5,117 results match your criteria bulk fluid

Sheathless microflow cytometer utilizing two bulk standing acoustic waves.

Cytometry A 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Biomedical Engineering(Suzhou), Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

In recent years, microflow cytometry has become a popular research field because of its potential to provide low-cost and disposable chips for complex cell analyses. Herein, we demonstrate a sheathless microflow cytometer which integrates a bulk standing acoustic wave based microchip capable of three dimensional cell focusing. Flow cytometry was successfully demonstrated using this system with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2. Read More

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Choroid Plexus and Drug Removal Mechanisms.

AAPS J 2021 May 3;23(3):61. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Health Science Building Room H-272J, Box 357610, Seattle, Washington, 98195-7610, USA.

Timely and efficient removal of xenobiotics and metabolites from the brain is crucial in maintaining the homeostasis and normal function of the brain. The choroid plexus (CP) forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and vitally removes drugs and wastes from the brain through several co-existing clearance mechanisms. The CP epithelial (CPE) cells synthesize and secrete the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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Multiparticle collision dynamics simulations of a squirmer in a nematic fluid.

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 2021 May 3;44(5):64. Epub 2021 May 3.

Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Am Fassberg 17, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.

We study the dynamics of a squirmer in a nematic liquid crystal using the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPCD) method. A recently developed nematic MPCD method [Phys. Rev. Read More

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Effect of a Rumen-Protected Microencapsulated Supplement from Linseed Oil on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Native Steers.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

We evaluated the effects of a rumen-protected microencapsulated supplement from linseed oil (MO) on ruminal fluid, growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition in Korean native steers. In an in vitro experiment, ruminal fluid was taken from two fistulated Holstein dairy cows. Different levels of MO (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) were added to the diet. Read More

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Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: Stem Cell-Derived Osteoinduction or In Vivo Osteoconduction? Novel Insights in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation by Advanced Imaging.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, AN, Italy.

Maxillary sinus augmentation is often necessary prior to implantology procedure, in particular in cases of atrophic posterior maxilla. In this context, bone substitute biomaterials made of biphasic calcium phosphates, produced by three-dimensional additive manufacturing were shown to be highly biocompatible with an efficient osteoconductivity, especially when combined with cell-based tissue engineering. Thus, in the present research, osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties of biphasic calcium-phosphate constructs made by direct rapid prototyping and engineered with ovine-derived amniotic epithelial cells or amniotic fluid cells were evaluated. Read More

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Morphological and Hemodynamic Changes during Cerebral Aneurysm Growth.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has grown as a tool to help understand the hemodynamic properties related to the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Few of these studies deal specifically with aneurysm growth and most only use a single time instance within the aneurysm growth history. The present retrospective study investigated four patient-specific aneurysms, once at initial diagnosis and then at follow-up, to analyze hemodynamic and morphological changes. Read More

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Production of Uniformly Sized Gallium-Based Liquid Alloy Nanodroplets via Ultrasonic Method and Their Li-Ion Storage.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Gallium-based liquid alloys are attractive due to their unique properties, and they can potentially be applied in the field of flexible electronics as coolant materials for nuclear and liquid batteries, due to the high thermal conductivity and excellent fluid properties of liquid metals. However, it is still challenging to fabricate gallium-based liquid alloy nanodroplets with uniform and small size. Here, we performed a systematical study on the influence of various factors affecting the size of nanodroplets. Read More

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Magnetite nanoparticles: synthesis methods - a comparative review.

Methods 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania; Research Institute of the University of Bucharest-ICUB, University of Bucharest, 050657 Bucharest, Romania. Electronic address:

Iron oxide-based nanoparticles have gathered tremendous scientific interest towards their application in a variety of fields. Magnetite has been particularly investigated due to its readily availability, versatility, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and special magnetic properties. As the behavior of nano-scale magnetite is in direct relation to its shape, size, and surface chemistry, accurate control over the nanoparticle synthesis process is essential in obtaining quality products for the intended end uses. Read More

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Thermal properties of energetic materials from quasi-harmonic first-principles calculations.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory for Material Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian 116023, Dalian, 116024, CHINA.

The structure and properties at a finite temperature are critical to understand the temperature effects on energetic materials (EMs). Combining dispersion-corrected density functional theory with quasi-harmonic approximation, the thermodynamic properties for several representative EMs, including nitromethane, PETN, HMX, and TATB, are calculated. The inclusion of zero-point energy and temperature effect could significantly improve the accuracy of lattice parameters at ambient condition; the deviations of calculated cell volumes and experimental values at room temperature are within 0. Read More

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Effective Easing of the Side Effects of Copper Intrauterine Devices using Ultra-fine-grained Cu-0.4Mg Alloy.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China; School of Materials Science Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Copper intrauterine device is one of the most adopted contraceptive methods with high effectiveness (over 99 %), low cost, spontaneous reversibility and long-lasting usage. However, the side effects induced from the initial burst release of copper ions (Cu) hinder the continuation of the Cu-IUD made of Coarse-Grained Copper (CG Cu). We proposed to tailor the bio-corrosion behaviors of better control of Cu release via the addition of bioactive Mg into the ultrafine grained bulk Cu. Read More

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The many behaviors of deformable active droplets.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 Mar;18(3):2849-2881

Center for Computational Biology, Flatiron Institute, New York, New York 10010, USA.

Active fluids consume fuel at the microscopic scale, converting this energy into forces that can drive macroscopic motions over scales far larger than their microscopic constituents. In some cases, the mechanisms that give rise to this phenomenon have been well characterized, and can explain experimentally observed behaviors in both bulk fluids and those confined in simple stationary geometries. More recently, active fluids have been encapsulated in viscous drops or elastic shells so as to interact with an outer environment or a deformable boundary. Read More

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Coupled flow and biomass-nutrient growth at pore-scale with permeable biofilm, adaptive singularity and multiple species.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 03;18(3):2097-2149

Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

In this paper we describe a coupled model for flow and microbial growth as well as nutrient utilization. These processes occur within and outside the biofilm phase formed by the microbes. The primary challenge is to address the volume constraint of maximum cell density but also to allow some microbial presence outside the contiguous biofilm phase. Read More

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Effects of large-scale heterogeneity and temporally varying hydrologic processes on estimating immobile pore space: A mesoscale-laboratory experimental and numerical modeling investigation.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Apr 10;241:103811. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Hydrologic Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, CO, USA; Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, CO, USA; Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, CO, USA.

The advection-dispersion equation (ADE) often fails to predict solute transport, in part due to incomplete mixing in the subsurface, which the development of non-local models has attempted to deal with. One such model is dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT); one parameter that exists within this model type is called immobile porosity. Here, we explore the complexity of estimating immobile porosity under varying flow rates and density dependencies in a large-scale heterogeneous system. Read More

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Effect of dietary treatment and fluid intake on the prevention of recurrent calcium stones and changes in urine composition: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0250257. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for investigating the effect of dietary treatment and fluid intake on the prevention of recurrent calcium stones and changes in urine composition. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases (updated November 2020) were searched for studies with the following keywords: diet, fluid, recurrent, prevention, randomized controlled trials, and nephrolithiasis. The search strategy and study selection process was conducted by following the PRISMA statement. Read More

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On the Behavior of Nanoparticles beyond the Nanopore Interface.

Langmuir 2021 04 19;37(16):4772-4782. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Personalized Nanomedicine, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Corner of College and Cooper Roads (Building 75), Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Recent advances in solid-state and biological nanopore sensors have produced a deluge of analytical techniques for in situ characterization of bio-nano colloidal dispersions; however, the transport forces governing particle movement into and out of the nanopore are not yet fully understood. Herein, we study the motion of particles outside the smaller opening of an elastomeric size-tunable nanopore and relate this motion to existing transport forces known to act on particles within the pore. Subsequently, we develop a combined optoelectronic approach which allows the comparison of both resistive pulse sensing and single particle tracking-based techniques for particle size characterization and, intriguingly, measurements of the ensemble particle motion induced by a combination of particle electrophoresis as well as pressure-driven and electroosmotic flows through the sensor nanopore. Read More

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Anaerobic self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactors (AnSFDMBRs) for wastewater treatment - Recent advances, process optimization and perspectives.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 6;332:125101. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Centre for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Shenzhen Research Institute, Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Guangdong, China.

Recently, anaerobic self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactors (AnSFDMBRs) have attracted increasing attention, and are considered as an alternative to conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). The key advantages of AnSFDMBRs include high flux, low propensity towards fouling, and low capital and operational costs. Although there have been several reviews on AnMBRs, very few reviews on AnSFDMBR system. Read More

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Self-contained Janus Aerogel with Antifouling and Salt-Rejecting Properties for Stable Solar Evaporation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 14;13(16):18829-18837. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals and Functional Polymer Materials, Nanjing Tech University, No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, Nanjing 210009, China.

Janus structural interfacial vaporization by separating the solar absorber from the bulk working fluid has attracted tremendous attention due to its low heat losses and high solar conversion efficiency for desalination, water purification, energy generation, etc. However, a totally separated double-deck structure with a discontinuous interfacial transition and inefficient photothermic materials undermines its long-term use and large-scale practical exploitation. Herein, a low-cost Janus monolithic chitosan aerogel with continuous aligned run-through microchannels has been demonstrated to have a highly efficient photothermic effect on seawater desalination and wastewater purification. Read More

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Fluid interface calorimetry.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 22;596:119-129. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Departamento de Fisica de Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Amphiphilic molecules spontaneously adsorb to fluid polar-nonpolar interfaces. The timescale of such adsorption depends on the molecular size and structure of the solute. This process should be accompanied by a power heat exchange that could be detected by commercial isothermal calorimeters. Read More

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Marangoni Instability of a Drop in a Stably Stratified Liquid.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Mar;126(12):124502

Physics of Fluids Group, Max Planck Center for Complex Fluid Dynamics, Department of Science and Technology, Mesa+ Institute, and J. M. Burgers Centre for Fluid Dynamics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

Marangoni instabilities can emerge when a liquid interface is subjected to a concentration or temperature gradient. It is generally believed that for these instabilities bulk effects like buoyancy are negligible compared to interfacial forces, especially on small scales. Consequently, the effect of a stable stratification on the Marangoni instability has hitherto been ignored. Read More

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Assessing the correctness of pressure correction to solvation theories in the study of electron transfer reactions.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):131102

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Physico-Chimie des Électrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux, PHENIX, F-75005 Paris, France.

Liquid state theories have emerged as a numerically efficient alternative to costly molecular dynamics simulations of electron transfer reactions in solution. In a recent paper [Jeanmairet et al., Chem. Read More

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Natural mucosal barriers and COVID-19 in children.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, United States of America.

Background: COVID-19 is more benign in children compared to adults for unknown reasons. This contrasts with other respiratory viruses where disease manifestations are often more severe in children. We hypothesize that a more robust early innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 protects against severe disease. Read More

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Fast fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected β-blockers from human serum and urine followed by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 29;199:114053. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Greece. Electronic address:

A fast fabric phase sorptive extraction method is presented herein for the rapid isolation of selected beta-blocker drugs from human serum and urine. Among many high efficiency sol-gel sorbent coated FPSE membranes, sol-gel CW20 M coated FPSE membrane was identified as the best FPSE membrane for the target beta-blocker drugs possessing logP values ranging from 0.1 (highly polar) to 3. Read More

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Liquid-Liquid Flows with Non-Newtonian Dispersed Phase in a T-Junction Microchannel.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Kutateladze Insitute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

Immiscible liquid-liquid flows in microchannels are used extensively in various chemical and biological lab-on-a-chip systems when it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a variety of fluids and channel geometries. Commonly, biological and other complex liquids express non-Newtonian properties in a dispersed phase. Features and behavior of such systems are not clear to date. Read More

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Microcapillary Reactors via Coaxial Electrospinning: Fabrication of Small Poly(Acrylic Acid) Gel Beads and Thin Threads of Biological Cell Dimensions.

Gels 2021 Mar 30;7(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) bulk gels and threads, typically derived via free-radical polymerization, are of interest as anionic polyelectrolyte mimics of cellular cytosol and as models for early protocells. The thread dimensions have been limited by the diameters of readily-available glass or plastic capillaries, and threads with diameters of less than 50 µm have been difficult to achieve. Here, we report a useful approach for achieving crosslinked, partially neutralized PAA, namely poly(acrylate), gel threads with diameters of a few microns when dry. Read More

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Modelling extracellular matrix and cellular contributions to whole muscle mechanics.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0249601. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Skeletal muscle tissue has a highly complex and heterogeneous structure comprising several physical length scales. In the simplest model of muscle tissue, it can be represented as a one dimensional nonlinear spring in the direction of muscle fibres. However, at the finest level, muscle tissue includes a complex network of collagen fibres, actin and myosin proteins, and other cellular materials. Read More

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Hemodynamic analysis for stenosis microfluidic model of thrombosis with refined computational fluid dynamics simulation.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6875. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, 2008, Australia.

Disturbed blood flow has been increasingly recognized for its critical role in platelet aggregation and thrombosis. Microfluidics with hump shaped contractions have been developed to mimic microvascular stenosis and recapitulate the prothrombotic effect of flow disturbance. However the physical determinants of microfluidic hemodynamics are not completely defined. Read More

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Gas-Phase Temperature Mapping of Evaporating Microdroplets.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 23;13(13):15925-15938. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

Evaporation is a ubiquitous and complex phenomenon of importance to many natural and industrial systems. Evaporation occurs when molecules near the free interface overcome intermolecular attractions with the bulk liquid. As molecules escape the liquid phase, heat is removed, causing evaporative cooling. Read More

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Combined effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol and canola oil supplementation on methane emissions, rumen fermentation and biohydrogenation, and total tract digestibility in beef cattle.

J Anim Sci 2021 Apr;99(4)

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Canada.

The individual and combined effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP) and canola oil (OIL) supplementation on enteric methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) emissions, rumen fermentation and biohydrogenation, and total tract nutrient digestibility were investigated in beef cattle. Eight beef heifers (mean body weight ± SD, 732 ± 43 kg) with ruminal fistulas were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 (with and without 3-NOP) × 2 (with and without OIL) arrangement of treatments and 28-d periods (13 d adaption and 15 d measurements). The four treatments were: control (no 3-NOP, no OIL), 3-NOP (200 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), OIL (50 g/kg DM), and 3-NOP (200 mg/kg DM) plus OIL (50 g/kg DM). Read More

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On the Gibbs-Thomson equation for the crystallization of confined fluids.

J Chem Phys 2021 Mar;154(11):114711

Physicochimie des Électrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France.

The Gibbs-Thomson (GT) equation describes the shift of the crystallization temperature for a confined fluid with respect to the bulk as a function of pore size. While this century old relation is successfully used to analyze experiments, its derivations found in the literature often rely on nucleation theory arguments (i.e. Read More

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Abnormal in-plane permittivity and ferroelectricity of confined water: From sub-nanometer channels to bulk.

J Chem Phys 2021 Mar;154(11):114503

Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen, Belgium.

Dielectric properties of nano-confined water are important in several areas of science, i.e., it is relevant in the dielectric double layer that exists in practically all heterogeneous fluid-based systems. Read More

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