196,502 results match your criteria cancer syndromes


Current knowledge about the connection between health status and gut microbiota from birth to elderly. A narrative review.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2021 May;26(6):135-148

School of Technical Medical Sciences, "Alexander Xhuvani" University of Elbasan, 3001-3006 Elbasan, Albania.

The human body is colonized from the birth by a large number of microorganisms. This will constitute a real "functional microbial organ" that is fundamental for homeostasis and therefore for health in humans. Those microorganisms. Read More

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Thymic carcinoma with Lynch syndrome or microsatellite instability, a rare entity responsive to immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 20;153:162-167. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Division of Medical Oncology for Melanoma & Sarcoma, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Importance: Thymic carcinoma (TC) is a rare aggressive tumour occurring in adults characterised by one of the lowest tumor mutational burdens (TMB). Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a mutational signature, caused by defects in the DNA MisMatch Repair (MMR) system, that predicts benefit from immunotherapy and causes high TMB. Fragmentary and unstructured evidence of these conditions co-occurring are reported in literature. Read More

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Only SF3B1 mutation involving K700E independently predicts overall survival in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Cancer 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: SF3B1 mutations (SF3B1 ) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) frequently involve codon K700E and have a favorable prognosis. The prognostic effect of non-K700E SF3B1 is uncertain.

Methods: The authors analyzed the clinicopathological features and outcomes of a single-institution series of 94 treatment-naive SF3B1 MDS patients (18%) and 415 treatment-naive SF3B1 MDS patients and explored the differences between K700E and non-K700E SF3B1 MDS. Read More

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Control of Innate Immune Activation by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Other Coronaviruses.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2021 Jun;41(6):205-219

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), represents a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions. After the emergence of SARS-CoV-1 in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, this is the third outbreak of a highly pathogenic zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) that the world has witnessed in the last 2 decades. Infection with highly pathogenic human CoVs often results in a severe respiratory disease characterized by a delayed and blunted interferon (IFN) response, accompanied by an excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. Read More

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Phase II Trial of Flaxseed to Prevent Acute Complications After Chemoradiation for Lung Cancer.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Thoracic radiotherapy is complicated by acute radiation-induced adverse events such as radiation pneumonitis (RP) and radiation esophagitis (RE). Based on preclinical work and a randomized pilot trial from our laboratory, this single-arm phase II trial investigated administering flaxseed as a radioprotector in patients receiving definitive chemoradiation for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between June 2015 and February 2018, 33 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with planned definitive chemoradiation were enrolled. Read More

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[Acute renal failure and cancer treatment].

Rev Prat 2021 Feb;71(2):216-222

"Service de réanimation médicale, CHU de Rouen, Rouen, France."

"Acute renal failure and cancer treatment The interplay between cancer and acute kidney injury is intricate. Cancer, as much as therapies developed against it, may be responsible for acute kidney injury. Tumor lysis syndrome stems from the synergetic effects of anti-tumoral therapies in combination with the specific characteristics of the underlying tumor. Read More

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February 2021

Assessment of All-Cause Cancer Incidence Among Individuals With Preeclampsia or Eclampsia During First Pregnancy.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jun 1;4(6):e2114486. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale UA11, Institut Desbrest d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Importance: Preeclampsia or eclampsia (preeclampsia/eclampsia) during pregnancy induces major physiological changes and may be associated with specific cancer occurrences in later life. The current data regarding the association between preeclampsia/eclampsia and cancer are heterogeneous, and cancer risk after preeclampsia/eclampsia could be different depending on the organ. These uncertainties warrant reexamination of the association between preeclampsia/eclampsia and the risk of cancer overall and by specific cancer type. Read More

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Altered expression of specific antioxidant (SOD1 and SOD2) and DNA repair (XRCC1 and OGG1) genes in patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes mellitus.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

Background: Uncontrolled increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) leads to the release of free radicals. Additionally, when antioxidants go below a certain level, major molecules of our system such as DNA, proteins, and many other macromolecules get damaged, leading to cancer, heart diseases, and metabolic syndromes like diabetes. Therefore, we in our study focused on newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients and tried to evaluate the expression of antioxidant enzyme encoding genes; Superoxide Dismutase 1(SOD1) and Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) and DNA repair genes; X-ray repair cross-complementing 1(XRCC1) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) in them. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome and bladder cancer.

Authors:
Yair Lotan

BJU Int 2021 Jul;128(1):1-2

Department of Urology, UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.

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COVID-19: Histopathological correlates of imaging patterns on chest computed tomography.

Respirology 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Cancer Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Objective: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia present with typical findings on chest computed tomography (CT), but the underlying histopathological patterns are unknown. Through direct regional correlation of imaging findings to histopathological patterns, this study aimed to explain typical COVID-19 CT patterns at tissue level.

Methods: Eight autopsy cases were prospectively selected of patients with PCR-proven COVID-19 pneumonia with varying clinical manifestations and causes of death. Read More

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Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) - a novel clinico-pathological entity with heterogeneous clinical presentations.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Coagulation Centre, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a novel entity that emerged in March 2021 following reports of unusual thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, (AstraZeneca) vaccination. Following the recognition of this syndrome, multiple consensus guidelines have been released to risk stratify patients presenting with possible symptoms after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. All guidelines rapidly identify VITT in patients with the complete triad of thrombocytopenia, thrombosis and elevated D-dimers after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Read More

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Cutaneous Expression of Familial Cancer Syndromes.

Acta Derm Venereol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, J.B. Winsloews Vej 4, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark.

Genodermatoses are inherited syndromes with cutaneous manifestations. Some genodermatoses are associated with malignancy of internal organs and tissues. Early detection of the typical signs of these syndromes is important, because those lesions are a sign of underlying predisposition to extracutaneous neoplasms. Read More

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Parafibromin Abnormalities in Ossifying Fibroma.

J Endocr Soc 2021 Jul 8;5(7):bvab087. Epub 2021 May 8.

Center for Molecular Oncology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030, USA.

Ossifying fibromas are very rare tumors that are sometimes seen as part of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), which is caused by inactivating mutations of the tumor suppressor gene mutations have been identified in a subset of sporadic cases but aberrant expression of the encoded protein, parafibromin, has not been demonstrated in ossifying fibroma. We sought to determine if loss of parafibromin regularly contributes to the development of sporadic, nonsyndromic ossifying fibroma. We examined a series of 9 ossifying fibromas, including ossifying, cemento-ossifying, and juvenile active variants, for parafibromin protein expression by immunohistochemistry and for sequence abnormalities by Sanger sequencing and/or targeted AmpliSeq panel sequencing. Read More

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The Current Status and Challenges in the Development of Vaccines and Drugs against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:8160860. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (CEMR), Department of Biochemistry, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research (JSS AHER), Mysore, 570015 Karnataka, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is characterized by clinical manifestations such as pneumonia, lymphopenia, severe acute respiratory distress, and cytokine storm. S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE-II) to enter into the lungs through membrane proteases consequently inflicting the extensive viral load through rapid replication mechanisms. Despite several research efforts, challenges in COVID-19 management still persist at various levels that include (a) availability of a low cost and rapid self-screening test, (b) lack of an effective vaccine which works against multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2, and (c) lack of a potent drug that can reduce the complications of COVID-19. Read More

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Carcinoma of Unknown Primary in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome.

Cureus 2021 Jun 16;13(6):e15690. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Internal Medicine, University of South Florida (USF) Health, Tampa, USA.

Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer and is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer, small bowel cancer, and other malignancies. The advent of immune checkpoint blockade, next-generation sequencing, and precision medicine molecular tumor boards have revolutionized the current treatment landscape for many cancers and allowed for more creative approaches to treating patients. In addition, tissue agnostic approvals have also served as valid treatment options for patients with otherwise untreatable cancers. Read More

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Psycho-oncology service provisions for hospitalised cancer patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in an oncology centre in eastern India.

Ecancermedicalscience 2021 10;15:1226. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Palliative Care & Psycho-oncology, Tata Medical Centre, New Town, Rajarhat, Kolkata, West Bengal 700160, India.

Background: Addressing the mental health needs of cancer patients and their caregivers improves the quality of care the patient receives in any cancer care ecosystem. International practice currently encourages integrated care for physical and mental health in oncology. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the delivery of healthcare services across the world. Read More

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Site selective C-H functionalization of Mitragyna alkaloids reveals a molecular switch for tuning opioid receptor signaling efficacy.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 22;12(1):3858. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Mitragynine (MG) is the most abundant alkaloid component of the psychoactive plant material "kratom", which according to numerous anecdotal reports shows efficacy in self-medication for pain syndromes, depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. We have developed a synthetic method for selective functionalization of the unexplored C11 position of the MG scaffold (C6 position in indole numbering) via the use of an indole-ethylene glycol adduct and subsequent iridium-catalyzed borylation. Through this work we discover that C11 represents a key locant for fine-tuning opioid receptor signaling efficacy. Read More

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The Impact of Prior Salvage Treatment With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors on Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ.

Introduction: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the previous use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) on the clinical course of Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT).

Methods: A single-center, retrospective chart review of adult HL patients who received ASCT from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019, was conducted. Primary endpoints included the length of stay (LOS) and the composite outcome of late-onset noninfectious fever (LONIF) or late-onset hypotension (LOH) requiring intravenous fluid (IVF) resuscitation. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 quantitative real time PCR and viral loads analysis among asymptomatic and symptomatic patients: an observational study on an outbreak in two nursing facilities in Campania Region (Southern Italy).

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 Jun 22;16(1):45. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Animal Health, Unit of Virology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via Salute, 2, 8055, Portici, Naples, Italy.

Background: In December 2019 an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 was first observed in Wuhan, China. The virus has spread rapidly throughout the world creating a pandemic scenario. Several risk factors have been identified, such as age, sex, concomitant diseases as well as viral load. Read More

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Interactive SARS-CoV-2 mutation timemaps.

F1000Res 2021 3;10:68. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 4S6, Canada.

As the year 2020 came to a close, several new strains have been reported of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has afflicted us all this past year. However, it is difficult to comprehend the scale, in sequence space, geographical location and time, at which SARS-CoV-2 mutates and evolves in its human hosts. To get an appreciation for the rapid evolution of the coronavirus, we built interactive scalable vector graphics maps that show daily nucleotide variations in genomes from the six most populated continents compared to that of the initial, ground-zero SARS-CoV-2 isolate sequenced at the beginning of the pandemic. Read More

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February 2021

Encephalopathy at admission predicts adverse outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Aims: To determine if neurologic symptoms at admission can predict adverse outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Methods: Electronic medical records of 1053 consecutively hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 from one large medical center in the USA were retrospectively analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed with the calculation of areas under the curve (AUC) and concordance index (C-index). Read More

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Yield of targeted genotyping for the recurring pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes in a healthy, multiethnic Israeli population.

Cancer 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Several recurring pathogenic variants in BRCA1/BRCA2 and other cancer susceptibility genes are encountered in ethnically diverse Jewish populations. The yield of genotyping for these recurring pathogenic variants in healthy Israeli individuals unselected for ethnicity, sex, or a family history of cancer has not been previously reported.

Methods: Individuals voluntarily participating in annual medical surveillance at the Institute of Medical Screening of Sheba Medical Center were offered genotyping for predominant pathogenic variants in BRCA1/BRCA2 and recurring variants in CHEK2, MUTYH, APC, and the Lynch syndrome genes via a chip-based assay at the oncogenetic service of Sheba Medical Center from May 15, 2018, to December 15, 2020. Read More

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Do patients with atypical parathyroid adenoma need a close follow-up?

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Endocrine Unit, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Context: Atypical parathyroid adenomas (APAs) are neoplasms with uncertain malignant potential but lack unequivocal histological signs of malignancy.

Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with APA, the outcome after parathyroidectomy (PTX), and the presence of CDC73 germline and somatic mutations.

Design: Monocentric study on consecutive patients undergoing PTX for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) between June 2000 and December 2020. Read More

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Taspase1 orchestrates fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell and vertebrae fates through cleaving TFIIA.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, United States of America.

Taspase1, a highly conserved threonine protease encoded by TASP1, cleaves nuclear histone modifying factors and basal transcription regulators to orchestrate diverse transcription programs. Hereditary loss-of-function mutation of TASP1 has recently been reported in human resulting in a novel anomaly complex syndrome manifested with hematological, facial, and skeletal abnormalities. Here, we demonstrate that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of TFIIAα-β, rather than of MLL1 or MLL2, in mouse embryos is required for proper fetal liver hematopoiesis and correct segmental identities of the axial skeleton. Read More

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Humanized CD19-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in CAR-Naive and CAR-Exposed Children and Young Adults With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 22:JCO2003458. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells demonstrate unprecedented responses in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, relapse remains a substantial challenge. Short CAR T-cell persistence contributes to this risk; therefore, strategies to improve persistence are needed.

Methods: We conducted a pilot clinical trial of a humanized CD19 CAR T-cell product (huCART19) in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (n = 72) or B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 2), treated in two cohorts: with (retreatment, n = 33) or without (CAR-naive, n = 41) prior CAR exposure. Read More

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Approach to the diagnosis of aplastic anemia.

Blood Adv 2021 06;5(12):2660-2671

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care & Carbone Cancer Center, The University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

Establishing a diagnosis of aplastic anemia (AA) can be challenging, but it is absolutely critical to appropriate management, especially differentiating between acquired and inherited forms of the disease. The hematology field requires updated diagnostic guidelines to ensure that appropriate clinical pathways are pursued for patients and their safety. There are increasing clinical options for patients with immunosuppressive therapy and transplant once the diagnosis is made. Read More

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GSAP regulates lipid homeostasis and mitochondrial function associated with Alzheimer's disease.

J Exp Med 2021 Aug 22;218(8). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

Biochemical, pathogenic, and human genetic data confirm that GSAP (γ-secretase activating protein), a selective γ-secretase modulatory protein, plays important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying GSAP-dependent pathogenesis remains largely elusive. Here, through unbiased proteomics and single-nuclei RNAseq, we identified that GSAP regulates multiple biological pathways, including protein phosphorylation, trafficking, lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Read More

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Renal surgery for kidney cancer: is preoperative proteinuria a predictor of functional and survival outcomes after surgery? A systematic review of the literature.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

UOC Urologia, Department Materno-Infantile e Scienze Urologiche, AOU Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Proteinuria is considered both a known marker for the severity of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and a robust predictor of future renal function and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a general population. The urological community has long overlooked proteinuria as a marker of renal function. Recently, the American Urological Association (AUA) clinical practice guideline addressed this issue and suggested introducing proteinuria assessment prior to kidney cancer surgery. Read More

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Embolization for Carotid Blowout in Head and Neck Cancer: Case Report of Five Patients.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Jun 22:15385744211027030. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, 16474Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is defined as a rupture of common carotid artery or its branches. Endovascular intervention has been advocated as first line of treatment for CBS. This Case Report describes 5 patients with prior history of head and neck cancer who presented with CBS. Read More

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