5,908 results match your criteria calvarial bone

Photobiomodulation combined with adipose-derived stem cells encapsulated in methacrylated gelatin hydrogels enhances in vivo bone regeneration.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Reconstruction of bone defects is still a significant challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of application of photobiomodulation (PBM) to enhance in vivo bone regeneration and osteogenic differentiation potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) encapsulated in methacrylated gelatin (GEL-MA) hydrogels. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 experimental groups (n = 12 each). Read More

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Loss of Function of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis and Increases Fracture Risk in Humans.

Bone 2021 Apr 7:115946. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, Maine, USA, 04074; Center for Bone Biology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232; USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232; USA. Electronic address:

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in lysosomes. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LAL-D), either Wolman Disease or Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic neutral lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Read More

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Simvastatin loaded chitosan guided bone regeneration membranes stimulate bone healing.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background And Objective: Electrospun chitosan membranes (ESCM) modified with short-chain fatty acids have the ability to control the release of simvastatin (SMV), an anti-cholesterol drug with osteogenic potential, for guided bone regeneration (GBR) applications. This study evaluated in vivo osteogenic effects of rapid short release of SMV (4 weeks) vs long sustained release (8 weeks) from acetic anhydride (AA)-and hexanoic anhydride (HA)-modified ESCMs, respectively.

Methods: AA ESCMs loaded with 10 or 50 µg SMV and HA ESCMs loaded with 50 µg SMV were evaluated for biocompatibility and bone formation at 4 and 8 weeks, in 5 mm critical size rat calvarial defects, using histological evaluation and micro-CT analysis. Read More

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A Case of Large Aplasia Cutis Congenita with Underlying Skull Defect: Effective Surgical Treatment with Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Apr 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by the absence of a portion of skin at birth which most commonly involves the scalp and can affect the galea, the pericranium, the bone, and the dura mater. It can be an isolated condition or associated with other disorders.

Case Report: We present a case of ACC with a large defect of the scalp and the underlying bone treated with the use of Integra® Dermal regeneration template. Read More

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Bilateral Orbital Reconstruction With Autologous Bone Graft After Gunshot Wound to Upper Midface.

Cureus 2021 Feb 28;13(2):e13611. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Plastic Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, USA.

Ballistic maxillofacial injuries are highly destructive, producing significant morbidity and mortality. Survivors' defects pose unique reconstructive challenges, such as loss of periorbital bone stock in upper midface injuries. While orbital reconstruction has transitioned from primarily autologous grafts to alloplastic implants, ballistic trauma remains a niche that warrants the use of autologous bone equally with alloplastic materials. Read More

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February 2021

Mechanobiology-informed regenerative medicine: Dose-controlled release of placental growth factor from a functionalized collagen-based scaffold promotes angiogenesis and accelerates bone defect healing.

J Control Release 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Tissue Engineering Research Group (TERG), Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Leveraging the differential response of genes to mechanical loading may allow for the identification of novel therapeutics and we have recently established placental growth factor (PGF) as a mechanically augmented gene which promotes angiogenesis at higher doses and osteogenesis at lower doses. Herein, we sought to execute a mechanobiology-informed approach to regenerative medicine by designing a functionalized scaffold for the dose-controlled delivery of PGF which we hypothesized would be capable of promoting regeneration of critically-sized bone defects. Alginate microparticles and collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds were shown to be effective PGF-delivery platforms, as demonstrated by their capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro. Read More

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Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α mediates senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of age-related bone loss.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Dental Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Aging is associated with cellular senescence followed by bone loss leading to bone fragility in humans. However, the regulators associated with cellular senescence in aged bones need to be identified. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α regulates bone remodeling via the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Read More

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Acid Dentin Lysate Failed to Modulate Bone Formation in Rat Calvaria Defects.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Oral Biology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Autogenous tooth roots are increasingly applied as a grafting material in alveolar bone augmentation. Since tooth roots undergo creeping substitution similar to bone grafts, it can be hypothesized that osteoclasts release the growth factors stored in the dentin thereby influencing bone formation. To test this hypothesis, collagen membranes were either soaked in acid dentin lysates (ADL) from extracted porcine teeth or serum-free medium followed by lyophilization. Read More

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Pre-Treat Xenogenic Collagenous Blocks of Bone Substitutes with Saline Facilitate Their Manipulation and Guarantee High Bone Regeneration Rates, Qualitatively and Quantitatively.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 17;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Biomaterials Laboratory, Division of Fixed Prosthodontics and Biomaterials, University of Geneva, University Clinics of Dental Medicine, 1, rue Michel Servet, 1204 Geneva, Switzerland.

Deproteinized bovine bone mineral particles embedded in collagen (DBBM-C) are widely used for bone regenerations with excellent, albeit sometimes variable clinical outcomes. Clinicians usually prepare DBBM-C by mixing with blood. Replacing blood by saline represents an alternative. Read More

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Neural crest-derived cells in nasal conchae of adult mice contribute to bone regeneration.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Mar 30;554:173-178. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.

Neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs), a class of adult stem cells not restricted to embryonic tissues, are attractive tissue regenerative therapy candidates because of their ease of isolation, self-renewing properties, and multipotency. Although adult NCDCs can undergo osteogenic differentiation in vitro, whether they induce bone formation in vivo remains unclear. Previously, our group reported findings showing high amounts of NCDCs scattered throughout nasal concha tissues of adult mice. Read More

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Mesenchymal stem cells and three-dimensional-osteoconductive scaffold regenerate calvarial bone in critical size defects in swine.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Craniofacial bones protect vital organs, perform important physiological functions, and shape facial identity. Critical-size defects (CSDs) in calvarial bones, which will not heal spontaneously, are caused by trauma, congenital defects, or tumor resections. They pose a great challenge for patients and physicians, and significantly compromise quality of life. Read More

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Protocatechualdehyde inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory osteolysis.

Phytother Res 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Inflammatory osteolysis as a consequence of chronic bacterial infection underlies several lytic bone conditions, such as otitis media, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, periodontitis, periprosthetic infection, and aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. In consideration of the lack of effective preventive or treatments options against infectious osteolysis, the exploitation of novel pharmacological compounds/agents is critically required. The present study assessed the effect of protocatechualdehyde (PCA), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities including but not limited to antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties, on nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in vivo. Read More

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Glycyrrhizin mitigates inflammatory bone loss and promotes expression of senescence-protective sirtuins in an aging mouse model of periprosthetic osteolysis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 23;138:111503. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Oral Science and Translational Research, College of Dental Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314, United States. Electronic address:

Although periprosthetic osteolysis induced by wear debris particles is significantly elevated in senior (65+ years old) patients, most of the published pre-clinical studies were performed using young (less than three-month old) mice indicating the critical need to employ experimental models of particle-induced osteolysis involving mice with advanced age. Emerging evidence indicates that currently available antiresorptive bone therapies have serious age-dependent side effects. However, a resurgence of healthcare interest has occurred in glycyrrhizin (GLY), a natural extract from the licorice roots, as alternative sources of drugs for treating inflammatory bone lytic diseases and prevention of cellular senescence. Read More

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Porous polyetheretherketone microcarriers fabricated via hydroxylation together with cell-derived mineralized extracellular matrix coatings promote cell expansion and bone regeneration.

Regen Biomater 2021 Mar 19;8(2):rbab013. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, China.

Porous microcarriers have aroused increasing attention recently by facilitating oxygen and nutrient transfer, supporting cell attachment and growth with sufficient cell seeding density. In this study, porous polyetheretherketone (PEEK) microcarriers coated with mineralized extracellular matrix (mECM), known for their chemical, mechanical and biological superiority, were developed for orthopedic applications. Porous PEEK microcarriers were derived from smooth microcarriers using a simple wet-chemistry strategy involving the reduction of carbonyl groups. Read More

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Development of a Biomaterial Scaffold Integrated with Osteoinductive Oxysterol Liposomes to Enhance Hedgehog Signaling and Bone Repair.

Mol Pharm 2021 04 24;18(4):1677-1689. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, United States.

Bone repair requires the tightly regulated control of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic cell types and signaling pathways. One of the positive regulatory signaling pathways in membranous and endochondral bone healing is the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling family. Here, a novel therapeutic liposomal delivery vector was developed by self-assembly of an Hh-activating cholesterol analog with an emulsifier, along with the addition of Smoothened agonist (SAG) as a drug cargo, for the enhancement of Hh signaling in bone regeneration. Read More

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Enhanced bone formation of calvarial bone defects by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-9: a preliminary experimental study in rats.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Periodontology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, 890-8544, Japan.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein - 9 (rhBMP-9) loaded onto absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on bone formation in rat calvarial defects.

Materials And Methods: Circular calvarial defects were surgically created in 18 Wistar rats, which were divided into LIPUS-applied (+) and LIPUS-non-applied (-) groups. The 36 defects in each group received ACS implantation (ACS group), ACS with rhBMP-9 (rhBMP-9/ACS group), or surgical control (control group), yielding the following six groups: ACS (+/-), rhBMP-9/ACS (+/-), and control (+/-). Read More

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Calvarial lesions: overview of imaging features and neurosurgical management.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Calvarial lesions are rare and can present as a variety of different diseases. The lesions can be palpable on the skin and cause local pain and paraesthesia and, depending on the location, neurological deficits can also occur. This research aims to present an overview of typical imaging features as well as neurosurgical management. Read More

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3D Encapsulation and tethering of functionally engineered extracellular vesicles to hydrogels.

Acta Biomater 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, United States. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in their naïve and engineered forms have emerged as potential alternatives to stem cell therapy. While they have a defined therapeutic potential, the spatial and temporal control of their activity in vivo remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to devise a methodology to encapsulate EVs in 3D hydrogels for prolonged delivery. Read More

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Oxidation-Responsive, Tunable Growth Factor Delivery from Polyelectrolyte-Coated Implants.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Mar 18:e2001941. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings, constructed on the surfaces of tissue engineering scaffolds using layer-by-layer assembly (LbL), promote sustained release of therapeutic molecules and have enabled regeneration of large-scale, pre-clinical bone defects. However, these systems primarily rely on non-specific hydrolysis of PEM components to foster drug release, and their pre-determined drug delivery schedules potentially limit future translation into innately heterogeneous patient populations. To trigger therapeutic delivery directly in response to local environmental stimuli, an LbL-compatible polycation solely degraded by cell-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) was synthesized. Read More

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Regeneration of critical-sized defects, in a goat model, using a dextrin-based hydrogel associated with granular synthetic bone substitute.

Regen Biomater 2021 Feb 28;8(1):rbaa036. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

CEB, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal.

The development of injectable bone substitutes (IBS) have obtained great importance in the bone regeneration field, as a strategy to reach hardly accessible defects using minimally invasive techniques and able to fit to irregular topographies. In this scenario, the association of injectable hydrogels and bone graft granules is emerging as a well-established trend. Particularly, forming hydrogels have arisen as a new IBS generation. Read More

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February 2021

Thyroid-stimulating hormone decreases the risk of osteoporosis by regulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Mar 16;21(1):49. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250021, Shandong, China.

Background: As the incidence of secretory osteoporosis has increased, bone loss, osteoporosis and their relationships with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have received increased attention. In this study, the role of TSH in bone metabolism and its possible underlying mechanisms were investigated.

Methods: We analyzed the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and TSH and the bone mineral density (BMD) levels of 114 men with normal thyroid function. Read More

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Sequential macrophage transition facilitates endogenous bone regeneration induced by Zn-doped porous microcrystalline bioactive glass.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Mar 15;9(12):2885-2898. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Cariology and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Macrophages play an important role in the immune microenvironment during bone healing, and sequential macrophage phenotypic transition could achieve superior osteogenic outcomes. Microcrystalline bioactive glasses (MCBGs) with osteoimmunomodulatory effects show potential in bone tissue regeneration. Zinc (Zn) has been approved to coordinate innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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The Synergy of Topographical Micropatterning and Ta|TaCu Bilayered Thin Film on Titanium Implants Enables Dual-Functions of Enhanced Osteogenesis and Anti-Infection.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Mar 11:e2002020. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, China.

Poor osteogenesis and implant-associated infection are the two leading causes of failure for dental and orthopedic implants. Surface design with enhanced osteogenesis often fails in antibacterial activity, or vice versa. Herein, a surface design strategy, which overcomes this trade-off via the synergistic effects of topographical micropatterning and a bilayered nanostructured metallic thin film is presented. Read More

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Aesthetic Reconstruction After Removal of Huge Epidermal Cyst Involving the Calvarium and Dura on the Scalp.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):591-593

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Abstract: Epidermal or epidermoid cysts are one of the most frequent benign masses at the subepidermal level. They are typically smooth, movable, and fluctuant masses covered with stratified squamous epithelium. They rarely grow to a huge size, and only a few cases have been reported. Read More

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Mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing BMP-9 by CRISPR-Cas9 present high in vitro osteogenic potential and enhance in vivo bone formation.

Gene Ther 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Bone Research Lab, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Cell therapy is a valuable strategy for the replacement of bone grafts and repair bone defects, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most frequently used cells. This study was designed to genetically edit MSCs to overexpress bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technique to generate iMSCs-VPR, followed by in vitro evaluation of osteogenic potential and in vivo enhancement of bone formation in rat calvaria defects. Overexpression of BMP-9 was confirmed by its gene expression and protein expression, as well as its targets Hey-1, Bmpr1a, and Bmpr1b, Dlx-5, and Runx2 and  protein expression of SMAD1/5/8 and pSMAD1/5/8. Read More

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Histomorphometric Effects of 2% Risedronate Gel on Calvarial Bone Defects in Rabbits.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2021 Mar;22(1):14-20

Postgraduate Student of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental Research Center, Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: Alveolar bone resorption associated with periodontal disease is a common finding and generally irreversible. It impairs mastication and causes esthetic problems for patients. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used antiresorptive agents for bone diseases. Read More

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Phenanthrenoid Coelogin Isolated from Coelogyne cristata Exerts Osteoprotective Effect Through MAPK-Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Endocrinology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226031, India.

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in postmenopausal women globally. This study determined the mechanism through which coelogin stimulates osteoblastogenesis and its osteoprotective and bone regenerating potential. Coelogin effect on primary calvarial osteoblast cells was determined by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, osteoblast survival, and apoptosis and protein expression studies. Read More

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Osteoclast-derived small extracellular vesicles induce osteogenic differentiation via inhibiting ARHGAP1.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 4;23:1191-1203. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Activated osteoclasts release large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) during bone remodeling. However, little is known about whether osteoclast-derived sEVs affect surrounding cells. In this study, osteoclasts were generated by stimulating bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear actor κB ligand (RANKL). Read More

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Ubiquitin-specific protease 53 promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 4;12(3):238. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

The ubiquitin protease pathway plays important role in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hBMSC) differentiation, including osteogenesis. However, the function of deubiquitinating enzymes in osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ubiquitin-specific protease 53 (USP53) in the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Read More

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Testing Bone Formation Induction by Calvarial Injection Assay .

Bio Protoc 2020 Mar 20;10(6):e3560. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Bone Cell Biology and Disease Unit, St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia.

Bone formation occurs during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and during the process of skeletal renewal throughout life. In the process of bone formation, osteoblasts lay down a collagen-containing matrix, termed osteoid, which is gradually hardened by incorporation of mineral crystals. Although osteoblasts can be induced to differentiate and to deposit mineral in culture, this system does not always provide results that reflect the ability of agents to stimulate bone formation . Read More

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