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Optimal Arytenoid Position in Laryngeal Framework Surgery: An Anatomic Human Larynx Study.

Laryngoscope 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Center for Laryngeal Surgery and Voice Rehabilitation, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to better understand the effects of stitch placement on arytenoid medialization by measuring normative cricoarytenoid joint anatomy and changes in arytenoid position when varying arytenopexy stitch configuration.

Methods: This adult human larynx study was done in two parts. First, measurements of the cricoid and arytenoid cartilage anatomy relevant to cricoarytenoid joint function were made in 45 preserved larynges (26 male (M), 19 female (F)) using digital calipers. Read More

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The deep inferior epigastric lymphatic cable flap connected to gastroepiploic lymph node flap for treatment of refractory chylous ascites: Report of two cases.

Microsurgery 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Chylous ascites is the leakage of lipid-rich lymph into the peritoneal cavity usually due to disruption of lymphatics or increased peritoneal lymphatic pressure. Various surgical options have been proposed to treat chylous ascites but most have shown suboptimal outcomes. The gastroepiploic vascularized lymph node (GE-VLN) flap has been described previously for the treatment of lymphedema. Read More

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CRISPR base editor treats premature-aging syndrome.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Apr 16;6(1):158. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA.

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Addressing gender imbalance in intensive care.

Crit Care 2021 Apr 16;25(1):147. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

There is a large gender gap in critical care medicine with women underrepresented, particularly in positions of leadership. Yet gender diversity better reflects the current critical care community and has multiple beneficial effects at individual and societal levels. In this Viewpoint, we discuss some of the reasons for the persistent gender imbalance in critical care medicine, and suggest some possible strategies to help achieve greater equity and inclusion. Read More

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What are the effects of nitrogen deficiency on growth components of lettuce?

New Phytol 2000 Sep;147(3):519-526

1 Department of Soil & Environment Sciences, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK.

Relationships between nitrogen (N) content and growth are routinely measured in plants. This study determined the effects of N on the separate morphological and physiological components of plant growth, to assess how N-limited growth is effected through these components. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown hydroponically under contrasting N-supply regimes, with the external N supply either maintained continuously throughout the period of study, or withdrawn for up to 14 d. Read More

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September 2000

Circulating sFasL Levels Predict the Severity and Outcome of Burn Injury: A Prospective Observational Study.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 13;265:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Burn and Trauma, Fujian Burn Institute, Fujian Burn Medical Center, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background: Severe burn injury activates shock, inflammation, and blood cell system, but inappropriate reactions may lead to adverse outcomes. Soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) participates in apoptosis and inflammatory response. The circulating sFasL levels we investigated in association with the burn severity, shock, inflammation, blood cells, and mortality in patients with severe burns. Read More

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Fire in operating room: The adverse "never" event. Case report, mini-review and medico-legal considerations.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Apr 9;51:101879. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy.

The patient's security and safety represent a topic of great importance for public health that led several healthcare organizations in many Countries to share documents to promote risk management and preventing adverse events. Surgical Fire (SF) is an infrequent adverse event generally occurring in the operating room (OR) and consisting of a fire that occurs in, on, or around a patient undergoing a medical or surgical procedure. Here a medico-legal case involving a 65-year-old woman reporting burns to the neck due to an SF during a thyroidectomy was described. Read More

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Access to HIV-prevention in female sex workers in Ukraine between 2009 and 2017: Coverage, barriers and facilitators.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250024. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology - IBE, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

The provision of comprehensive prevention services is vital for reducing the high burden of HIV amongst Ukrainian female sex workers (FSWs). To identify barriers and facilitators that influence access to HIV prevention amongst this population between 2009 and 2017, we developed a literature-informed conceptual framework and conducted a document analysis to identify the components of the Ukrainian prevention package (PP). Using the Integrated Bio Behavioural Surveillance Surveys, we then conducted descriptive analyses to explore PP coverage from 2009 to 2017 and the influence of factors, identified by our conceptual framework. Read More

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No Difference in Morbidity or Mortality Between Octogenarians and Other Geriatric Burn Trauma Patients.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 16:31348211011122. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma, Burns and Surgical Critical Care, 8788University of California Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Background: Geriatric burn trauma patients (age ≥65 years) have a 5-fold higher mortality rate than younger adults. With the population of the US aging, the number of elderly burn and trauma patients is expected to increase. A past study using the National Burn Repository revealed a linear increase in mortality for those >65 years old. Read More

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Delineating the Role of Serum Immunoglobulin Titers in Burn Patients at High Risk for Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Arnold Luterman Regional Burn Center, University of South Alabama Medical Center, Mobile.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is common in the population and reactivation of latent infection often occurs in times of physiologic stress, including postburn injury. Active HSV infection complicates burn injury recovery and increases morbidity. A retrospective chart review of high-risk burn patients (≥20%TBSA and/or facial burns) who had screening HSV immunoglobulin titers drawn from 2015 to 2018 was conducted. Read More

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Bioinformatic Analysis of Key Genes and Pathways Related to Keloids.

Biomed Res Int 2021 23;2021:5897907. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Background: The pathophysiology of keloids is complex, and the treatment for keloids is still an unmet medical need. Our study is aimed at identifying the hub genes among the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal skin tissue and keloids and key pathways in the development of keloids.

Materials And Methods: We downloaded the GSE92566 and GSE90051 microarray data, which contain normal skin tissue and keloid gene expression data. Read More

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Radiation-Induced Vascular Disease-A State-of-the-Art Review.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 30;8:652761. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

Since the 1990s, there has been a steady increase in the number of cancer survivors to an estimated 17 million in 2019 in the US alone. Radiation therapy today is applied to a variety of malignancies and over 50% of cancer patients. The effects of ionizing radiation on cardiac structure and function, so-called radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), have been extensively studied. Read More

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Epidemiology of prehospital trauma deaths in Malawi: A retrospective cohort study.

Afr J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 5;11(2):258-262. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Introduction: Trauma is among the leading causes of death and disability in both adults and children worldwide. In Malawi, trauma patients are commonly brought in dead (BID). We aimed to describe the prevalence, sociodemographic, and injury-related characteristics of patients BID to Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH), a referral hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Read More

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Hepatitis E Virus Superinfection: an Underrecognized Trigger of Acute Hepatitis B Virus Flare.

Cureus 2021 Mar 10;13(3):e13809. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Queen's Medical Center, Honolulu, USA.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant cause of acute hepatitis in endemic areas, such as parts of Asia, Africa, and Mexico, though HEV prevalence in the United States has been estimated between 6% and 20%. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 1 per 1.4 million people in North America. Read More

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Cannabidiol Induces Autophagy to Protects Neural Cells From Mitochondrial Dysfunction by Upregulating SIRT1 to Inhibits NF-κB and NOTCH Pathways.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 30;15:654340. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Medical School, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

The protective effect of Cannabidiol on Parkinson's disease (PD) has been found in recent study. However, the specific mechanism of the protective effect of Cannabidiol on PD nerve damage require further exploration. This study aims to investigate effect of Cannabidiol on MMP-induced Neural Cells (SH-SY5Y) mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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Anxiolytic effects of a galacto-oligosaccharides prebiotic in healthy females (18-25 years) with corresponding changes in gut bacterial composition.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8302. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK.

Current research implicates pre- and probiotic supplementation as a potential tool for improving symptomology in physical and mental ailments, which makes it an attractive concept for clinicians and consumers alike. Here we focus on the transitional period of late adolescence and early adulthood during which effective interventions, such as nutritional supplementation to influence the gut microbiota, have the potential to offset health-related costs in later life. We examined multiple indices of mood and well-being in 64 healthy females in a 4-week double blind, placebo controlled galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic supplement intervention and obtained stool samples at baseline and follow-up for gut microbiota sequencing and analyses. Read More

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Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Cathrine Axfors Andreas M Schmitt Perrine Janiaud Janneke Van't Hooft Sherief Abd-Elsalam Ehab F Abdo Benjamin S Abella Javed Akram Ravi K Amaravadi Derek C Angus Yaseen M Arabi Shehnoor Azhar Lindsey R Baden Arthur W Baker Leila Belkhir Thomas Benfield Marvin A H Berrevoets Cheng-Pin Chen Tsung-Chia Chen Shu-Hsing Cheng Chien-Yu Cheng Wei-Sheng Chung Yehuda Z Cohen Lisa N Cowan Olav Dalgard Fernando F de Almeida E Val Marcus V G de Lacerda Gisely C de Melo Lennie Derde Vincent Dubee Anissa Elfakir Anthony C Gordon Carmen M Hernandez-Cardenas Thomas Hills Andy I M Hoepelman Yi-Wen Huang Bruno Igau Ronghua Jin Felipe Jurado-Camacho Khalid S Khan Peter G Kremsner Benno Kreuels Cheng-Yu Kuo Thuy Le Yi-Chun Lin Wu-Pu Lin Tse-Hung Lin Magnus Nakrem Lyngbakken Colin McArthur Bryan J McVerry Patricia Meza-Meneses Wuelton M Monteiro Susan C Morpeth Ahmad Mourad Mark J Mulligan Srinivas Murthy Susanna Naggie Shanti Narayanasamy Alistair Nichol Lewis A Novack Sean M O'Brien Nwora Lance Okeke Léna Perez Rogelio Perez-Padilla Laurent Perrin Arantxa Remigio-Luna Norma E Rivera-Martinez Frank W Rockhold Sebastian Rodriguez-Llamazares Robert Rolfe Rossana Rosa Helge Røsjø Vanderson S Sampaio Todd B Seto Muhammad Shehzad Shaimaa Soliman Jason E Stout Ireri Thirion-Romero Andrea B Troxel Ting-Yu Tseng Nicholas A Turner Robert J Ulrich Stephen R Walsh Steve A Webb Jesper M Weehuizen Maria Velinova Hon-Lai Wong Rebekah Wrenn Fernando G Zampieri Wu Zhong David Moher Steven N Goodman John P A Ioannidis Lars G Hemkens

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2349. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS), Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: https://osf. Read More

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S100A9-containing serum exosomes of burn injury patients promote permeability of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

J Biosci 2021 ;46

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Seventh People's Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200137, China.

Microvascular hyperpermeability is a leading mechanism responsible for occurrence of edema in remote organs and tissues in patients with burn injury. Accumulated evidence has shown that exosomes can be transported into target cells, where they are capable of regulating biological functions and physiology. Of exosomal proteins contributing to enhanced inflammation and vascular permeability, S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) has received increasing attention. Read More

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January 2021

E2A-regulated epigenetic landscape promotes memory CD8 T cell differentiation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226;

During an acute viral infection, CD8 T cells encounter a myriad of antigenic and inflammatory signals of variable strength, which sets off individual T cells on their own differentiation trajectories. However, the developmental path for each of these cells will ultimately lead to one of only two potential outcomes after clearance of the infection-death or survival and development into memory CD8 T cells. How this cell fate decision is made remains incompletely understood. Read More

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Carbon loss from boreal forest wildfires offset by increased dominance of deciduous trees.

Science 2021 Apr;372(6539):280-283

Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA.

In boreal forests, climate warming is shifting the wildfire disturbance regime to more frequent fires that burn more deeply into organic soils, releasing sequestered carbon to the atmosphere. To understand the destabilization of carbon storage, it is necessary to consider these effects in the context of long-term ecological change. In Alaskan boreal forests, we found that shifts in dominant plant species catalyzed by severe fire compensated for greater combustion of soil carbon over decadal time scales. Read More

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The differences - and similarities - in self-immolation patterns around the globe. In response to: "Drivers and consequences of self-immolation in parts of Iran, Iraq and Uzbekistan: A systematic review of qualitative evidence" Cleary et al. 2021.

Burns 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anaesthetics and Critical Care, West Midlands Burns Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2GW, UK. Electronic address:

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The implementation of an infection control bundle within a Total Care Burns Unit.

Burns 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Perth Children's Hospital, Australia; Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Australia.

Aim: To evaluate the impact of the implementation of a best practice infection prevention and control bundle on healthcare associated burn wound infections in a paediatric burns unit.

Background: Burn patients are vulnerable to infection. For this patient population, infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, thereby representing a significant challenge for burns clinicians who care for them. Read More

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Changes in the epidemiologic profile of burn patients during the lockdown in Catalonia (Spain): A warning call to strengthen prevention strategies in our community.

Burns 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Plastic Surgery Department and Burn Center, Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is the defining global health crisis of our time. Spain has had one of the highest burdens of COVID-19 worldwide. During this period, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital Burn Center (Barcelona) has faced a unique challenge: supporting the hospital response against COVID whilst continued offering an optimal care to the burn patient. Read More

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Intraoperative transfusion practice in burned children in a university hospital over four years: a retrospective analysis.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 15;21(1):118. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Centre of Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Patient blood management programs should be applied to the pediatric population, but little is known about the current transfusion practice of pediatric burn injury patients. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the practice of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in children with burn injury, their predictive factors, and adherence to the German transfusion guideline.

Methods: We reviewed the RBC transfusion practice of all children younger than 8 years with burn injury who were operated during a four-year period in a German university medical center. Read More

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MiR-129-5p promotes radio-sensitivity of NSCLC cells by targeting SOX4 and RUNX1.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Third People's Hospital of Yancheng, Yancheng 224001, Jiangsu. China.

Background: Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) figures prominently in radio-sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-129-5p can block the development of a variety of tumors. However, whether miR-129-5p modulates radio-sensitivity of NSCLC cells remains unknown. Read More

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Direct imaging evidences of metal inorganic contaminants traced into cigarettes.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 8;411:125092. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopaedic Sciences, Section of Human Anatomy, Sapienza University of Rome, Via A. Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Today, environmental health research on toxicological adverse effects of metal-inorganic materials diffused by cigarettes represents a new challenge for assessing new health risks directly related to the critical chemical-size features of the particles. Therefore, morpho-chemical analyses of hazardous particles become critical in response to the distinctive assumptions about the origin, evolution, and coexisting phases. Here, we report a detailed investigation through direct microscopy imaging of metal-inorganic contaminants for one traditional and two heat-not-burn commercial cigarettes of three different brands. Read More

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Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Between Fitness, Fatness, and Metabolic Syndrome in Brazilian Children and Adolescents: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2021 Apr 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Utah.

Purpose: To verify the reciprocal longitudinal relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), percentage body fat (%body fat), and metabolic syndrome in Brazilian primary school students.

Method: This longitudinal study involved 420 children and adolescents followed for 3 years (2011-2014). The continuous Metabolic Syndrome (cMetSyn) score was calculated by summing adjusted z scores of glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, and waist circumference. Read More

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A pilot study to assess the safety, efficacy and ease of use of a novel hearing protection device for hospitalized neonates.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Mar 26;156:105365. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Loud noises in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) exacerbate patient cardiac and respiratory activity, disrupt sleep, and may contribute to hearing deficits, speech and language disorders, and neurodevelopmental delays among NICU graduates.

Aims: This study evaluated infant-patient tolerance and nurse ease of use of a novel frequency-selective hearing protection device, DREAMIES (NEATCap Medical, LLC).

Study Design And Subjects: Fifty neonates receiving care in a Level III NICU participated in a 2-phase prospective study. Read More

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Estimating the financial costs associated with a phase III, multi-site exercise intervention trial: Investigating gains in neurocognition in an intervention trial of exercise (IGNITE).

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Apr 12:106401. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Supervised exercise interventions are expensive and time intensive. However, there are financial costs to consider in addition to the intervention itself, namely: advertising and recruitment, outcome assessments, and other trial-related costs.

Objectives: In this analysis, we examine the financial costs associated with the administration of Investigating Gains in Neurocognition in an Intervention Trial of Exercise (IGNITE) to quantify the costs associated with large exercise intervention trials and to provide future investigators with financial estimates if they wish to pursue studies of a similar design. Read More

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