5,951 results match your criteria bronchitis virus

The tracheal virome of broiler chickens with respiratory disease complex in Iran: the metagenomics study.

Iran J Microbiol 2021 Jun;13(3):337-344

Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Avian respiratory disease complex (RDC) is one of the most detrimental economic diseases that affected different parts of the world. Various pathogens cause the disease, but the most significant viral pathogens include avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are the most prevalent. To detect these pathogens, various methods have been discovered in the last decades. Read More

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Targeting of Protein's Messenger RNA for Viral Replication, Assembly and Release in SARS-CoV-2 Using Whole Genomic Data From South Africa: Therapeutic Potentials of L.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:736511. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The possible evolutionary trend of COVID-19 in South Africa was investigated by comparing the genome of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa with those isolated from China, Spain, Italy, and United States, as well as the genomes of Bat SARS CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV), and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a strong homology (96%) between the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and those isolated from the study countries as well as those isolated from bat SARS CoV, MERS-CoV, MHV and IBV. The ability of phytocannabinoids from infusion to interact with gene segments (mRNAs) coding for proteins implicated in viral replication, assembly and release were also investiagted using computational tools. Read More

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September 2021

Kinetic analysis of pathogenicity and tissue tropism of gyrovirus 3 in experimentally infected chickens.

Vet Res 2021 Sep 15;52(1):120. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Gyrovirus 3 (GyV3), the third novel emerging species of the genus Gyrovirus of the Anelloviridae family, has been described in multiple hosts. Epidemiologically, there are suggestions that GyV3 is associated with diarrhea/proventriculitis, however, no direct causal evidence exists between GyV3 infection and specific clinical diseases. Herein, we infected special pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with GyV3, and then assessed the pathogenicity and tissue tropism. Read More

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September 2021

A case describing patients with COVID-19 that secondarily transmitted.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug;10(8):8972-8981

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Background: The recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. Monitoring viral transmission and disease characteristics as the disease spreads globally is vital. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and source of infection in patients with secondary transmission of COVID-19 outside the outbreak area. Read More

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Traditional uses, bioactive composition, pharmacology, and toxicology of Phyllanthus emblica fruits: A comprehensive review.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 2;282:114570. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology, Shoolini University, Post Box No. 9, Head Post Office, Solan, H.P., India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn or Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Phyllanthaceae), (FPE) commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, gained immense importance in indigenous traditional medicinal systems, including Ayurveda, for its medicinal and nutritional benefits. It is used to cure several diseases such as common cold, fever, cough, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, cephalalgia, ophthalmopathy, dyspepsia, colic, flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases, leprosy, hematogenesis, inflammation, anemia, emaciation, hepatopathy, jaundice, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, cardiac disorders, and premature greying of hair.

Aim Of The Study: In the present review, we presented a comprehensive analysis of the ethnopharmacology, bioactive composition, and toxicity of P. Read More

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September 2021

Circulation of three genotypes and identification of unique mutations in neutralizing epitopes of infectious bronchitis virus in chickens in Bangladesh.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, 2202, Bangladesh.

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by a gammacoronavirus that has been circulating for many years in chickens in Bangladesh, resulting in significant economic losses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) from clinical outbreaks and surveillance samples. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect IBV in pooled lung and tracheal tissue samples (n = 78), oropharyngeal swabs (n = 19), and pooled fecal samples (n = 13) from live-bird markets. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of a novel avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus variant with three-nucleotide-deletion in nucleocapsid gene in China.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University.

A novel avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant, designated as GX-NN160421, was isolated from vaccinated chicken in Guangxi, China, in 2016. Based on analysis of the S1 gene sequence, GX-NN160421 belonged to the New-type 1 (GVI-1) strain. More importantly, three consecutive nucleotides (AAC) deletions were found in the highly conserved structure gene N. Read More

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Diversity of Coronaviruses in Wild Representatives of the Class in Poland.

Viruses 2021 07 29;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders and , with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5. Read More

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Molecular Biology and Pathological Process of an Infectious Bronchitis Virus with Enteric Tropism in Commercial Broilers.

Viruses 2021 Jul 28;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis 1089 Veterinary Medicine Dr, 4008 VM3B, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) induces respiratory and urogenital disease in chickens. Although IBV replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, enteric lesions are uncommon. We have reported a case of runting-stunting syndrome in commercial broilers from which an IBV variant was isolated from the intestines. Read More

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Influenza Vaccination in Psoriatic Patients-Epidemiology and Patient Perceptions: A German Multicenter Study (Vac-Pso).

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Aug 1;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

The risk of developing severe complications from an influenza virus infection is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis (PsO) and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, low influenza vaccination rates have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine vaccination rates in PsO compared to AD patients and explore patient perceptions of vaccination. Read More

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Postmortem Cardiopulmonary Pathology in Patients with COVID-19 Infection: Single-Center Report of 12 Autopsies from Lausanne, Switzerland.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 28;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 25, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.

We report postmortem cardio-pulmonary findings including detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue in 12 patients with COVID-19. The 5 women and 7 men (median age: 73 years; range 35-96) died 6-38 days after onset of symptoms (median: 14.5 days). Read More

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Infectious Bronchitis Hatchery Vaccination: Comparison between Traditional Spray Administration and a Newly Developed Gel Delivery System in Field Conditions.

Vet Sci 2021 Jul 29;8(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

AgriAL Bt, Béri Balogh Ádám u 42, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.

The control of infectious bronchitis (IB) is essential in intensive broiler production and is pursued through strict biosecurity and mass vaccination. Despite effective and routinely adopted, hatchery spray vaccination has been hypothesized to affect chicks' body temperature and wellbeing. Recently, gel administration has been proposed as an alternative and proved feasible in experimental settings. Read More

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Inhibitory effect of traditional herbal (kampo) medicines on the replication of human parainfluenza virus type 2 in vitro.

Drug Discov Ther 2021 Sep 26;15(4):180-188. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Microbiology and Immunology Section, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, Mie, Japan.

Thirteen herbal medicines, Kakkonto (TJ-001), Kakkontokasenkyushin'i (TJ-002), Hangekobokuto (TJ-016), Shoseiryuto (TJ-019), Maoto (TJ-027), Bakumondoto (TJ-029), Hochuekkito (TJ-041), Goshakusan (TJ-063), Kososan (TJ-070), Chikujountanto (TJ-091), Gokoto (TJ-095), Saibokuto (TJ-096), and Ryokankyomishingeninto (TJ-119) were tested for human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) replication. Eight (TJ-001, TJ-002, TJ-019, TJ-029, TJ-041, TJ-063, TJ-095 and TJ-119) out of the thirteen medicines had virus growth inhibitory activity. TJ-001 and TJ-002 inhibited virus release, and largely inhibited genome, mRNA and protein syntheses. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization of an Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Commercial Layers Suffering from False Layer Syndrome.

Avian Dis 2021 09;65(3):373-380

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 4008 VM3B, Davis, CA 95616,

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a gammacoronavirus that primarily induces an upper respiratory disease in chickens, also affecting the urogenital tract and occasionally leading to a condition called false layer syndrome (FLS), where sexually mature hens ovulate normally but are unable to lay eggs. Here, we describe an outbreak of FLS in Arizona from which an IBV variant that is nearly 90% homologous to DMV/1639 using the Spike subunit 1 gene, named , was isolated and used in challenge experiments. Three-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were challenged with AZ/FLS/17 or M41 in high and low doses, and the disease outcomes were compared. Read More

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September 2021

Enhanced Protection by Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Infectious Bronchitis Virus Spike Ectodomain and Chicken Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor.

Avian Dis 2021 09;65(3):364-372

Department of Pathobiology, Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36830,

We previously reported that recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark)-type trimeric spike (S) ectodomain (Se; rLS/ArkSe) provides suboptimal protection against IBV challenge. We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. In the current study, we first compared protection conferred by vaccination with rLS/ArkSe and rLS/ArkSe. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of the avian coronavirus spike protein reveals heterogeneity in the glycans present.

J Gen Virol 2021 08;102(8)

The Pirbright Institute, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important coronavirus, causing damaging losses to the poultry industry worldwide as the causative agent of infectious bronchitis. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein is a large type I membrane protein protruding from the surface of the virion, which facilitates attachment and entry into host cells. The IBV S protein is cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, the latter of which has been identified as a determinant of cellular tropism. Read More

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Multiple antigenic peptide-based flow through dot-blot assay for simultaneous antibody detection of infectious bronchitis virus and Newcastle disease virus.

Biologicals 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

The present study describes the development of a novel affordable and rapid visual dot-blot assay using synthetic multiple antigenic peptides (MAP) for simultaneous detection of antibodies to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Antibody detection efficiencies of MAP peptides namely, NP1 MAP (Nucleoprotein IBV) and HN MAP (Haemagglutinin-neuraminidase NDV) were studied in solid-phase indirect peptide ELISA. In comparison with the commercial kit, the NP1 MAP showed 89. Read More

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Research Note: Effects of Escherichia coli co-infection on the protective efficacy assessment of two common infectious bronchitis vaccines.

Poult Sci 2021 Sep 17;100(9):101324. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious disease hazardous to the poultry industry, is caused by an etiological agent called the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Some IBV strains (IBVs) alone usually do not cause high mortality in field conditions if not with secondary pathogens including Escherichia coli (E. coli). Read More

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September 2021

Aspects of "antigen-antibody" interaction of chicken infectious bronchitis virus determined by surface plasmon resonance.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 29;264:120236. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

V.Ye. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Department of Physics technological bases of sensory materials, 41 Nauki Ave, 03028 Kyiv, Ukraine.

Authors performed investigation on "antigen-antibody" interaction of chicken infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) by a method based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Presence of space-size effect related to a difference between antigen and antibody particle sizes has been theoretically grounded and experimentally proven. Herewith, the difference between responses of the SPR-sensor to specific and non-specific interactions is considerably less (up to 6. Read More

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Isolation and characterization of a novel chicken astrovirus in China.

Poult Sci 2021 Sep 30;100(9):101363. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Wen's Group Academy, Wen's Foodstuffs Group Co, Ltd, Xinxing, Guangdong, 527400, China. Electronic address:

Chicken astrovirus (CAstV) is associated with kidney disease and visceral gout, runting and stunting syndrome, and white chick hatchery disease, causing economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 55.6% of 36 clinical samples from Guangdong province in China were positive for CAstV, but negative for other common enteric viruses, including avian nephritis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, fowl adenovirus Group I, Newcastle disease virus, chicken parvovirus, reovirus, and rotavirus by PCRs and RT-PCRs. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalences of specific antibodies against avian pathogens in free-ranging ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Northwestern Germany.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(8):e0255434. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Infectious diseases in captive pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are well known, but there is a lack of knowledge about occurrence and distribution of pathogens in free-ranging pheasants in Germany. We investigated 604 sera from hunted pheasants and 152 sera from wild caught pheasants between 2011 to 2015, with the aim to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies against different viruses: Avian influenza virus (AIV) of subtypes H5, H7, H9, paramyxovirus type 1 (PMV-1), avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV), infectious bursitis disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). Read More

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Infectious Bronchitis Virus Prevalence, Characterization, and Strain Identification in California Backyard Chickens.

Avian Dis 2021 03;65(1):188-197

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, CA 95616,

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes significant losses in the poultry industry throughout the world. Here we characterize the lesions of infectious bronchitis (IB) and IBV prevalence and identify the circulating strains in small flocks in California. Backyard chickens (BYCs) submitted to the Davis (Northern California; NorCal) and San Bernardino (Southern California; SoCal) branches of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System from January through March 2019 were included in the study. Read More

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An Outbreak of Fowl Aviadenovirus A-Associated Gizzard Erosion and Ulceration in Captive Bobwhite Quail ().

Avian Dis 2021 03;65(1):52-58

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108,

A flock of captive bobwhite quail () experienced loose droppings, depression, and increased mortality starting at 3 wk of age. Necropsy of the affected birds revealed intestines dilated with frothy and tan fluid. Irregular dark brown fissures within the koilin layer of the gizzard were found in 20%-30% of the birds. Read More

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Viral Metagenomic Analysis of Japanese Quail () with Enteritis in the Republic of Korea.

Avian Dis 2021 03;65(1):40-45

Avian Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 39660, Republic of Korea.

We performed viral metagenomics analysis of Japanese quail affected with enteritis to elucidate the viral etiology. Metagenomics generated 21,066,442 sequence reads via high-throughput sequencing, with a mean length of 136 nt. Enrichment in viral sequences suggested that at least three viruses were present in quail samples. Read More

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Histopathologic Lesion Scoring and Histomorphometric Methods for Measuring Vaccine Reactions in the Trachea of Broiler Chickens.

Avian Dis 2021 03;65(1):18-25

Poultry Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Pearl, MS 39208.

Severity of the tracheal histologic inflammatory response induced in broilers by ocular inoculation of two infectious bronchitis (IBV) and three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) commercial vaccines were evaluated. The vaccine was delivered by eye drop with a coarse spray to day-old chicks. The vaccines were given individually or in various combinations and were evaluated relative to nonvaccinated controls. Read More

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Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 PCR and Chest CT Findings at a Single Facility in Tokyo (Machida Municipal Hospital).

Pulm Med 2021 26;2021:6680232. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan.

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is useful for diagnosing COVID-19, and the RT-PCR positive rate is an important indicator for estimating the incidence rate and number of infections. COVID-19 pneumonia is also associated with characteristic findings on chest CT, which can aid in diagnosis.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patient background characteristics, the number of cases, the positivity rate, and chest CT findings for positive and negative cases in 672 patients who underwent RT-PCR for suspected COVID-19 at our hospital between April 3 and August 28, 2020. Read More

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Neonatal FeNO, risk factors, and respiratory morbidity in infants: A cohort study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Oct 28;56(10):3174-3182. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescence Medicine, Nordsjaellands Hospital, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark.

Background: Respiratory symptoms in infancy are more common in premature infants. Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in prenatal and neonatal lung development. Measurement of exhaled NO is easy and well-tolerated by neonates. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of assay choice, viral concentration and operator interpretation on infectious bronchitis virus detection and characterization.

Avian Pathol 2021 Aug 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), Università degli Studi di Padova, Viale dell'Università, Legnaro PD, Italy.

Despite the efforts to achieve a consistent classification scheme based on the complete S1 gene, the genetic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often performed on partial S1 regions due to economic and time constraints in the diagnostic routine. Sanger sequencing remains the most common and cost-effective option even if the analysis of samples where multiple field and vaccine strain populations coexist can lead to partial or misleading results. The present study aimed to evaluate the different diagnostic outcomes of three commonly used RT-PCR methods targeting two regions of the S1 gene. Read More

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A study of rural chicken farmers, diseases and remedies in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Sep 12;194:105430. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa; Discipline of Veterinary Sciences, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, Australia.

The source of emerging diseases and antimicrobial resistance is of increasing interest to epidemiologists. This paper looks at village chickens as such a source. In addition, infectious diseases constitute a major challenge to the growth and profitability of the rural poultry sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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September 2021

A Multivariate Age-Structured Stochastic Model with Immunization Strategies to Describe Bronchiolitis Dynamics.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 17;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain.

Bronchiolitis has a high morbidity in children under 2 years old. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common pathogen causing the disease. At present, there is only a costly humanized monoclonal RSV-specific antibody to prevent RSV. Read More

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