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Nephroprotective effect of naringin in methotrexate induced renal toxicity in male rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Sep 15;143:112180. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon. Electronic address:

The current work aims to study the nephroprotective potential of naringin (NG), a flavanone derived from citrus fruits, in methotrexate (MTX)-induced renal toxicity. Thirty male rats were divided into five groups; control group (IP saline), MTX group (IP single dose, 20 mg/kg), and three groups co-treated with MTX and naringin (IP daily dose; 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Kidney tissues were used to investigate renal function, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of milk oligosaccharides: Origin and selectivity of the ratio of milk oligosaccharides to lactose among mammals.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Sep 15:130012. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Background: The carbohydrate fraction of mammalian milk is constituted of lactose and oligosaccharides, most of which contain a lactose unit at their reducing ends. Although lactose is the predominant saccharide in the milk of most eutherians, oligosaccharides significantly predominate over lactose in the milk of monotremes and marsupials.

Scope Of Review: This review describes the most likely process by which lactose and milk oligosaccharides were acquired during the evolution of mammals and the mechanisms by which these saccharides are digested and absorbed by the suckling neonates. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of microflow on hepatic sinusoid blood flow and red blood cell deformation.

Biophys J 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Hepatic sinusoids present complex anatomical structures such as the endothelial sieve pores and the Disse space, which govern the microscopic blood flow in the sinusoids and are associated with structural variations in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. However, the contributions of the permeability of endothelial and collagen layers and the roughness of hepatocyte microvilli to the features of this microflow remain largely unknown. Here, an immersed boundary method coupled with a lattice Boltzmann method was adopted in an in vitro hepatic sinusoidal model, and flow field and erythrocyte deformation analyses were conducted by introducing three new source terms including permeability of the endothelial layer, resistance of hepatocyte microvilli and collagen layers, and deformation of red blood cells (RBCs). Read More

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September 2021

Diverse plasma membrane protrusions act as platforms for extracellular vesicle shedding.

Authors:
Kirsi Rilla

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Sep;10(11):e12148

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Plasma membrane curvature is an important factor in the regulation of cellular phenotype and is critical for various cellular activities including the shedding of extracellular vesicles (EV). One of the most striking morphological features of cells is different plasma membrane-covered extensions supported by actin core such as filopodia and microvilli. Despite the various functions of these extensions are partially unexplained, they are known to facilitate many crucial cellular functions such as migration, adhesion, absorption, and secretion. Read More

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September 2021

Possible regulation of P-glycoprotein function by adrenergic agonists in a vascular-luminal perfused preparation of small intestine.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan. Electronic address:

Although the functions of small intestine are largely regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS), an independent intrinsic innervation, as well as central nervous system (CNS), the neural regulation of drug absorption from the small intestine still remains to be clarified. To obtain some information on it, the effect of adrenergic agonists on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function was investigated by utilizing a vascular-luminal perfused rat small intestine. Adrenaline significantly decreased the secretion of rhodamine-123 (R-123) into the intestinal lumen, but dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) significantly enhanced R-123 secretion. Read More

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September 2021

V-ATPase subunit a is required for survival and midgut development of Locusta migratoria.

Insect Mol Biol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Research Institute of Applied Biology, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

The vacuolar-type H -ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-dependent proton pump, which regulates various cellular processes. To date, most functional studies on V-ATPases of insects have focused on subunits of the V1 complex, and there is little information on the VO genes. In this study, two cDNA sequences of LmV-ATPase a were identified in Locusta migratoria. Read More

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September 2021

FCHSD2 cooperates with CDC42 and N-WASP to regulate cell protrusion formation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Sep 11:119134. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Cell and Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong 266237, China; Shandong Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center of Cell Biology, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China. Electronic address:

Actin-based, finger-like cell protrusions such as microvilli and filopodia play important roles in epithelial cells. Several proteins have been identified to regulate cell protrusion formation, which helps us to learn about the underlying mechanism of this process. FCH domain and double SH3 domains containing protein 2 (FCHSD2) belongs to the FCH and Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (F-BAR) protein family, containing an N-terminal F-BAR domain, two SH3 domains, and a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI). Read More

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September 2021

Infection Influences the Function of Intestinal Cells by Altering the Lipid Raft-Dependent Sorting of Sucrase-Isomaltase.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:699970. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hanover, Germany.

is an important nosocomial and community-acquired facultative intracellular pathogen. Many studies have reported that infections are associated with intestinal symptoms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms implicated in -induced alterations of intestinal functions. In this study, we investigated the implication of lipid rafts in the interaction of with Caco-2 cells. Read More

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Evaluation of Calu-3 cell lines as an in vitro model to study the inhalation toxicity of flavoring extracts.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Sep 6:1-30. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Shanghai Institute for Food and Drug Control, Shanghai, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Calu-3 cells as a model to examine the toxicological responses of inhalable substances. Calu-3 cells were grown to confluence at an air-liquid interface (ALI) using a Transwell® permeable support system. The ALI resulted in biomimetic native bronchial epithelium displaying pseudostratified columnar epithelium with more microvilli and secretory vesicles. Read More

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September 2021

Pneumoperitoneum induced mesothelial cell changes in a laparoscopic mouse model.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Aug 22;265:107-112. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven), Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: CO pneumoperitoneum (PP) during laparoscopic surgery, can cause hypoxia and desiccation in the peritoneal mesothelial cell, resulting in a time-dependent retraction and bulging of these cells, an acute inflammatory reaction and enhanced adhesion formation. Since hypoxia is prevented by adding 4% of oxygen (O) to the CO PP, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 4% O to the CO PP on mesothelial cell morphology.

Methods: In a standardized laparoscopic mouse model (n=8 mice per group), a control group with a 30- or 60-min PP with humidified CO + 4% of O (groups I and II) was compared to a hypoxic group with 30- or 60-min humidified pure CO (groups III and IV) and a desiccation group with 60-min of dry CO PP (group V). Read More

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Comparative analysis of the MyTH4-FERM myosins reveals insights into the determinants of actin track selection in polarized epithelia.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Sep 2:mbcE20070494. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606.

MyTH4-FERM (MF) myosins evolved to play a role in the creation and function of a variety of actin-based membrane protrusions that extend from cells. Here, we performed an analysis of the MF myosins, Myo7A, Myo7B, and Myo10, to gain insight into how they select for their preferred actin networks. Using enterocytes that create spatially separated actin tracks in the form of apical microvilli and basal filopodia, we show that actin track selection is principally guided by the mode of oligomerization of the myosin along with the identity of the motor domain, with little influence from the specific composition of the lever arm. Read More

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September 2021

Copper-64-Labeled Antibody Fragments for Immuno-PET/Radioimmunotherapy with Low Renal Radioactivity Levels and Amplified Tumor-Kidney Ratios.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 12;6(33):21556-21562. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, Chiba 260-8675 Japan.

Copper-64 (Cu)-labeled antibody fragments such as Fab are useful for molecular imaging (immuno-PET) and radioimmunotherapy. However, these fragments cause high and persistent localization of radioactivity in the kidneys after injection. To solve this problem, this study assessed the applicability of a molecular design to Cu, which reduces renal radioactivity levels by liberating a urinary excretory radiometabolite from antibody fragments at the renal brush border membrane (BBM). Read More

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Intestinal brush border assembly during the peri-hatch period and its contribution to surface area expansion.

Poult Sci 2021 Jul 28;100(10):101401. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Animal Science, The Robert H. Smith, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Microvilli generate the small intestinal brush border, the main site of nutrient digestion and absorption. Mucosal structuring of the small intestine of chicken during the perihatch period has been widely researched, yet the developmental dynamics of microvilli during this period have not been fully characterized. In this study, we examined the structural and molecular characteristics of microvilli assembly and maturation during the perihatch period. Read More

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Oral administration of thiram inhibits brush border membrane enzymes, oxidizes proteins and thiols, impairs redox system and causes histological changes in rat intestine: A dose dependent study.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 15;178:104915. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Pesticides are extensively employed worldwide, especially in agriculture to control weeds, insect infestation and diseases. Besides their targets, pesticides can also affect the health of non-target organisms, including humans The present study was conducted to study the effect of oral exposure of thiram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, on the intestine of rats. Male rats were administered thiram at doses of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight for 4 days. Read More

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October 2021

Der f 38 Is a Novel TLR4-Binding Allergen Related to Allergy Pathogenesis from .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 5;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Senior Healthcare, Eulji University, Uijeongbu 11759, Korea.

It is difficult to treat allergic diseases including asthma completely because its pathogenesis remains unclear. House dust mite (HDM) is a critical allergen and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is a member of the toll-like receptor family, which plays an important role in allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel allergen, Der f 38 binding to TLR4, and unveil its role as an inducer of allergy. Read More

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A Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of Phospholipase A and Metalloproteinase Fractions from Eastern Russell's Viper () Venom: Two Major Components Associated with Acute Kidney Injury.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) following Eastern Russell's viper () envenoming is a significant symptom in systemically envenomed victims. A number of venom components have been identified as causing the nephrotoxicity which leads to AKI. However, the precise mechanism of nephrotoxicity caused by these toxins is still unclear. Read More

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TMEM16A and TMEM16B Modulate Pheromone-Evoked Action Potential Firing in Mouse Vomeronasal Sensory Neurons.

eNeuro 2021 Sep-Oct;8(5). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Neurobiology Group, SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste 34136, Italy.

The mouse vomeronasal system controls several social behaviors. Pheromones and other social cues are detected by sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Stimuli activate a transduction cascade that leads to membrane potential depolarization, increase in cytosolic Ca level, and increased firing. Read More

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September 2021

Development-related mitochondrial properties of retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from hEROs.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(8):1138-1150. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China.

Aim: To explore the temporal mitochondrial characteristics of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells obtained from human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived retinal organoids (hEROs-RPE), to verify the optimal period for using hEROs-RPE as donor cells from the aspect of mitochondria and to optimize RPE cell-based therapeutic strategies for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: RPE cells were obtained from hEROs and from spontaneous differentiation (SD-RPE). The mitochondrial characteristics were analyzed every 20d from day 60 to 160. Read More

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CCR7 signalosomes are preassembled on tips of lymphocyte microvilli in proximity to LFA-1.

Biophys J 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:

Leukocyte microvilli are elastic actin-rich projections implicated in rapid sensing and penetration across glycocalyx barriers. Microvilli are critical for the capture and arrest of flowing lymphocytes by high endothelial venules, the main lymph node portal vessels. T lymphocyte arrest involves subsecond activation of the integrin LFA-1 by the G-protein-coupled receptor CCR7 and its endothelial-displayed ligands, the chemokines CCL21 and CCL19. Read More

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A generic crystallopathic model for chronic kidney disease progression.

Authors:
Orson W Moe

J Clin Invest 2021 Aug;131(16)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions globally. The natural course of chronic kidney disease is almost uniformly progressive, albeit at different rates in different individuals. The downhill course appears to pervade kidney diseases of all etiologies and seems to spiral down a self-perpetuating vortex, even if the original insult is ameliorated or controlled. Read More

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Bio-Fabrication of Human Amniotic Membrane Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and the Wet/Dry HAM Dressing Membrane for Wound Healing.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 28;9:695710. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai, China.

The preparation of unique wet and dry wound dressing products derived from unprocessed human amniotic membrane (UP-HAM) is described. The UP-HAM was decellularized, and the constituent proteins were cross-linked and stabilized before being trimmed and packed in sterile Nucril-coated laminated aluminium foil pouches with isopropyl alcohol to manufacture processed wet human amniotic membrane (PW-HAM). The dry type of PD-HAM was prepared by decellularizing the membrane, UV irradiating it, lyophilizing/freeze-drying it, sterilizing it, and storing it at room temperature. Read More

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Expression of genes associated with nutrient uptake in intestines of chickens with different growth potentials show temporal changes but are not correlated with growth.

Br Poult Sci 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, United States.

The study was designed to compare the expression of genes that encode proteins located at either the brush border (BB) or basolateral (BL) of the gut epithelium among fast and slow-growing broilers.Six lines of chicks with different growth capacities were used: Ross 708, Hubbard H1 (HH1), Cobb 500, Longnecker's Heritage (LHR), Red-Bro, and the Athens Canadian Randombred Control (ACRB). Birds were sampled between embryonic day (ED) 19 and day 35 post-hatch (PH). Read More

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Deletion of TLR4 reduces apoptosis and improves histology in a murine kidney transplant model.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 10;11(1):16182. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

University of Colorado Denver Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, 12700 East 19th Avenue, C281, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) after transplantation of human deceased donor kidneys is associated with upregulation of tubular toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), but whether TLR4 is required for AKI is unknown. We hypothesized that TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4KO) subjected to cold ischemia followed by kidney transplant (CI + Txp) would be protected from AKI. C57Bl/6J wild type or TLR4KO kidneys were subjected to CI + Txp into wild type recipients. Read More

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Ultrastructural analysis of breast cancer patient-derived organoids.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Aug 10;21(1):423. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e cliniche "L. Sacco", Università di Milano, 20157, Milan, Italy.

Background: Breast cancer Patient Derived Organoids (PDO) have been demonstrated to be a reliable model to study cancer that promised to replace and reduce the use of animals in pre-clinical research. They displayed concordance with the tissue of origin, resuming its heterogenicity and representing a good platform to develop approaches of personalized medicines. Although obtain PDOs from mammary tumour, was a very challenging process, several ongoing studies evaluated them as a platform to study efficacy, sensitivity and specificity of new drugs and exploited them in personalized medicine. Read More

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Larval rearing and ontogeny of digestive enzyme activities in yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus, Houttuyn 1782).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Nov 8;261:111044. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

IRTA, Centre de Sant Carles de la Rápita (IRTA-SCR), Aquaculture program, Crta. del Poble Nou Km 5.5, Sant Carles de la Rápita 43540, Spain.

The present research was conducted to provide insight into digestive larval capacity in Acanthopagrus latus larvae from hatching up to 30 days after hatching (DAH). Newly hatched larvae were stocked into six 300-L cylindrical polyethylene tanks at a density of larvae 50 larvae/L and reared by means of the green water system using Nannochloropsis oculata (0.5 × 10/mL). Read More

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November 2021

Localization of the proteinase inhibitor activity in the fish cestode Eubothrium rugosum.

J Fish Dis 2021 Aug 7. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.

The mechanisms enabling fish tapeworms to avoid proteolytic attacks by digestive enzymes of their fish host have been studied in less detail compared with mammalian cestodes. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory ability towards trypsin and chymotrypsin in Eubothrium rugosum, an intestinal parasite of burbot Lota lota, and establish its localization in the tapeworm. To this end, the worms were treated with Triton X-100 followed by differential centrifugation to isolate the tegumental brush border membrane. Read More

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Impacts of an azo food dye tartrazine uptake on intestinal barrier, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and intestinal microbiome in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 3;223:112551. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, PR China; Engineering Lab of Henan Province for Aquatic Animal Disease Control, Engineering Technology Research Center of Henan Province for Aquatic Animal Cultivation, College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, PR China. Electronic address:

Food dyes, or color additives, are often added into foods, cosmetics and beverages during processing to improve the sensory attributes of the final products. However, the toxicity of tartrazine (TZ), one of the most common azo-dyes, is still unclear, and needs to be ascertained by further study. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of TZ consumption on health by using a teleost, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) as the experimental fish. Read More

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October 2021

Morphological basis for maternal nutrient provision to embryos in the viviparous fish Ataeniobius toweri (Teleostei: Goodeidae).

J Morphol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Biology and Electron Microscopy Center, Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

In viviparous Mexican fishes of the family Goodeidae, embryos develop in the maternal ovarian lumen. They typically absorb maternal nutrients during gestation by means of "trophotaeniae," that is, specialized, elongated extensions of the hindgut that are exposed to the fluids, which occupy the ovarian lumen. The sole exception is Ataeniobius toweri, whose embryos lack trophotaeniae but are nevertheless matrotrophic. Read More

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COVID-19 Ocular Prophylaxis: The Potential Role of Ozonated-Oils in Liposome Eyedrop Gel.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 08;10(9)

University of Ferrara, Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, Ferrara, Italy.

Purpose: To assess whether ozonated-oil in liposome eyedrop gel (OED) could be used to prevent the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in an in vitro infection model.

Methods: First, we tested the efficacy of OED on in vitro cell regeneration and dry eye resolution in human corneal epithelial cells (hCE-2). Second, we assessed the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection efficacy of OED using Vero E6 cells. Read More

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Gene expression profiles compared in environmental and malnutrition enteropathy in Zambian children and adults.

EBioMedicine 2021 Aug 29;70:103509. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departments of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States.

Background: Environmental enteropathy (EE) contributes to growth failure in millions of children worldwide, but its relationship to clinical malnutrition has not been elucidated. We used RNA sequencing to compare duodenal biopsies from adults and children with EE, and from children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), to define key features of these malnutrition-related enteropathies.

Methods: RNA was extracted and sequenced from biopsies of children with SAM in hospital (n=27), children with non-responsive stunting in the community (n=30), and adults living in the same community (n=37) using an identical sequencing and analysis pipeline. Read More

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