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What is an appropriate cesarean delivery rate for China: a multi-center survey.

BJOG 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aviation Hospital of Beijing, China Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To assess the current status of cesarean delivery (CD) in China, propose reference CD rates for China overall and by regions, investigate the main indications for CDs, and identify possible areas for safe reduction.

Design: A multi-center cross-sectional study.

Setting: A total of 94 hospitals across 23 provinces in China. Read More

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September 2021

Dynamic analysis of a SIQR epidemic model considering the interaction of environmental differences.

J Appl Math Comput 2021 Sep 15:1-17. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan, 114051 People's Republic of China.

Infectious diseases have a devastating impact on individual health and social development. Different external environmental factors will affect the scale and the speed of disease outbreaks, such as sanitary conditions and policy interventions. In this paper, we attempt to establish a dual-system susceptible-infectious-quarantine-recovered model with different environmental impacts to explore it. Read More

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September 2021

Optimal shutdown strategies for COVID-19 with economic and mortality costs: British Columbia as a case study.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 8;8(9):202255. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

CMPS Department, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 1177 Research Road, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada V1V 1V7.

Decision makers with the responsibility of managing policy for the COVID-19 epidemic have faced difficult choices in balancing the competing claims of saving lives and the high economic cost of shutdowns. In this paper, we formulate a model with both epidemiological and economic content to assist this decision-making process. We consider two ways to handle the balance between economic costs and deaths. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of high and low risk susceptibles in the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and control strategies.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257354. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Mathematics, Namal Institute Mianwali, Punjab, Pakistan.

In this study, we formulate and analyze a deterministic model for the transmission of COVID-19 and evaluate control strategies for the epidemic. It has been well documented that the severity of the disease and disease related mortality is strongly correlated with age and the presence of co-morbidities. We incorporate this in our model by considering two susceptible classes, a high risk, and a low risk group. Read More

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September 2021

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of hearing loss in childhood: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(36):e27057

Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternal & Child Healthcare Hospital of Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss (HL), although the strength of this association remains limited and inconclusive. Thus, the purpose of this study was to summarize evidence regarding the strength of the relationship between cCMV and childhood HL and to determine whether this relationship differs according to patient characteristics.

Methods: The PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies evaluating the relationship between cCMV and HL from inception to September 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Measuring coverage of maternal and child health services using routine health facility data: a Sierra Leone case study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 13;21(Suppl 1):547. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Statistics Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Background: There are limited existing approaches to generate estimates from Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) data, despite the growing interest to these data. We calculated and assessed the consistency of maternal and child health service coverage estimates from RHIS data, using census-based and health service-based denominators in Sierra Leone.

Methods: We used Sierra Leone 2016 RHIS data to calculate coverage of first antenatal care contact (ANC1), institutional delivery and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus 3 (DPT3) immunization service provision. Read More

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September 2021

Quantification of the Psychoacoustic Effect of Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Aug 24;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Dotterel Technologies Ltd., 40 Kenwyn Street, Parnell, Auckland 1052, New Zealand.

This paper presents the results of a study evaluating the human perception of the noise produced by four different small quadcopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This study utilised measurements and recordings of the noise produced by the quadcopter UAVs in hover and in constant-speed flight at a fixed altitude. Measurements made using a ½″ microphone were used to calculate a range of different noise metrics for each noise event. Read More

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Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 mutations reveals regional-specificity and similar trends of N501 and high-frequency mutation N501Y in different levels of control measures.

Sci Rep 2021 09 7;11(1):17755. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Lima, Peru.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease has spread globally, causing more than 161.5 million cases and 3. Read More

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September 2021

Opening Schools and Trends in SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in European Countries.

Int J Public Health 2021 18;66:1604076. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medicine, DAME, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Benefits of school attendance have been debated against SARS-CoV-2 contagion risks. This study examined the trends of contagion before and after schools reopened across 26 countries in the European Union. We compared the average values of estimated before and after school reopening, identifying any significant increase with a one-sample -test. Read More

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September 2021


Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(7):1628-1633


Objective: The aim: To improve epidemiological monitoring of pertussis by analyzing the disease morbidity during 1995-2017 in Ukraine, to make a prognosis.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: Analysis of the pertussis morbidity during 1995-2017 using the data of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The cyclicity was determined by Fourier spectral analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Normal pancreatic volume assessment using abdominal computed tomography volumetry.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(34):e27096

Department of Radiology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Abstract: To determine the normal range of pancreatic volume (PV) in Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT) volumetry. To assess the relationships of PV with patient demographics and clinical parameters. To analyze the degree of correlation between PV values determined by manual segmentation and those calculated by formulas. Read More

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Effect of Natural Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress on Child Development and Health: A Meta-Analytic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 6;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Mental Health and Society Division, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Perry Pavilion, Montreal, QC H4H 1R3, Canada.

The evidence supporting the idea that natural disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences the child's development has been accumulating for several years. We conducted a meta-analytical review to quantify this effect on different spheres of child development: birth outcomes, cognitive, motor, physical, socio-emotional, and behavioral development. We systematically searched the literature for articles on this topic (2756 articles retrieved and 37 articles included in the systematic review), extracted the relevant data to calculate the effect sizes, and then performed a meta-analysis for each category of outcomes (30 articles included across the meta-analyses) and meta-regressions to determine the effect of some factors of interest on the association between PNMS and child development: type of PNMS (objective, psychological, cognitive, diet), type of natural disaster (ice storm, flood/cyclone), type of report (maternal, third-party observer, medical), timing of exposure (preconception exposure included or not) and child age at assessment (under 10 or 10 years and older). Read More

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Validating accelerometry-derived proxies of energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method in the smallest penguin species.

Biol Open 2021 04 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science & Technology, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia.

Understanding energy use is central to understanding an animal's physiological and behavioural ecology. However, directly measuring energy expenditure in free-ranging animals is inherently difficult. The doubly labelled water (DLW) method is widely used to investigate energy expenditure in a range of taxa. Read More

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Reproductive and pregnancy outcomes following embryo transfer in women with previous cesarean section: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Woman, Child, and General and Specialized Surgery, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Cesarean section affects subsequent spontaneous pregnancies because of implantation issues. However, its impact on post-embryo transfer pregnancies is still debated. This review aimed to evaluate the impact of a previous cesarean section on fertility and pregnancy outcomes of women undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer. Read More

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Reproductive hyperallometry and managing the world's fisheries.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(34)

Fisheries Ecology Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz, CA 95060.

Marine fisheries are an essential component of global food security, but many are close to their limits and some are overfished. The models that guide the management of these fisheries almost always assume reproduction is proportional to mass (isometry), when fecundity generally increases disproportionately to mass (hyperallometry). Judged against several management reference points, we show that assuming isometry overestimates the replenishment potential of exploited fish stocks by 22% (range: 2% to 78%) for 32 of the world's largest fisheries, risking systematic overharvesting. Read More

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Maternal serum lipids in some women with pre-eclampsia in Yaoundé.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 5;39:14. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Laboratory Technicians, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Preeclampsia is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and occurs in approximately 3-8% of all pregnancies worldwide. Although the aetiology of preeclampsia still largely remains unclear, it is thought to be related to endothelial dysfunction and can lead to serum lipid abnormalities. Therefore, this case-control study was conceived and designed with the aim to compare maternal lipid profile parameters and cardiovascular risk factors, between preeclamptic and healthy pregnancies. Read More

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Responses to COVID-19 in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries in 2020, a data analysis during a world of crises.

Chaos Solitons Fractals 2021 Nov 5;152:111311. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122, India.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was notified from Wuhan city, Hubei province, China in the mid of December 2019. The disease is showing dynamic change in the pattern of confirmed cases and death toll in these low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, exponential growth (EG) method was used to calculate the real-time reproductive number (R) for initial and later stage of epidemic in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member countries (April 2020 - December 2020). Read More

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November 2021

What is the effectiveness of the Tzanakis scoring system modified by the Delta Neutrophil Index in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnant women?

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Sep 6;264:219-223. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal pain that is unrelated to pregnancy in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Alvarado, Ohmann, and Tzanakis scores in the prediction of acute appendicitis in pregnant women and compare the hematological parameters.

Patients And Methods: Herein, 1542 patients, aged 18-49 years, who were admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain and underwent appendectomy were evaluated retrospectively. Read More

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September 2021

Maternal PM Exposure Increases Risk for Spina Bifida: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

Front Public Health 2021 21;9:695192. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Limited studies have focused on the impact of ambient air pollution on spina bifida. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Liaoning Province, China to assess the associations between maternal PM exposures in various exposure windows and spina bifida risk. Data on spina bifida cases born between 2010 and 2015 were available from the Maternal and Child Health Certificate Registry of Liaoning Province. Read More

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The clinical value of platelet parameters combined with sFlt-1/PlGF in predicting preeclampsia.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul;10(7):7619-7626

Clinical Epidemiology Research Office, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between platelet parameters and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PlGF) in preeclampsia (PE) and establish a prediction model by analyzing commonly used biochemical markers.

Methods: A nested case-control study involving 270 pregnant women in their second trimester from the Beijing Jishuitan Hospital was conducted. They were divided into PE group and control group. Read More

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Estimated Dissemination Ratio-A Practical Alternative to the Reproduction Number for Infectious Diseases.

Front Public Health 2021 14;9:675065. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Public Health and Health Policy, National Health Service (NHS) Lothian, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Policymakers require consistent and accessible tools to monitor the progress of an epidemic and the impact of control measures in real time. One such measure is the Estimated Dissemination Ratio (EDR), a straightforward, easily replicable, and robust measure of the trajectory of an outbreak that has been used for many years in the control of infectious disease in livestock. It is simple to calculate and explain. Read More

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Expectant management versus multifetal pregnancy reduction in dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) triplets: Single centre experience.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Sep 13;264:200-205. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial Healthcare NHS Trust, UK; Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, UK; Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objectives: In trichorionic triplet pregnancies, multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) reduces the risk of preterm birth, neonatal morbidity and mortality without increasing miscarriage. A similar benefit has been suggested in dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) pregnancy, but multiple methods are currently used. This study investigates if the method of reduction used in DCTA triplet pregnancy influences the evidence of benefit from MFPR. Read More

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September 2021

The Association of Familial Hypertension and Risk of Gestational Hypertension and Preeclampsia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 1;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Medical Faculty, Lazarski University, 02-662 Warsaw, Poland.

It has not been established how history of hypertension in the father or mother of pregnant women, combined with obesity or smoking, affects the risk of main forms of pregnancy-induced hypertension. A cohort of 912 pregnant women, recruited in the first trimester, was assessed; 113 (12.4%) women developed gestational hypertension (GH), 24 (2. Read More

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Interpregnancy intervals and adverse birth outcomes in high-income countries: An international cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(7):e0255000. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Curtin School of Population Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Most evidence for interpregnancy interval (IPI) and adverse birth outcomes come from studies that are prone to incomplete control for confounders that vary between women. Comparing pregnancies to the same women can address this issue.

Methods: We conducted an international longitudinal cohort study of 5,521,211 births to 3,849,193 women from Australia (1980-2016), Finland (1987-2017), Norway (1980-2016) and the United States (California) (1991-2012). Read More

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Zonisamide safety in pregnancy: Data from the UK and Ireland epilepsy and pregnancy register.

Seizure 2021 Oct 9;91:311-315. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Neurology, Royal Victoria Hospital (Belfast Health and Social Care Trust), Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BA, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Animal data suggest teratogenic effects with zonisamide use and risk of pregnancy losses. Human data following zonisamide exposure are presently limited, but suggest low risk of malformation with elevated risk of low birth weight.

Objective: To calculate the major congenital malformation (MCM) rate of zonisamide in human pregnancy and assess for a signal of any specific malformation pattern and associations with birth weight. Read More

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October 2021

Derivation of evolutionary entropy in the steady-state thermodynamics of evolutionary dynamics.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jun;103(6-1):062405

Department of Physics, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 420-743, Korea.

We investigate the parallel mutation-selection model with varying population size, which is formulated in terms of individuals undergoing the evolution processes of reproduction and mutation, to derive evolutionary entropy. Under the framework of the steady-state thermodynamics for evolutionary dynamics, the excess growth (the difference between the maximum growth rate and the total growth rate) can be interpreted as the evolutionary entropy defined in terms of the probability distributions characteristic of evolutionary dynamics. The Clausius inequality states that the excess growth is always less than or equal to the entropy difference in evolutionary dynamics. Read More

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Delayed diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects predicting risk factors and survival rate in newborns in Beijing: a retrospective study.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jul;49(7):3000605211028028

Beijing Obstetrics and Gynaecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and survival rate of newborns with a delayed diagnosis of critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) in Beijing.

Methods: This retrospective study analysed data from births between 2010 and 2017 from the Birth Defects Monitoring Network in Beijing. Newborns with CCHD were analysed according to seven categories. Read More

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Maternal migraine and the risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring: a population-based cohort study.

Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2021 Jul 15;30:e55. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

MOE-Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Maternal migraine may contribute to mental heath problems in offspring but empirical evidence has been available only for bipolar disorders. Our objective was to examine the association between maternal migraine and the risk of any and specific psychiatric disorders in offspring.

Methods: This population-based cohort study used individual-level linked Danish national health registers. Read More

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District-level HIV estimates using the spectrum model in five states of India, 2017.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(28):e26578

Indian Council of Medical Research, Delhi and PD Hinduja Hospital and Medical Research Center, Mumbai, India.

Abstract: Decentralized response has been the hallmark of the National AIDS Control Programme in India. District-level HIV burden estimates quantifying the distribution of the epidemics are needed to enhance this decentralized response further to monitor the progress on prevention, testing, and treatment interventions. In this paper, we describe the methodology and results of district-level estimates using the Spectrum model piloted in 5 states of India under National AIDS Control Programme. Read More

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Biological Effects of Hypomagnetic Field: Ground-Based Data for Space Exploration.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Sep 10;42(6):516-531. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory for Space Biosciences and Biotechnology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China.

The future of mankind is tied to the exploration and eventual colonization of space. Currently, people have resided in orbit at a space station. In the future, we will have opportunities to stay on the moon, Mars, or in deeper space, where astronauts are exposed to the hypomagnetic field (HMF), which refers to an extremely weak magnetic field environment compared with the geomagnetic field. Read More

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September 2021