13,943 results match your criteria brown adipose


The molecular and metabolic program by which white adipocytes adapt to cool physiologic temperatures.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 12;19(5):e3000988. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Although visceral adipocytes located within the body's central core are maintained at approximately 37°C, adipocytes within bone marrow, subcutaneous, and dermal depots are found primarily within the peripheral shell and generally exist at cooler temperatures. Responses of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to cold stress are well studied; however, comparatively little is known about mechanisms by which white adipocytes adapt to temperatures below 37°C. Here, we report that adaptation of cultured adipocytes to 31°C, the temperature at which distal marrow adipose tissues and subcutaneous adipose tissues often reside, increases anabolic and catabolic lipid metabolism, and elevates oxygen consumption. Read More

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Intercostal Brown Adipose Tissue on FDG PET/CT.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 75 Francis St, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115.

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Emerging roles for kisspeptin in metabolism.

J Physiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Section of Endocrinology & Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Kisspeptin, a neuropeptide hormone, has been firmly established to be a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and mammalian reproductive behaviour. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has emerged suggesting a role for kisspeptin in regulating metabolic processes. This data suggests that kisspeptin exerts its metabolic effects indirectly via gonadal hormones and/or directly via the kisspeptin receptor in the brain, pancreas and brown adipose tissue. Read More

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Mice lacking endogenous TRPV1 express reduced levels of thermogenic proteins and are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction.

FEBS Lett 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Molecular Signaling Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, 82072, USA.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel protein expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Although TRPV1 is implicated in thermogenesis and diet-induced obesity (DIO), its precise role remains controversial. TRPV1 mice are protected from DIO, while TRPV1 activation enhances thermogenesis to prevent obesity. Read More

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Peripheral-specific Y1 receptor antagonism increases thermogenesis and protects against diet-induced obesity.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2622. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Obesity is caused by an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure (EE). Here we identify a conserved pathway that links signalling through peripheral Y1 receptors (Y1R) to the control of EE. Selective antagonism of peripheral Y1R, via the non-brain penetrable antagonist BIBO3304, leads to a significant reduction in body weight gain due to enhanced EE thereby reducing fat mass. Read More

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Curcumin improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice associated with activation of FNDC5/irisin.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 7;90:111263. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Curcumin (Cur) has a beneficial role in preventing metabolic dysfunctions; however, the underlying mechanism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the beneficial metabolic effects of curcumin are associated with the regulation of energy metabolism and activation of fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin.

Methods: We used cellular and molecular techniques to investigate the effects of Cur on C57 BL/6 mice that were fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0. Read More

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Mulberry leaf activates brown adipose tissue and induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats through regulating AMPK signaling pathway.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 11:1-31. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

The current epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly affects human health worldwide. Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Comparative functional analyses of UCP1 to unravel evolution, ecophysiology and mechanisms of mammalian thermogenesis.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 7:110613. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT), present in many placental mammals, provides adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) for body temperature regulation and has facilitated survival in diverse thermal niches on our planet. Intriguingly, several key details on the molecular mechanisms of NST and their potential ecophysiological adaptations are still unknown. Comparative studies at the whole animal level are unpragmatic, due to the diversity and complexity of thermoregulation among different species. Read More

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Modeling Breast Cancer in Human Breast Tissue using a Microphysiological System.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 23(170). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center;

Breast cancer (BC) remains a leading cause of death for women. Despite more than $700 million invested in BC research annually, 97% of candidate BC drugs fail clinical trials. Therefore, new models are needed to improve our understanding of the disease. Read More

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On the potential role of globins in brown adipose tissue: a novel conceptual model and studies in myoglobin knockout mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Myoglobin (Mb) regulates O bioavailability in muscle and heart as partial pressure of O (pO) drops with increased tissue workload. Globin proteins also modulate cellular NO pools, "scavenging" NO at higher pO and converting NO to NO as pO falls. Myoglobin binding of fatty acids may also signal a role in fat metabolism. Read More

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Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 promotes brown adipocyte differentiation.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 15;21(6):637. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Ischemic Cardiovascular Diseases and Institute of Basic and Translational Medicine, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, P.R. China.

Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of frizzled proteins. In the present report, the effects of SFRP4 on murine brown adipocyte differentiation were evaluated, which exhibited an intrinsic capacity to differentiate with high efficiency. Brown preadipocytes were isolated from the scapular region of brown adipose tissue, which showed that the overexpression of recombinant active SFRP4 protein at three concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the expression of adipocyte differentiation-associated genes (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, UCP-1, PRDM16, PGC1α and GLUT4) in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. Read More

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Effects of a high-fat diet and global aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficiency on energy balance and liver retinoid status in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 May 6:108762. Epub 2021 May 6.

FCLAP, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

The physiological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are only beginning to unfold. Studies in wildtype and AHR knockout (AHRKO) mice have recently disclosed that AHR activity is required for obesity and steatohepatitis to develop when mice are fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, a line of AHRKO mouse has been reported to accumulate retinoids in the liver. Read More

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Myosin 1c; a novel regulator of glucose uptake in brown adipocytes.

Mol Metab 2021 May 6:101247. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: The potential of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to influence energy homeostasis in animals and humans is encouraging since the tissue can increase fatty acid and glucose utilization to produce heat through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) but the actual mechanism how the cell regulates glucose uptake is not fully understood. Myosin 1c (Myo1c) is an unconventional motor protein involved in several cellular processes, including insulin-mediated glucose uptake via GLUT4 vesicle fusion in white adipocytes but its role in glucose uptake in BAT has previously not been investigated.

Methods: Using the specific inhibitor pentachloropseudilin (PCIP), a neutralizing antibody assay and siRNA, we examined the role of Myo1c in mechanisms leading to glucose uptake both in vitro in isolated mouse primary adipocytes and in vivo in mice. Read More

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Cold-induction of afadin in brown fat supports its thermogenic capacity.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9794. Epub 2021 May 7.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The profound energy-expending nature of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis makes it an attractive target tissue to combat obesity-associated metabolic disorders. While cold exposure is the strongest inducer of BAT activity, the temporal mechanisms tuning BAT adaptation during this activation process are incompletely understood. Here we show that the scaffold protein Afadin is dynamically regulated by cold in BAT, and participates in cold acclimation. Read More

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Changes in brown adipose tissue lipid mediator signatures with aging, obesity, and DHA supplementation in female mice.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21592

Center for Nutrition Research, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction in aging and obesity has been related to chronic unresolved inflammation, which could be mediated by an impaired production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs), such as Lipoxins-LXs, Resolvins-Rvs, Protectins-PDs, and Maresins-MaRs. Our aim was to characterize the changes in BAT SPMs signatures and their association with BAT dysfunction during aging, especially under obesogenic conditions, and their modulation by a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich diet. Lipidomic, functional, and molecular studies were performed in BAT of 2- and 18-month-old lean (CT) female mice and in 18-month-old diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), or a DHA-enriched HFD. Read More

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Curcumin improves adipocytes browning and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rodent model.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 17;8(3):200974. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and adipocyte differentiation promote lipid accumulation in the development of obesity and diabetes. Curcumin is an active ingredient extracted from that has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in adipocytes remain largely unexplored. Read More

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Liraglutide treatment counteracts alterations in adipose tissue metabolism induced by orchiectomy in rats.

Life Sci 2021 May 3;278:119586. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: The reduction in androgens serum concentration is a physiological condition that accompanies age advancement but can also occur because of prostate cancer and gender affirming treatment or pathological conditions such as functional hypogonadism. However, androgen deficiency is related to a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogs are increasingly used in the treatment of T2DM, we investigated if liraglutide could also attenuate the metabolic changes caused by orchiectomy in rats. Read More

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Ellagic acid induces beige remodeling of white adipose tissue by controlling mitochondrial dynamics and SIRT3.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21548

Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

To determine whether ellagic acid (EA) induces the "beige remodeling" of white adipose tissue (WAT), we treated cold-exposed mice and mouse stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells with EA, a phytochemical abundant in fruits and vegetables, in particular berries. We then investigated the mechanism of EA in beige remodeling with a particular focus on DRP1-mediated mitochondrial fission and SIRT3. EA induced the trans-differentiation of white adipocytes to beige adipocytes by promoting the expression of UCP1 and other brown and beige adipocytes/fat factors (PRDM16, UCP1, PGC1α, CD137, and TBX1) and mitochondrial dynamics-related factors (SIRT3, NRF1, CPT1β, DRP1, and FIS1) in 3T3-L1/SVF cells, and these were confirmed in the inguinal WAT of a cold-exposed mouse model. Read More

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Brown Adipose Tissue Heterogeneity, Energy Metabolism, and Beyond.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:651763. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology, Arthur Riggs Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

Brown adipocyte in brown adipose tissue (BAT) specializes in expending energy through non-shivering thermogenesis, a process that produces heat either by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) dependent uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration or by UCP1 independent mechanisms. Apart from this, there is ample evidence suggesting that BAT has an endocrine function. Studies in rodents point toward its vital roles in glucose and lipid homeostasis, making it an important therapeutic target for treating metabolic disorders related to morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Prolonged Treatment with Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) Extract Recruits Adaptive Thermogenesis and Reduces Body Fat in Humans with Low Brown Fat Activity.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021 ;67(2):99-104

Department of Nutrition, School of Nursing and Nutrition, Tenshi Collage.

Increasing adaptive thermogenesis through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising practical strategy for preventing obesity and related disorders. Ingestion of a single dose of 40 mg of an extract of Grains of Paradise (GP), a ginger family species, reportedly triggers BAT thermogenesis in individuals with high but not in those with low BAT activity. We hypothesized that prolonged treatment with GP might revive BAT in individuals who have lost active BAT. Read More

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January 2021

UCP1 and TRPM8 Expression in the Brown Fat Did Not Affect the Restriction of Menthol-Induced Hyperthermia by Estradiol in Ovariectomized Rats.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2021 ;67(2):130-134

Women's Environmental Science Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University.

Estradiol (E) modulates the central and peripheral thermoregulatory responses to cold. Menthol is an agonist of transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8), which is a peripheral cold receptor. E suppresses menthol-induced elevation of body temperature (T) in ovariectomized rats, but the mechanism is unknown. Read More

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January 2021

A PERKy way to make mitochondrial cristae.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

PERK protein, that is canonically associated with the response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, may be acquiring a new role as a regulator of the growth of mitochondrial cristae. This role is pertinent not only to the recruitment of brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity but probably also to directing cristae formation in highly metabolically active organs such as the heart. Read More

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A simplified procedure to trace triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in vivo.

Physiol Rep 2021 Apr;9(8):e14820

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Glycerol tri[ H]oleate and [ C]cholesteryl oleate double-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-like particles are a well-established tool to trace the effect of lipid-modulating interventions on TRL metabolism. The routine generation of these particles involves sonication of a lipid mixture and subsequent fractionation of resulting particles into populations of different average size through density gradient ultracentrifugation. Here, we describe a simplified and more time-efficient procedure for preparing TRL-like particles without the need of fractionation. Read More

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OPA1 deletion in brown adipose tissue Improves thermoregulation and systemic metabolism via FGF21.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States.

Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes alters mitochondrial dynamics, including the mitochondrial fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (OPA1). However, direct mechanisms linking OPA1 to brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology are incompletely understood. We utilized a mouse model of selective OPA1 deletion in BAT (OPA1 BAT KO) to investigate the role of OPA1 in thermogenesis. Read More

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Metabolic flexibility via mitochondrial BCAA carrier SLC25A44 is required for optimal fever.

Elife 2021 May 4;10. Epub 2021 May 4.

Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, United States.

Importing necessary metabolites into the mitochondrial matrix is a crucial step of fuel choice during stress adaptation. Branched chain-amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids needed for anabolic processes, but they are also imported into the mitochondria for catabolic reactions. What controls the distinct subcellular BCAA utilization during stress adaptation is insufficiently understood. Read More

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Embryonic exposure to hyper glucocorticoids suppresses brown fat development and thermogenesis via REDD1.

Sci Bull (Beijing) 2021 Mar 28;66(5):478-489. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Nutrigenomics and Growth Biology Laboratory, Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Maternal stress during pregnancy is prevailing worldwide, which exposes fetuses to intrauterine hyper glucocorticoids (GC), programming offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in maintaining long-term metabolic health, impacts of prenatal hyper GC on postnatal BAT thermogenesis and underlying regulations remain poorly defined. Pregnant mice were administrated with synthetic GC dexamethasone (DEX) at levels comparable to fetal GC exposure of stressed mothers. Read More

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Dopamine D2 receptor agonist, bromocriptine, remodels adipose tissue dopaminergic signalling and upregulates catabolic pathways, improving metabolic profile in type 2 diabetes.

Mol Metab 2021 Apr 29:101241. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Physiology and Institute of Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra; Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), University of Coimbra; Clinical-Academic Center of Coimbra, Coimbra; Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Coimbra Health School, Coimbra Portugal. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: The therapeutic effects of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonist, bromocriptine, in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been attributed to central nervous system actions. However, peripheral dopamine directly modulates glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue (AT). We hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be impaired in the adipose tissue of patients with T2D and that the therapeutic actions of bromocriptine could involve the modulation of metabolism in this tissue. Read More

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Circadian control of brown adipose tissue.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Apr 30;1866(8):158961. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Disruption of circadian (~24 h) rhythms is associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, unravelling how circadian rhythms are regulated in different metabolic tissues has become a prominent research focus. Of particular interest is brown adipose tissue (BAT), which combusts triglyceride-derived fatty acids and glucose into heat and displays a circannual and diurnal rhythm in its thermogenic activity. Read More

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Overexpression of translationally controlled tumor protein ameliorates metabolic imbalance and increases energy expenditure in mice.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background/objectives: Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) exhibits numerous biological functions. It has been shown to be involved in the regulation of glucose. However, its specific role in metabolism has not yet been clearly elucidated. Read More

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Sex Differences in Brown Adipose Tissue Function: Sex Hormones, Glucocorticoids, and Their Crosstalk.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:652444. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Excessive fat accumulation in the body causes overweight and obesity. To date, research has confirmed that there are two types of adipose tissue with opposing functions: lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT) and lipid-burning brown adipose tissue (BAT). After the rediscovery of the presence of metabolically active BAT in adults, BAT has received increasing attention especially since activation of BAT is considered a promising way to combat obesity and associated comorbidities. Read More

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