely used to treat patients with metastatic disease. However, the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors is limited due to tumor heterogeneity, high tumor burden, and "cold" tumor microenvironment. Radiotherapy can improve the anti-tumor effects of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in various ways. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticle-Based Combination Treatment with Cisplatin and EGFR/HER2 Receptor-Targeting Afatinib to Enhance the Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 9;14:2449-2461. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT), The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300211, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most prevalent carcinomas among the Cantonese population of South China and Southeast Asia (responsible for 8% of all cancers in China alone). Although concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been successful, metastatic NPC remains difficult to treat, and the failure rate is high.

Methods: Thus, we developed stable lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) containing cisplatin (CDDP) and afatinib (AFT); these drugs act synergistically to counter NPC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF