11,102 results match your criteria breast doses


Sublethal doxorubicin promotes migration and invasion of breast cancer cells: role of Src Family non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Jul 27;23(1):76. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794- 8430, USA.

Background: Doxorubicin (Dox) is a widely used chemotherapy, but its effectiveness is limited by dose-dependent side effects. Although lower Dox doses reduce this risk, studies have reported higher recurrence of local disease with no improvement in survival rate in patients receiving low doses of Dox. To effectively mitigate this, a better understanding of the adverse effects of suboptimal Dox doses is needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Target coverage and cardiopulmonary sparing with the updated ESTRO-ACROP contouring guidelines for postmastectomy radiation therapy after breast reconstruction: a treatment planning study using VMAT and proton PBS techniques.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jul 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice (ESTRO-ACROP) recently released new contouring guidelines for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after implant-based reconstruction (IBR). As compared to prior ESTRO guidelines, the new guidelines primarily redefined the chest wall (CW) target to exclude the breast prosthesis. In this study, we assessed the impact of these changes on treatment planning and dosimetric outcomes using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil-beam scanning (PBS) therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Does coffee, tea and caffeine consumption reduce the risk of incident breast cancer? A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jul 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang110016, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee and/or tea consumption and breast cancer (BC) risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to conduct a network meta-analysis.

Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Setting: We conducted a systematic review of electronic publications in the last 30 years to identify case-control studies or prospective cohort studies that evaluated the effects of coffee and tea intake. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cannabis constituents interact at the drug efflux pump BCRP to markedly increase plasma cannabidiolic acid concentrations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 22;11(1):14948. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Brain and Mind Centre, Discipline of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Cannabis is a complex mixture of hundreds of bioactive molecules. This provides the potential for pharmacological interactions between cannabis constituents, a phenomenon referred to as "the entourage effect" by the medicinal cannabis community. We hypothesize that pharmacokinetic interactions between cannabis constituents could substantially alter systemic cannabinoid concentrations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Homologous recombination is reduced in female embryonic stem cells by two active X chromosomes.

EMBO Rep 2021 Jul 26:e52190. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Molecular Biology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan.

The reactivation of X-linked genes is observed in some primary breast tumors. Two active X chromosomes are also observed in female embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but whether double doses of X-linked genes affect DNA repair efficiency remains unclear. Here, we establish isogenic female/male ESCs and show that the female ESCs are more sensitive to camptothecin and have lower gene targeting efficiency than male ESCs, suggesting that homologous recombination (HR) efficiency is reduced in female ESCs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluating Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE) as an Estimate of Organ Doses from Routine CT Exams Derived from Monte Carlo Simulations.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Livermore, 90024, USA.

Purpose: The size specific dose estimate (SSDE) is a metric that adjusts CTDI to account for patient size. While not intended to be an estimate of organ dose, AAPM Report 204 notes the difference between the patient organ dose and SSDE is expected to be 10-20%. The purpose of this work was therefore to evaluate SSDE against estimates of organ dose obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques applied to routine exams across a wide range of patient sizes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reduction in doses to organs at risk and normal tissue during breast radiotherapy with a Carbon-fibre Adjustable Reusable Accessory (CARA).

Pract Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

BC Cancer, Vancouver Canada.

Background And Purpose: This pilot study (Clinical trials.gov xxxxxx) investigates a novel breast positioning device using a low density, high tensile carbon-fibre cradle to support the breast, remove the infra-mammary fold and reduce dose to organs at risk for whole breast radiotherapy in the supine position.

Materials And Methods: Thirty patients with infra-mammary folds ≥ 1 cm and/or lateral ptosis in supine treatment position were planned with standard positioning and with a Carbon-fibre Adjustable Reusable Accessory (CARA) breast support. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CX-072 (pacmilimab), a Probody PD-L1 inhibitor, in advanced or recurrent solid tumors (PROCLAIM-CX-072): an open-label dose-finding and first-in-human study.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Department of Medical Oncology, Virginia Cancer Specialists, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.

Background: Probody therapeutics are antibody prodrugs that are activated in the tumor microenvironment by tumor-associated proteases, thereby restricting the activity to the tumor microenvironment and minimizing 'off-tumor' toxicity. We report dose-escalation and single-agent expansion phase data from the first-in-human study of CX-072 (pacmilimab), a Probody checkpoint inhibitor directed against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1).

Methods: In the dose-escalation phase of this multicenter, open-label study (NCT03013491), adults with advanced solid tumors (naive to programmed-death-1/PD-L1 or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitors) were enrolled into one of seven dose-escalation cohorts, with pacmilimab administered intravenously every 14 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spatially fractionated radiotherapy: tumor response modelling including immunomodulation.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Physics, University of Oslo Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Oslo, NORWAY.

A mathematical tumor response model has been developed, encompassing the interplay between immune cells and cancer cells initiated by either partial or full tumor irradiation. The iterative four-compartment model employs the linear-quadratic radiation response theory for four cell types: active and inactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (immune cells, CD8T cells in particular), viable cancer cells (undamaged and reparable cells) and doomed cells (irreparably damaged cells). The cell compartment interactions are calculated per day, with total tumor volume as the main quantity of interest. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Incidental axillary dose delivery to axillary lymph node levels I-III by different techniques of whole-breast irradiation: a systematic literature review.

Strahlenther Onkol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Radiotherapy Department, Strasbourg Europe Cancer Institute, 17 Rue Albert Calmette, 67200, Strasbourg Cedex, France.

Background And Objective: In breast cancer treatment, radiotherapy is an essential component for locoregional management. Axillary recurrence in patients with invasive breast carcinoma remains an issue. The question of whether breast irradiation may unintentionally include levels I, II, and III, and may decrease the risk of axillary recurrence, remains a topic of discussion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A small-molecule activator of the unfolded protein response eradicates human breast tumors in mice.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jul;13(603)

Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Metastatic estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer is presently incurable. Seeking to target these drug-resistant cancers, we report the discovery of a compound, called ErSO, that activates the anticipatory unfolded protein response (a-UPR) and induces rapid and selective necrosis of ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines in vitro. We then tested ErSO in vivo in several preclinical orthotopic and metastasis mouse models carrying different xenografts of human breast cancer lines or patient-derived breast tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dosimetric Comparison of Whole Breast Radiotherapy Using Field-in-Field and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Techniques in Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients.

Cureus 2021 Jun 18;13(6):e15732. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Clinical and Radiation Oncology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, PAK.

Introduction The radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancers is challenging because of neighboring critical organs, posing an increased risk of complications. Various radiation delivery techniques have been used to deliver the desired dose of radiation to the target area while keeping the doses to nearby structures within constraints. The main aim of this study is to quantify doses delivered to the organs at risk (OARs) including heart, left lung, spinal cord, and contralateral breast, and to the planning target volume (PTV) using Field-in-Field (FIF) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Correlation between gastric volume and organs at risk dose in adjuvant radiotherapy for left breast cancer.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 9;26(3):367-379. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Proteomics Research Center and Biostatics Department, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The role of the gastric volume on the dose-effect relationship for these organs has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between gastric volume and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters of the heart, left lung and stomach during left breast cancer radiotherapy (RT).

Materials And Methods: Ninety-nine left breast cancer patients who got adjuvant radiotherapy were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Estimating long-term health risks after breast cancer radiotherapy: merging evidence from low and high doses.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2021 Aug 17;60(3):459-474. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

In breast cancer radiotherapy, substantial radiation exposure of organs other than the treated breast cannot be avoided, potentially inducing second primary cancer or heart disease. While distant organs and large parts of nearby ones receive doses in the mGy-Gy range, small parts of the heart, lung and bone marrow often receive doses as high as 50 Gy. Contemporary treatment planning allows for considerable flexibility in the distribution of this exposure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Aloe vera gel extract: Safety evaluation for acute and chronic oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats and anticancer activity in breast and lung cancer cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 16;280:114434. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of R&D, Biotech&Science Company of UP, Ltd., Guangzhou, 510000, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The advantages of abdominal compression with shallow breathing during left-sided postmastectomy radiotherapy by Helical TomoTherapy.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0254934. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai, Thailand.

Background: Left-sided post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) certainly precedes some radiation dose to the cardiopulmonary organs causing many side effects. To reduce the cardiopulmonary dose, we created a new option of the breathing adapted technique by using abdominal compression applied with a patient in deep inspiration phase utilizing shallow breathing. This study aimed to compare the use of abdominal compression with shallow breathing (ACSB) with the free breathing (FB) technique in the left-sided PMRT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparative analysis of the absorbed dose in the heart and anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery (LAD) in patients with left-sided breast cancer who received radiotherapy using 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT techniques.

J BUON 2021 May-Jun;26(3):753-758

Radiotherapy Department, Oncology Center in Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the absorbed dose distributions within the heart and lad in patients with left-sided breast cancer who underwent radiotherapy using 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT techniques.

Methods: The treatment plans of 11 patients with left-sided breast cancer were analyzed. All of the patients were irradiated in our facility with DIBH 3D-CRT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Therapeutic Role of Fruit and Bee Venom Against MNU-Induced Breast Cancer in Pregnant Rats and its Complications on the Ovaries.

Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 2021 8;13:431-445. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate the potential therapeutic role of (graviola) fruit and bee venom (BV) against -methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced breast cancer in pregnant female rats and complications in the ovaries.

Methods: A total of 24 female rats were induced with a single dose of MNU (50 mg/kg body weight). After confirmation of positive tumor marker, female rats were placed with the males for mating. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Liposomal and Microbubbles Mediated Delivery of Doxorubicin in Two-Dimensional (2D) and Three-Dimensional (3D) Models for Breast Cancer.

Eur J Breast Health 2021 Jul 24;17(3):274-282. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Basic Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: Liposomal cancer treatment strategies are useful in removing the side effects that were the main concern in recent years. In this study, we prepared microbubble (MBs) conjugated with DOX-loaded liposomes (DOX-loaded MBs) and investigated their effectiveness in breast cancer cells in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D).

Materials And Methods: With this aim, breast cancer cells with different features (4T1, MDA-MB231, MCF-7) were growth in 2D and 3D dimensions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Techniques for Left Breast Post-Mastectomy Patients: Our Experience in Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority-Lagos University Teaching Hospital Cancer Center, South-West Nigeria.

Eur J Breast Health 2021 Jul 24;17(3):247-252. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Radiation Biology, Division of Radiotherapy and Radiodiagnosis, College of Medicine, University of Lagos/NSIA-LUTH Cancer Centre, Lagos, Nigeria.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the dosimetric properties of treatment plans obtained from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques (IMRT) plans for left chest wall breast cancer patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 20 patients with left-sided chest wall radiotherapy were randomly selected with the dose prescriptions: 42 Gy and 45 Gy in 15 and 18 fractions, respectively. Treatment plans were obtained using 3D-CRT and IMRT for each patient. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reduction of heart and lung normal tissue complication probability using automatic beam angle optimization and more generic optimization objectives for breast radiotherapy.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Apr 28;18:48-50. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Catharina Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiation Oncology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

During breast cancer radiotherapy, sparing of healthy tissue is desired. The effect of automatic beam angle optimization and generic dose fall-off objectives on dose and normal tissue complication probabilities was studied. In all patients, dose to lungs and heart showed a mean reduction of 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19 Vaccination Induced Lymphadenopathy in a Specialized Breast Imaging Clinic in Israel: Analysis of 163 cases.

Acad Radiol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; The Meirav High Risk Clinic, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Introduction: Following vaccination of Israeli population with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, an unusual increase in axillary-lymphadenopathy was noted. This study assesses the rate and magnitude of this trend from breast-imaging standpoint.

Materials And Methods: Participants undergoing breast-imaging, in whom isolated axillary-lymphadenopathy was detected were questioned regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to the ipsilateral arm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of skin dose and skin toxicity in patients undergoing intraoperative radiotherapy for early breast cancer.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Breast Surgery Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate in vivo skin dose delivered by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and determine the factors associated with an increased risk of radiation-induced skin toxicity.

Methodology: A total of 21 breast cancer patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and IORT, either as IORT alone or IORT boost plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were recruited in this prospective study. EBT3 film was calibrated in water and used to measure skin dose during IORT at concentric circles of 5 mm and 40 mm away from the applicator. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intraoperative fluorescence imaging with aminolevulinic acid detects grossly occult breast cancer: a phase II randomized controlled trial.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Jul 12;23(1):72. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Ontario Cancer Institute, 101 College Street, Toronto, M5G 1L7, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Re-excision due to positive margins following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) negatively affects patient outcomes and healthcare costs. The inability to visualize margin involvement is a significant challenge in BCS. 5-Aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (5-ALA HCl), a non-fluorescent oral prodrug, causes intracellular accumulation of fluorescent porphyrins in cancer cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

GDC-9545 (Giredestrant): A Potent and Orally Bioavailable Selective Estrogen Receptor Antagonist and Degrader with an Exceptional Preclinical Profile for ER+ Breast Cancer.

J Med Chem 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death in women, representing a significant unmet medical need. Here, we disclose our discovery efforts culminating in a clinical candidate, (GDC-9545 or giredestrant). is an efficient and potent selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) and a full antagonist, which translates into better antiproliferation activity than known SERDs (, , , and ) across multiple cell lines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immobilization-assisted abdominal deep inspiration breath-hold in post-mastectomy radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer with internal mammary chain coverage.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jul;11(7):3314-3326

Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Whether to prophylactically irradiate the ipsilateral internal mammary chain (IMC) in post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) remains controversial because of equivocal clinical benefits against the added toxicities. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac dose was decreased during left-sided breast radiotherapy with abdominal deep inspiration breath-hold (aDIBH) as compared with free-breathing (FB) and thoracic deep inspiration breath-hold (tDIBH). Here we present the dosimetric advantage of aDIBH for patients undergoing PMRT with IMC coverage. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Menopausal hormonal therapy and breast cancer.]

Adv Gerontol 2021 ;34(2):277-286

N.N.Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, 68 Leningradskaya str., Pesochny, St. Petersburg 197758, Russian Federation, e-mail:

The most common treatment for menopausal syndrome is menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), however, the safety of MHT, due to the risk of developing and recurrent breast cancer (BC), is still a matter of debate. The review presents the results of randomized cohort studies of this issue. It has been shown that MHT increases the risk of developing of breast cancer and disease recurrence after treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Assessment of imaging performance of digital breast tomosynthesis based on systematic simulation].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Jun;41(6):898-908

School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To assess the imaging performance of digital breast tomography (DBT) based on systematic simulation.

Objective: The raw measurements of physical phantoms at a variety of radiation dose levels and clinical patients at the normal radiation dose were acquired from a clinical DBT system for low-dose simulation and reconstruction using 3 reconstruction algorithms, namely Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and adaptive steepest-descent projection onto convex sets with total-variation constraint (ASDPOCS-TV) algorithms. The image quality was compared across different radiation dose levels and reconstruction algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), noise-power spectrum (NPS), artifact spread function (ASF) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ASF indexes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gene network analysis to determine the effect of hypoxia-associated genes on brain damages and tumorigenesis using an avian model.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jul 8;19(1):100. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Hypoxia refers to the condition of low oxygen pressure in the atmosphere and characterization of response to hypoxia as a biological complex puzzle, is challenging. Previously, we carried out a comparative genomic study by whole genome resequencing of highland and lowland Iranian native chickens to identify genomic variants associated with hypoxia conditions. Based on our previous findings, we used chicken as a model and the identified hypoxia-associated genes were converted to human's orthologs genes to construct the informative gene network. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modeling bystander effects that cause growth delay of breast cancer xenografts in bone marrow of mice treated with radium-223.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jul 26:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Radiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

Rationale: The role of radiation-induced bystander effects in cancer therapy with alpha-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals remains unclear. With renewed interest in using alpha-particle emitters to sterilize disseminated tumor cells, micrometastases, and tumors, a better understanding of the direct effects of alpha particles and the contribution of the bystander responses they induce is needed to refine dosimetric models that help predict clinical benefit. Accordingly, this work models and quantifies the relative importance of direct effects (DE) and bystander effects (BE) in the growth delay of human breast cancer xenografts observed previously in the tibiae of mice treated with RaCl. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF