8,344 results match your criteria calcium transients

The inhibitory effect of trimetazidine on detrusor contractility - a potential repositioning of trimetazidine for the treatment of overactive bladder.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the effect of trimetazidine (TMZ), an antianginal drug, on detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractility and its possible mechanisms of action.

Methods: We performed in-vitro contractility studies on isolated mouse DSM strips and investigated the effect of TMZ on Ca2+ levels in fura-2-loaded A7r5 cells.

Key Findings: TMZ (300 or 1000 µM) inhibited carbachol (CCh)- and KCl-induced contractions and produced a concentration-dependent (10-1000 µM) relaxation in KCl-precontracted DSM strips. Read More

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Myocardial Viability Imaging using Manganese-Enhanced MRI in the First Hours after Myocardial Infarction.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 2;8(11):e2003987. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

UCL Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, WC1E 6DD, UK.

Early measurements of tissue viability after myocardial infarction (MI) are essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning but are challenging to obtain. Here, manganese, a calcium analogue and clinically approved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, is used as an imaging biomarker of myocardial viability in the first hours after experimental MI. Safe Mn dosing is confirmed by measuring in vitro beating rates, calcium transients, and action potentials in cardiomyocytes, and in vivo heart rates and cardiac contractility in mice. Read More

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The Influence of Thyroid Hormone on Ca2+ Signaling Pathways during Embryonal Development.

Joachim Krebs

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

NMR-based Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry Göttingen. Germany.

Thyroid hormones influence brain development through regulation of gene expression. Ca-dependent gene expression is a major pathway controlled by the Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) which in turn is induced by the thyroid hormone T3 as also demonstrated in a mouse embryonic stem cell line. In addition, T3 is controlling the expression of neurexin, synaptotagmin2 (SYT2), synaptotagmin-related gene1 (SRG1) and a number of other genes, involved in neurotransmitter release in a Ca-dependent manner. Read More

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A precise regulation of presenilin expression is required for the sea urchin early development.

J Cell Sci 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Paris-Saclay Institute of Neuroscience, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France.

Presenilins or PSENs homologues are widely expressed across eukaryotes. Two PSEN are expressed in humans where they play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each PSEN can be part of the γ-secretase complex that has multiple substrates such as Notch or the amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) which gives the Aβ peptides composing the senile plaques during AD. Read More

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Aberrant activity of mitochondrial NCLX is linked to impaired synaptic transmission and is associated with mental retardation.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 2;4(1):666. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Calcium dynamics control synaptic transmission. Calcium triggers synaptic vesicle fusion, determines release probability, modulates vesicle recycling, participates in long-term plasticity and regulates cellular metabolism. Mitochondria, the main source of cellular energy, serve as calcium signaling hubs. Read More

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The Cell Fate Controlling CLE40 Peptide Requires CNGCs to Trigger Highly Localized Ca2+ Transients in Arabidopsis Thaliana Root Meristems.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute for Developmental Genetics and Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich Heine University, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Communication between plant cells and their biotic environment largely depends on the function of plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Major players in this communication within root meristems are secreted peptides, including CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION40 (CLE40). In the distal root meristem, CLE40 acts through the RLK ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4) and the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) RLK CLAVATA1 (CLV1) to promote cell differentiation. Read More

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Transient incubation of cultured hippocampal neurons in the absence of magnesium induces rhythmic and synchronized epileptiform-like activity.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11374. Epub 2021 May 31.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-504, Coimbra, Portugal.

Cell culture models are important tools to study epileptogenesis mechanisms. The aim of this work was to characterize the spontaneous and synchronized rhythmic activity developed by cultured hippocampal neurons after transient incubation in zero Mg to model Status Epilepticus. Cultured hippocampal neurons were transiently incubated with a Mg-free solution and the activity of neuronal networks was evaluated using single cell calcium imaging and whole-cell current clamp recordings. Read More

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Histidine dipeptides are key regulators of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle: Evidence from a novel CARNS1 knockout rat model.

Redox Biol 2021 May 20;44:102016. Epub 2021 May 20.

Applied Physiology & Nutrition Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport, Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão de Reumatologia, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Rheumatology Division, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Histidine-containing dipeptides (HCDs) are abundantly expressed in striated muscles. Although important properties have been ascribed to HCDs, including H buffering, regulation of Ca transients and protection against oxidative stress, it remains unknown whether they play relevant functions in vivo. To investigate the in vivo roles of HCDs, we developed the first carnosine synthase knockout (CARNS1) rat strain to investigate the impact of an absence of HCDs on skeletal and cardiac muscle function. Read More

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CalTrack: High Throughput Automated Calcium Transient Analysis in Cardiomyocytes.

Circ Res 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Oxford University, UNITED KINGDOM.

Calcium transient analysis is central to understanding inherited and acquired cardiac physiology and disease. While the development of novel calcium reporters enables assays of CRISPR/Cas-9 genome edited pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) and primary adult cardiomyocytes, existing calcium-detection technologies are often proprietary and require specialist equipment, while open source workflows necessitate considerable user expertise and manual input. We aimed to develop an easy to use open source, adaptable, and automated analysis pipeline for measuring cellular calcium transients, from image stack to data output, inclusive of cellular identification, background subtraction, photobleaching correction, calcium transient averaging, calcium transient fitting, data collation and aberrant behavior recognition. Read More

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Electrical stimulation of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes using conductive polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide-hybrid hydrogels for constructing cardiac microtissues.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 May 12;205:111844. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China. Electronic address:

The development of diversified biomaterials in tissue engineering has been promoted by growing research into carbon-based nanomaterials. Usually, ideal scaffold materials should possess properties similar to the extracellular matrix of natural myocardial tissue. In this study, dopamine-reduced graphene oxide (GO), was prepared and doped into gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, resulting in novel conductive and mechanical properties for controlling cell growth. Read More

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The Drosophila ortholog of the schizophrenia-associated CACNA1A and CACNA1B voltage-gated calcium channels regulate memory, sleep and circadian rhythms.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jul 18;155:105394. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Faculty of Life Science, University of Bristol, UK. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia exhibits up to 80% heritability. A number of genome wide association studies (GWAS) have repeatedly shown common variants in voltage-gated calcium (Ca) channel genes CACNA1C, CACNA1I and CACNA1G have a major contribution to the risk of the disease. More recently, studies using whole exome sequencing have also found that CACNA1B (Ca2. Read More

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Right-ventricular dysfunction in HFpEF is linked to altered cardiomyocyte Ca homeostasis and myofilament sensitivity.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, 13353, Germany.

Aims: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is frequently (30%) associated with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, which increases morbidity and mortality in these patients. Yet cellular mechanisms of RV remodelling and RV dysfunction in HFpEF are not well understood. Here, we evaluated RV cardiomyocyte function in a rat model of metabolically induced HFpEF. Read More

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Hyperglycaemia-Induced Contractile Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocyte-Like Pulsatile Cells Derived from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Hyperglycaemia, a key metabolic abnormality in diabetes mellitus, is implicated in pathological cardiogenesis during embryological development. However, the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets remain unknown. We, therefore, studied the effect of hyperglycaemia on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) cardiac differentiation. Read More

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Cholinergic calcium responses in cultured antennal lobe neurons of the migratory locust.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):10018. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15/102, 30173, Hannover, Germany.

Locusts are advantageous organisms to elucidate mechanisms of olfactory coding at the systems level. Sensory input is provided by the olfactory receptor neurons of the antenna, which send their axons into the antennal lobe. So far, cellular properties of neurons isolated from the circuitry of the olfactory system, such as transmitter-induced calcium responses, have not been studied. Read More

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PIEZO ion channel is required for root mechanotransduction in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Department of Neuroscience, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037;

Plant roots adapt to the mechanical constraints of the soil to grow and absorb water and nutrients. As in animal species, mechanosensitive ion channels in plants are proposed to transduce external mechanical forces into biological signals. However, the identity of these plant root ion channels remains unknown. Read More

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Fast synaptic excitatory neurotransmission in the human submucosal plexus.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 May 7:e14164. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Human Biology, TU München, Freising, Germany.

Background: Acetylcholine is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in all animal models examined so far. However, data for the human ENS is scarce.

Methods: We used neuroimaging using voltage and calcium dyes, Ussing chamber, and immunohistochemistry to study fast synaptic neurotransmission in submucosal plexus neurons of the human gut. Read More

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Interaction of NHE1 and TRPA1 Activity in DRG Neurons Isolated from Adult Rats and its Role in Inflammatory Nociception.

Neuroscience 2021 06 3;465:154-165. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Farmacobiología, Cinvestav, South Campus, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is expressed in a subset of nociceptive neurons. This channel integrates several nociceptive signals. Particularly, it is modulated by intracellular pH (pH). Read More

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TRPC7 regulates the electrophysiological functions of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 3;12(1):262. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Biological pacemakers consisting of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are potentially useful for treating bradycardia. However, tachyarrhythmia caused by derived cardiomyocytes themselves is one of main barriers hampering their clinical translation. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous action potential (a. Read More

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Self-Similar Synchronization of Calcium and Membrane Potential Transitions During Action Potential Cycles Predict Heart Rate Across Species.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover regulatory universal mechanisms of normal automaticity in sinoatrial nodal (SAN) pacemaker cells that are self-similar across species.

Background: Translation of knowledge of SAN automaticity gleaned from animal studies to human dysrhythmias (e.g. Read More

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Extract and Its Derivative Dieckol Promote Vasodilation by Modulating Calcium Signaling and PI3K/AKT/eNOS Pathway in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 19;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelial-derived relaxing factor synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells, enhances vasodilation by modulating vascular tone. The calcium concentration critically influences eNOS activation in endothelial cells. Thus, modulation of calcium-dependent signaling pathways may be a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance vasodilation. Read More

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Cataract Progression Associated with Modifications in Calcium Signaling in Human Lens Epithelia as Studied by Mechanical Stimulation.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Eye Hospital, University Medical Centre, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Ca homeostasis and signaling disturbances are associated with lens pathophysiology and are involved in cataract formation. Here, we explored the spatiotemporal changes in Ca signaling in lens epithelial cells (LECs) upon local mechanical stimulation, to better understand the LECs' intercellular communication and its association with cataractogenesis. We were interested in if the progression of the cataract affects the Ca signaling and if modifications of the Ca homeostasis in LECs are associated with different cataract types. Read More

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COSMAS: a lightweight toolbox for cardiac optical mapping analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9147. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montréal, Canada.

Optical mapping is widely used in experimental cardiology, as it allows visualization of cardiac membrane potential and calcium transients. However, optical mapping measurements from a single heart or cell culture can produce several gigabytes of data, warranting automated computer analysis. Here we present COSMAS, a software toolkit for automated analysis of optical mapping recordings in cardiac preparations. Read More

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Autonomous Calcium Signaling in Human and Zebrafish Podocytes Controls Kidney Filtration Barrier Morphogenesis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Davis Center for Regenerative Biology and Aging, Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine

Background: Podocytes are critical to maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier, and mutations in nephrotic syndrome genes are known to affect podocyte calcium signaling. However, the role of calcium signaling during podocyte development remains unknown.

Methods: We undertook live imaging of calcium signaling in developing podocytes, using zebrafish larvae and human kidney organoids. Read More

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Ellagic Acid Prevents Ca Dysregulation and Improves Functional Abnormalities of Ventricular Myocytes via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether ellagic acid (EA) treatment can prevent changes in contractile function and Ca regulation of cardiomyocytes in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Groups were assigned as Con group; an ISO group in which the rats received isoproterenol alone (5 mg/kg/day); and an ISO + EA group in which the rats received isoproterenol and EA (20 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Subsequently, fractional shortening, intracellular Ca signals, and L-type Ca currents of isolated ventricular myocytes were recorded. Read More

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[Positive inotropic effect of phosphodiesterase type 9 inhibitor PF-04449613 in rats and its underlying mechanism].

Sheng Li Xue Bao 2021 Apr;73(2):275-285

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

This study aimed to explore the positive inotropic effect of phosphodiesterase type 9 (PDE9) inhibitor PF-04449613 in ratsand its cellular and molecular mechanisms. The heart pressure-volume loop (P-V loop) analysis was used to detect the effects of PF-04449613 on rat left ventricular pressure-volume relationship, aortic pressures and peripheral vessel resistance in healthy rats. The Langendorff perfusion of isolated rat heart was used to explore the effects of PF-04449613 on heart contractility. Read More

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Antioxidant activity of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles restores hippocampal neurons following seizure damage.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(12):5986-6005. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Mini-invasive Neurosurgery and Translational Medical Center, Xi'an Central Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University. No. 161, West 5th Road, Xincheng District, Xi'an, 710003, P. R. China.

Oxidative stress is a critical event in neuronal damage following seizures. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) have been shown to be promising nanotherapeutic agents in neurological disorders. However, the mechanism underlying MSC-EVs therapeutic efficacy for oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage remains poorly understood. Read More

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Stochastic reaction-diffusion modeling of calcium dynamics in 3D dendritic spines of Purkinje cells.

Biophys J 2021 Jun 20;120(11):2112-2123. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Mathematics, Computation, and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil. Electronic address:

Calcium (Ca) is a second messenger assumed to control changes in synaptic strength in the form of both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at Purkinje cell dendritic spine synapses via inositol trisphosphate (IP)-induced Ca release. These Ca transients happen in response to stimuli from parallel fibers (PFs) from granule cells and climbing fibers (CFs) from the inferior olivary nucleus. These events occur at low numbers of free Ca, requiring stochastic single-particle methods when modeling them. Read More

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The T-type calcium channel antagonist, Z944, reduces spinal excitability and pain hypersensitivity.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Purpose: T-type voltage-gated calcium channels are an emerging therapeutic target for neurological disorders including epilepsy and pain. Inhibition of T-type channels reduces the excitability of peripheral nociceptive sensory neurons and reverses pain hypersensitivity in male rodent pain models. However, administration of peripherally restricted T-type antagonists failed to show efficacy in multiple clinical and preclinical pain trials, suggesting that inhibition of peripheral T-type channels alone may be insufficient for pain relief. Read More

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Autonomous Purkinje cell activation instructs bidirectional motor learning through evoked dendritic calcium signaling.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2153. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience, Jupiter, FL, USA.

The signals in cerebellar Purkinje cells sufficient to instruct motor learning have not been systematically determined. Therefore, we applied optogenetics in mice to autonomously excite Purkinje cells and measured the effect of this activity on plasticity induction and adaptive behavior. Ex vivo, excitation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing Purkinje cells elicits dendritic Ca transients with high-intensity stimuli initiating dendritic spiking that additionally contributes to the Ca response. Read More

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Comparative Effects of Event Detection Methods on the Analysis and Interpretation of Ca Imaging Data.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:620869. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Calcium imaging has gained substantial popularity as a tool to profile the activity of multiple simultaneously active cells at high spatiotemporal resolution. Among the diverse approaches to processing of Ca imaging data is an often subjective decision of how to quantify baseline fluorescence or . We examine the effect of popular determination methods on the interpretation of neuronal and astrocyte activity in a single dataset of rats trained to self-administer intravenous infusions of cocaine and compare them with an -independent wavelet ridgewalking event detection approach. Read More

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