7,211 results match your criteria ca1 ca3


Resveratrol prevents long-term structural hippocampal alterations and modulates interneuron organization in an animal model of ASD.

Brain Res 2021 Jul 28:147593. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Translational Research Group in Autism Spectrum Disorders-GETTEA, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology on Neuroimmunomodulation (INCT-NIM), Brazil; Autism Wellbeing And Research Development (AWARD) Institute, BR-UK-CA, Brazil.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in both communication and social interaction, besides repetitive or stereotyped behavior. Although the etiology is unknown, environmental factors such as valproic acid (VPA) increase the risk of ASD onset. Resveratrol (RSV), a neuroprotective molecule, has been shown to counteract the effects of intrauterine exposure to VPA. Read More

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Effects of psychogenic stress on some peripheral and central inflammatory markers in rats with the different level of excitability of the nervous system.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255380. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint- Petersburg, Russia.

Patients with post-stress pathologies display the signs of inflammation in the peripheral blood as well as in the brain. The mechanisms of such post-stress neuroimmune changes, their contribution to the behavior, the relationship of the intensity of inflammation with genetically determined features have not been clarified. The goal of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of post-stress inflammation in the blood and hippocampus of rats which differ in level of excitability of the nervous system. Read More

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Presynaptic short-term plasticity persists in the absence of PKC phosphorylation of Munc18-1.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115

Post tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a form of short-term plasticity that lasts for tens of seconds following a burst of presynaptic activity. It has been proposed that PTP arises from protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of Munc18-1, an SM (Sec1/Munc-18 like) family protein that is essential for release. To test this model, we made a knockin mouse in which all Munc18-1 PKC phosphorylation sites were eliminated through serine-to-alanine point mutations (Munc18-1SA mice) and we studied mice of either sex. Read More

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Effects of subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion on neuroplasticity-related proteins in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Dec 3;11:42-51. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Although ketamine, a multimodal dissociative anesthetic, is frequently used for analgesia and treatment-resistant major depression, molecular mechanisms of ketamine remain unclear. Specifically, differences in the effects of ketamine on neuroplasticity-related proteins in the brains of males and females need further investigation. In the current study, adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats with an indwelling jugular venous catheter received an intravenous ketamine infusion (0, 10, or 40 mg/kg, 2-h), starting with a 2 mg/kg bolus for ketamine groups. Read More

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December 2021

Curcumin Decreases Hippocampal Neurodegeneration and Nitro-Oxidative Damage to Plasma Proteins and Lipids Caused by Short-Term Exposure to Ozone.

Molecules 2021 Jul 3;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Laboratorio de Neurofisiología, Departamento de Fisiología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco ZC 44340, Mexico.

Neurodegeneration is the consequence of harmful events affecting the nervous system that lead to neuronal death. Toxic substances, including air pollutants, are capable of inducing neurodegeneration. Ozone (O) is the most oxidative toxic pollutant. Read More

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Naringin Chelates Excessive Iron and Prevents the Formation of Amyloid-Beta Plaques in the Hippocampus of Iron-Overloaded Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:651156. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Neuroscience Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Metal chelating agents are antioxidant agents, which decrease the reductive potential and stabilize the oxidized metal ion form. In this study, we evaluated the naringin capacity in chelating iron and preventing amyloid-beta plaque formation in the hippocampus of iron-overloaded mice. Thirty-five NMRI male mice (8-10 weeks old) were provided. Read More

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Negative Overgeneralization is Associated with Anxiety and Mechanisms of Pattern Completion in Peripubertal Youth.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Cognitive Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 USA.

This study examines neural mechanisms of negative overgeneralization, the increased likelihood of generalizing negative information, in peri-puberty. Theories suggest that weak pattern separation (overlapping representations are made distinct, indexed by DG/CA3 hippocampal subfield activation) underlies negative overgeneralization. We alternatively propose that neuro-maturational changes that favor pattern completion (cues reinstate stored representations, indexed by CA1 activation) are modulated by circuitry involved in emotional responding (amygdala, medial prefrontal cortices [mPFC]) to drive negative overgeneralization. Read More

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Glutamatergic receptor expression changes in the Alzheimer's disease hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 16:e13005. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Centre for Brain Research, Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the leading form of dementia worldwide. Currently, the pathological mechanisms underlying AD are not well understood. Although the glutamatergic system is extensively implicated in its pathophysiology, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the expression of glutamate receptors in the AD brain. Read More

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Tea polyphenols ameliorates memory decline in aging model rats by inhibiting brain TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway caused by intestinal flora dysbiosis.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 12;153:111476. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Tea is a rich source of pharmacologically active molecules that has been suggested to provide a variety of health benefits. However, its mechanism of action in aging-related intestinal flora dysbiosis mediated neuroinflammation is still unclear. This study aimed to explore whether tea polyphenols (TP) can improve memory by regulating intestinal flora mediated neuroinflammation in aging model rats. Read More

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G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir3/GIRK) channels govern synaptic plasticity that supports hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions in male mice.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

University of Castilla-La Mancha, NeuroPhysiology & Behavior Laboratory, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina de Ciudad Real, Spain.

The G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir3/GIRK) channel is the effector of many G-protein-coupled receptors. Its dysfunction has been linked to the pathophysiology of Down's syndrome, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, drug addiction, or alcoholism. In the hippocampus, GIRK channels decrease excitability of the cells and contribute to resting membrane potential and inhibitory neurotransmission. Read More

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Granule cells in the infrapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus are activated during paradoxical (REM) sleep hypersomnia but not during wakefulness: a study using TRAP mice.

Sleep 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Team "SLEEP", Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CRNL), UMR 5292 CNRS/U1028 INSERM and Université de Lyon, Lyon I, Neurocampus-Michel Jouvet, 95 Boulevard Pinel, 69500 Bron, France.

Study Objectives: Determine whether in the hippocampus and the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) the same neurons are reactivated when mice are exposed one week apart to two periods of wakefulness (W-W), paradoxical sleep rebound (PSR-PSR) or a period of W followed by a period of PSR (W-PSR).

Methods: We combined the innovative TRAP2 mice method in which neurons expressing cFos permanently express tdTomato after tamoxifen injection with cFos immunohistochemistry.

Results: We found out that a large number of tdTomato+ and cFos+ cells are localized in the dentate gyrus (DG) after PSR and W while CA1 and CA3 contained both types of neurons only after W. Read More

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Developmental exposure of bisphenol A induces spatial memory deficits by weakening the excitatory neural circuits of CA3-CA1 and EC-CA1 in mice.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jul 7;426:115641. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Engineering Research Center of Bio-process, Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230009, PR China; School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, PR China. Electronic address:

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and impairs learning and memory. However, the direct evidence for BPA exposure affecting neural circuits has been limited. In this study, a virus tracing assay has been established to explore the brain's neural circuits. Read More

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Alterations of the intrinsic amygdala-hippocampal network in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Neurology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Several lines of evidence suggest that the amygdala-hippocampus is involved in the epileptogenic network of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations in the individual nuclei of the amygdala and hippocampal subfields, and the intrinsic amygdala-hippocampal network of patients with JME compared to healthy controls.

Methods: This retrospective study conducted at a single tertiary hospital involved 35 patients with newly diagnosed JME, and 34 healthy subjects. Read More

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Melatonin protects against methamphetamine-induced Alzheimer's disease-like pathological changes in rat hippocampus.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 2;148:105121. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, 54 Kamphaeng Phet 6 Road, Lak Si, Bangkok, 10210, Thailand. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug of abuse. METH use is associated with cognitive impairments and neurochemical abnormalities comparable to pathological changes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These observations have stimulated the idea that METH abusers might be prone to develop AD-like signs and symptoms. Read More

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September 2021

Perforant path inputs to hippocampal subfields predict heterogeneous AMPA receptor subunit expression following rapid new spatial learning in a novel context.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

The Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, The University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

The hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial learning and memory. Its contribution to support these kinds of learning and memory functions relies on synaptic plasticity and related molecular mechanisms, well documented in the long-term potentiation (LTP) literature. The present experiment measures AMPA subunit expression, in a ratio of GluA2:GluA1 as an indicator of plasticity across the hippocampus, in rats that underwent new spatial learning in either a familiar or novel context. Read More

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In Vivo Microelectrode Arrays for Detecting Multi-Region Epileptic Activities in the Hippocampus in the Latent Period of Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jun 3;12(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a form of refractory focal epilepsy, which includes a latent period and a chronic period. Microelectrode arrays capable of multi-region detection of neural activities are important for accurately identifying the epileptic focus and pathogenesis mechanism in the latent period of TLE. Here, we fabricated multi-shank MEAs to detect neural activities in the DG, hilus, CA3, and CA1 in the TLE rat model. Read More

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SREBP-1c Deficiency Affects Hippocampal Micromorphometry and Hippocampus-Dependent Memory Ability in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 5;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Animal Behavior, College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 FOUR Program, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Changes in structural and functional neuroplasticity have been implicated in various neurological disorders. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c is a critical regulatory molecule of lipid homeostasis in the brain. Recently, our findings have shown the potential involvement of SREBP-1c deficiency in the alteration of novel modulatory molecules in the hippocampus and occurrence of schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice. Read More

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Repeated cocaine exposure prior to fear conditioning induces persistency of PTSD-like symptoms and enhancement of hippocampal and amygdala cell density in male rats.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Aix Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, UMR 7289, Marseille, France.

Pre- and post-trauma drug use can interfere with recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the biological underpinnings of this interference are poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of pre-fear conditioning cocaine self-administration on PTSD-like symptoms in male rats, and defined impairment of fear extinction as difficulty to recover from PTSD. Read More

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Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Bismuth Oxide: (KSr)(NaCaBi)O.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 10;6(24):15975-15980. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh.

A novel distorted perovskite-type (KSr)(NaCaBi)O was prepared by a hydrothermal method using the starting materials NaBiO·HO, Sr(OH)·8HO, Ca(OH), and KOH. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of the novel compound revealed a GdFeO-related structure belonging to the monoclinic system of the space group with the following cell parameters: = 11.8927 (17) Å, = 11. Read More

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Neural substrates of human fear generalization: A 7T-fMRI investigation.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 24:118308. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Department of Psychology, Milwaukee, WI, United States. Electronic address:

Fear generalization - the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli as threatening due to perceptual similarity to a learned threat - is an adaptive process. Overgeneralization, however, is maladaptive and has been implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Neuroimaging research has indicated several regions sensitive to effects of generalization, including regions involved in fear excitation (e. Read More

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Resveratrol reverses hippocampal synaptic markers injury and SIRT1 inhibition against developmental Pb exposure.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 24;1767:147567. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China; Environment and Health Innovation Team, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450001, China. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) exposure damages synaptic structural plasticity that results in cognitive impairment. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, is one of the most potent agonists of silencing information regulator 1 (SIRT1) discovered to date. However, the effects of SIRT1 on synaptic functional plasticity in early life Pb exposure are not well studied. Read More

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Maternal Deprivation in Rats Decreases the Expression of Interneuron Markers in the Neocortex and Hippocampus.

Front Neuroanat 2021 8;15:670766. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Abteilung für Neuroanatomie und Molekulare Hirnforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Early life stress has profound effects on the development of the central nervous system. We exposed 9-day-old rat pups to a 24 h maternal deprivation (MD) and sacrificed them as young adults (60-day-old), with the aim to study the effects of early stress on forebrain circuitry. We estimated numbers of various immunohistochemically defined interneuron subpopulations in several neocortical regions and in the hippocampus. Read More

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A neurostructural biomarker of dissociative amnesia: a hippocampal study in dissociative identity disorder.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 24:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Little is known about the neural correlates of dissociative amnesia, a transdiagnostic symptom mostly present in the dissociative disorders and core characteristic of dissociative identity disorder (DID). Given the vital role of the hippocampus in memory, a prime candidate for investigation is whether total and/or subfield hippocampal volume can serve as biological markers of dissociative amnesia.

Methods: A total of 75 women, 32 with DID and 43 matched healthy controls (HC), underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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Examination of neuroinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus for the paradoxical effects of reward and aversion induced by morphine.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 18;760:136076. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Psychology, Fo Guang University, Yilan County 26247, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A growing body of evidence has shown that abused drugs could simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion. Moreover, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and hippocampus were involved in this paradoxical effect by abused drugs. However, no research examined whether neuroinflammatory changes in the mPFC [including cingulate cortex area 1 (Cg1); prelimbic cortex (PrL); infralimbic cortex (IL)], basolateral amygdala, and hippocampus [e. Read More

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Differential involvement of hippocampal subfields in Niemann-Pick type C disease: a case-control study.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Hippocampal brain regions are strongly implicated in Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), but little is known regarding distinct subregions of the hippocampal complex and whether these are equally or differentially affected. To address this gap, we compared volumes of five hippocampal subfields between NPC and healthy individuals using MRI. To this end, 9 adult-onset NPC cases and 9 age- and gender-matched controls underwent a 3 T T1-weighted MRI scan. Read More

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Long term neuroprotective effects of acute single dose MK-801treatment against traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

Neuropeptides 2021 Aug 21;88:102161. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

Because brain development continues during adolescence, childhood trauma is a major health problem in pediatric ages. It is known traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The study aims to investigate the long-term effects of MK-801 (dizocilpine), an N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on hippocampal damage, locomotor activity, and cognitive functions following TBI in immature rats. Read More

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[Cross-Talk of the Glutamate and Leptin Receptor Pathways].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 May-Jun;55(3):510-518

Federal Research Center of Information and Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.

The hormone leptin is produced in adipocytes of white adipose tissue and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Leptin receptors are present in the brain regions that are involved in higher cognitive functions. In particular, leptin directly influences the glutamate receptor trafficking in CA3 → CA1 synapses to increase the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) level, which is controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Read More

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Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and its close environment following adult exposure to low doses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate alone or in an environmental phthalate mixture in male mice.

Chemosphere 2021 May 31;282:131013. Epub 2021 May 31.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Neuroscience Paris-Seine, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address:

We have previously shown that adult male mice exposure to low doses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) alters neural function and behaviour. Whether such exposure also affects the integrity and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remained to be explored. The impact of adult exposure to low doses of DEHP alone or in an environmental phthalate mixture on the BBB integrity and surrounding parenchyma was studied in male mice. Read More

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The DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism moderates the effect of PTSD symptom severity on the left hippocampal CA3 volume: a pilot study.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Mental Health Center and Psychiatric Laboratory, the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 610041, Chengdu, China.

Rationale And Objectives: The hippocampus, especially the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields, is reported to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma. However, neuroimaging studies of the associations between PTSD and hippocampal subfield volumes have failed to yield consistent findings. The aim of this study is to examine whether the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) Taq1A polymorphism, which is associated with both hippocampal function and PTSD, moderated the association between PTSD severity and hippocampal CA1, CA3 and DG volumes. Read More

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Hippocampal correlates of episodic memory in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane & Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

The present review asks whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are able to define neural correlates of episodic memory within the hippocampus in Parkinson's disease (PD). Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE using search terms related to structural and functional MRI (fMRI), the hippocampus, episodic memory, and PD. Risk of bias was assessed for each study using the Newtown-Ottawa Scale. Read More

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