174,199 results match your criteria brain regions

Impact of anesthesia on static and dynamic functional connectivity in mice.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 20;241:118413. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishinbashi, Minato City, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan; Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

A few studies have compared the static functional connectivity between awake and lightly anesthetized states in rodents by resting-state fMRI. However, impact of light anesthesia on static and dynamic fluctuations in functional connectivity has not been fully understood. Here, we developed a resting-state fMRI protocol to perform awake and anesthetized functional MRI in the same mice. Read More

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Neurochemical abnormalities in the hippocampus of male rats displaying audiogenic seizures, a genetic model of epilepsy.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 19:136123. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratório de Neurofarmacologia, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus Pampulha, CEP 30190-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affects 1% of the population. However, the neurochemical alterations observed in epilepsy are not fully understood. There are different animal models of epilepsy, such as genetic or drug induced. Read More

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Disrupted Small-world Networks are Associated with Decreased Vigilant Attention after Total Sleep Deprivation.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, The Second Medical Center, Sleep Medicine Research Center, National Clinical Research Centre for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China; School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Sleep deprivation critically affects vigilant attention. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed altered inter-regional functional connectivity after sleep deprivation, which may disrupt topological properties of brain functional networks. However, little is known about alterations in the topology of intrinsic connectivity and its involvement in attention performance after sleep deprivation. Read More

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A Pilot Behavioural and Neuroimaging Investigation on Photothrombotic Stroke Models in Rhesus Monkeys.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jul 19:109291. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Resource Center for Non-Human Primates, Kunming Primate Research Center, and National Research Facility for Phenotypic & Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility), Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemic stroke leads to a long-term disability in humans and no efficient clinical therapy exists to date. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in non-human primates has shown to be of value for translational stroke research. New method In the current study, a photothrombotic (PT) stroke model was established in rhesus monkeys with either a proximal or distal segment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombosis. Read More

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Pallido-putaminal connectivity predicts outcomes of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia.

Brain 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Oxford Functional Neurosurgery, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Cervical dystonia is a non-degenerative movement disorder characterised by dysfunction of both motor and sensory cortico-basal ganglia networks. Deep brain stimulation targeted to the internal pallidum (GPi) is an established treatment, but its specific mechanisms remain elusive, and response to therapy is highly variable. Modulation of key dysfunctional networks via axonal connections is likely important. Read More

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Volume of the right supramarginal gyrus is associated with a maintenance of emotion recognition ability.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254623. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Physiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Emotion recognition is known to change with age, but associations between the change and brain atrophy are not well understood. In the current study atrophied brain regions associated with emotion recognition were investigated in elderly and younger participants. Group comparison showed no difference in emotion recognition score, while the score was associated with years of education, not age. Read More

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BDNF produced by cerebral microglia promotes cortical plasticity and pain hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jul 22;19(7):e3001337. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Peripheral nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia is often accompanied by abnormalities in the higher cortical regions, yet the mechanisms underlying such maladaptive cortical plasticity remain unclear. Here, we show that in male mice, structural and functional changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) caused by peripheral nerve injury require neuron-microglial signaling within the local circuit. Following peripheral nerve injury, microglia in the S1 maintain ramified morphology and normal density but up-regulate the mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Read More

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Ongoing global and regional adaptive evolution of SARS-CoV-2.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul 2;118(29). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20894;

Understanding the trends in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution is paramount to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed more than 300,000 high-quality genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 variants available as of January 2021. The results show that the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during the pandemic is characterized primarily by purifying selection, but a small set of sites appear to evolve under positive selection. Read More

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A case of 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome and literature review.

Brain Behav 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatric, The Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China.

Background: The chromosomal 15q11-q13 regions are structurally complex, and their abnormalities are associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, Angelman syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome.

Case Description: A 6-year-old child was admitted to the hospital as a result of an "epileptic status" showing ASD, intractable epilepsy, and total developmental retardation. Chromosome gene detection showed repetitive variation in the 15q11-q13 regions, and the video electroencephalogram was abnormal. Read More

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Irritability-related neural responses to frustrative nonreward in adolescents with trauma histories: A preliminary investigation.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Irritability, conceptualized as a lowered frustration response threshold to blocked goal attainment (i.e., frustrative nonreward), is a common, detrimental symptom in adolescence. Read More

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Using different methods for calculating frontal alpha asymmetry to study its development from infancy to 3 years of age in a large longitudinal sample.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Frontal electroencephalography (EEG) alpha asymmetry (FAA), defined as the difference in frontal alpha power observed over the right and left frontal scalp regions, has been widely used in developmental research as a measure of multiple aspects of child behavior, such as temperament. Studies have used different equations to calculate FAA, which renders comparison of results across studies challenging. Furthermore, few studies have examined FAA's longitudinal stability across infancy and early childhood, which is a desirable feature of a temperament measure. Read More

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Chronic Exposure to Hypoxia Inhibits Myelinogenesis and Causes Motor Coordination Deficits in Adult Mice.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Brain and Intelligence Research Key Laboratory of Chongqing Education Commission, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Exposure to chronic hypoxia is considered to be a risk factor for deficits in brain function in adults, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since active myelinogenesis persists in the adult central nervous system, here we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on myelination and the related functional consequences in adult mice. Using a transgenic approach to label newly-generated myelin sheaths (NG2-CreER; Tau-mGFP), we found that myelinogenesis was highly active in most brain regions, such as the motor cortex and corpus callosum. Read More

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Preclinical and clinical study on [F]DRKXH1: a novel β-amyloid PET tracer for Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 1665, Kongjiang Street, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Highly sensitive Aβ positron emission tomography (PET) imaging plays an essential role in diagnosing and evaluating the therapeutic effects of AD.

Aim: To synthesize a new Aβ tracer [F]DRKXH1 (5-(4-(6-(2-[18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)imidazo[1,2-alpha]pyridin-2-yl)phenyl) and evaluate the tracer performance by biodistribution analysis, in vivo small-animal PET-CT dynamic scan, ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography, and PET in human subjects. Read More

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Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Neuropsychological Perspective.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou School of Psychology, Hainan Medical University, Haikou Department of Psychology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Abstract: Understanding the underlying mechanisms of mindfulness has been a hot topic in recent years, not only in clinical fields but also in neuroscience. Most neuroimaging findings demonstrate that critical brain regions involved in mindfulness are responsible for cognitive functions and mental states. However, the brain is a complex system operating via multiple circuits and networks, rather than isolated brain regions solely responsible for specific functions. Read More

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Handball-Related Head and Neck Trauma: An Analysis of the 2000-2019 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) Database.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Columbia University College of Dental Medicine Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Dental Medicine (Oral Surgery), Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report on the characteristics of head and neck injuries secondary to the sport of Handball in the United States.

Materials And Methods: This is a 20-year cross-sectional study that was conducted using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Handball injuries were included in the study if they involved the head, face, eyeball, mouth, ear, or neck. Read More

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Modulatory effects of actual and imagined acupuncture on the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal grey and ventral tegmental area.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA Martinos Brain Imaging Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Objective: Both acupuncture and guided imagery hold promise for treating pain. The mechanisms underlying these alternative interventions remain unclear. The reported study aimed to comparatively investigate the modulation effect of actual and imagined acupuncture on the functional connectivity of descending pain modulation system and reward network. Read More

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The latent factor structure underlying regional brain volume change and its relation to cognitive change in older adults.

Neuropsychology 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology.

Objective: Late-life changes in cognition and brain integrity are both highly multivariate, time-dependent processes that are essential for understanding cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease outcomes. The present study seeks to identify a latent variable model capable of efficiently reducing a multitude of structural brain change magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements into a smaller number of dimensions. We further seek to demonstrate the validity of this model by evaluating its ability to reproduce patterns of coordinated brain volume change and to explain the rate of cognitive decline over time. Read More

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Into the Unknown: Examining Neural Representations of Parent-Adolescent Interactions.

Child Dev 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Oklahoma State University.

The parent-adolescent relationship is important for adolescents' emotion regulation (ER), yet little is known regarding the neural patterns of dyadic ER that occur during parent-adolescent interactions. A novel measure that can be used to examine such patterns is cross-brain connectivity (CBC)-concurrent and time-lagged connectivity between two individuals' brain regions. This study sought to provide evidence of CBC and explore associations between CBC, parenting, and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Read More

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Probing Cerebral Metabolism with Hyperpolarized C Imaging after Opening the Blood-Brain Barrier with Focused Ultrasound.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Advanced Imaging Research Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, United States.

Transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with focused ultrasound (FUS) is an emerging clinical method to facilitate targeted drug delivery to the brain. The focal noninvasive disruption of the BBB can be applied to promote the local delivery of hyperpolarized substrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of FUS on imaging brain metabolism using two hyperpolarized C-labeled substrates in rodents: [1-C]pyruvate and [1-C]glycerate. Read More

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Oligodendrocytes in the aging brain.

Neuronal Signal 2021 Sep 6;5(3):NS20210008. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry Centre for Neuroscience, Surgery and Trauma, Blizard Institute, 4 Newark Street, Whitechapel E1 2AT, London.

More than half of the human brain volume is made up of white matter: regions where axons are coated in myelin, which primarily functions to increase the conduction speed of axon potentials. White matter volume significantly decreases with age, correlating with cognitive decline. Much research in the field of non-pathological brain aging mechanisms has taken a neuron-centric approach, with relatively little attention paid to other neural cells. Read More

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September 2021

Empirical Evidence Supporting Neural Contributions to Episodic Memory Development in Early Childhood: Implications for Childhood Amnesia.

Child Dev Perspect 2020 Mar 19;14(1):41-48. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

University of Maryland, College Park.

Memories for events that happen early in life are fragile-they are forgotten more quickly than expected based on typical adult rates of forgetting. Although numerous factors contribute to this phenomenon, data show one major source of change is the protracted development of neural structures related to memory. Recent empirical studies in early childhood reveal that the development of specific subdivisions of the hippocampus (i. Read More

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Compromised Brain Activity With Age During a Game-Like Dynamic Balance Task: Single- vs. Dual-Task Performance.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 5;13:657308. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Neuromotor Rehabilitation Research Group, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Postural control and cognition are affected by aging. We investigated whether cognitive distraction influenced neural activity differently in young and older adults during a game-like mediolateral weight-shifting task with a personalized task load. Seventeen healthy young and 17 older adults performed a balance game, involving hitting virtual wasps, serial subtractions and a combination of both (dual-task). Read More

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White Matter Hyperintensity Volume and Location: Associations With WM Microstructure, Brain Iron, and Cerebral Perfusion.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 5;13:617947. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) represent macrostructural brain damage associated with various etiologies. However, the relative contributions of various etiologies to WMH volume, as assessed via different neuroimaging measures, is not well-understood. Here, we explored associations between three potential early markers of white matter hyperintensity volume. Read More

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Functional Brain Connectivity During Narrative Processing Relates to Transportation and Story Influence.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 5;15:665319. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Psychology, Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Engaging with narratives involves a complex array of cognitive and affective processes. These processes make stories persuasive in ways that standard arguments are not, though the underlying reasons for this remain unclear. Transportation theory proposes a potential explanation for this: narratives are processed in a way which makes individuals feel immersed in the world of a story, which in turn leads people to resonate emotionally with the events of the story. Read More

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Knockdown of Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase in the Retina Leads to a Unique Pattern of Retinal Degeneration.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 5;14:693967. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Medical Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (DHDDS) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes -prenyl chain elongation to produce the poly-prenyl backbone of dolichol. It appears in all tissues including the nervous system and it is a highly conserved enzyme that can be found in all animal species. Individuals who have biallelic missense mutations in the gene are presented with non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa with unknown underlying mechanism. Read More

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Genetic Overlap Between Alzheimer's Disease and Depression Mapped Onto the Brain.

Front Neurosci 2021 5;15:653130. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression are debilitating brain disorders that are often comorbid. Shared brain mechanisms have been implicated, yet findings are inconsistent, reflecting the complexity of the underlying pathophysiology. As both disorders are (partly) heritable, characterising their genetic overlap may provide aetiological clues. Read More

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Sexually dimorphic neuroanatomical differences relate to ASD-relevant behavioral outcomes in a maternal autoantibody mouse model.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies reactive to fetal brain proteins in mothers of children with ASD have been described by several groups. To understand their pathologic significance, we developed a mouse model of maternal autoantibody related ASD (MAR-ASD) utilizing the peptide epitopes from human autoantibody reactivity patterns. Male and female offspring prenatally exposed to the salient maternal autoantibodies displayed robust deficits in social interactions and increased repetitive self-grooming behaviors as juveniles and adults. Read More

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Oxytocin administration in neonates shapes hippocampal circuitry and restores social behavior in a mouse model of autism.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR 1249, Institut de Neurobiologie de la Méditerranée (INMED), Institut Marseille Maladies Rares (MarMaRa), Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Oxytocin is an important regulator of the social brain. In some animal models of autism, notably in Magel2-deficient mice, peripheral administration of oxytocin in infancy improves social behaviors until adulthood. However, neither the mechanisms responsible for social deficits nor the mechanisms by which such oxytocin administration has long-term effects are known. Read More

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Associations between lipids in selected brain regions, plasma miRNA, and behavioral and cognitive measures following Si ion irradiation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14899. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, L470, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

The space radiation environment consists of multiple species of charged particles, including Si ions, that may impact brain function during and following missions. To develop biomarkers of the space radiation response, BALB/c and C3H female and male mice and their F2 hybrid progeny were irradiated with Si ions (350 MeV/n, 0.2 Gy) and tested for behavioral and cognitive performance 1, 6, and 12 months following irradiation. Read More

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Multiregional profiling of the brain transmembrane proteome uncovers novel regulators of depression.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

iHuman Institute, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Transmembrane proteins play vital roles in mediating synaptic transmission, plasticity, and homeostasis in the brain. However, these proteins, especially the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are underrepresented in most large-scale proteomic surveys. Here, we present a new proteomic approach aided by deep learning models for comprehensive profiling of transmembrane protein families in multiple mouse brain regions. Read More

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