80,193 results match your criteria brain lipids

Fatty acids and beyond: Age and Alzheimer's disease related changes in lipids reveal the neuro-nutraceutical potential of lipids in cognition.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 23:105143. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, 30 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; School of Biosciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Lipids are essential in maintaining brain function, and lipid profiles have been reported to be altered in aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains as compared to healthy mature brains. Both age and AD share common metabolic hallmarks such as increased oxidative stress and perturbed metabolic function, and age remains the most strongly correlated risk factor for AD, a neurodegenerative disease. A major accompanying pathological symptom of these conditions is cognitive impairment, which is linked with changes in lipid metabolism. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 (FABP3) and Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) as Lipid Metabolism-Related Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 6;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland.

Background: Lipid metabolism-related biomarkers gain increasing researchers interest in the field of neurodegenerative disorders. Mounting evidence have indicated the role of fatty acid-binding proteins and pathology lipid metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The imbalance of fatty acids (FA) and lipids may negatively affect brain functions related to neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lipidomic Profiling of Ipsilateral Brain and Plasma after Celastrol Post-Treatment in Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mice Model.

Molecules 2021 Jul 7;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., exhibits effectiveness in protection against multiple central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as cerebral ischemia, but its influence on lipidomics still remains unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sialic Acid-Modified Nanoparticles-New Approaches in the Glioma Management-Perspective Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 13;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15A, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland.

The cell surface is covered by a dense and complex network of glycans attached to the membrane proteins and lipids. In gliomas, the aberrant sialylation, as the final stage of glycosylation, is an important regulatory mechanism of malignant cell behavior and correlates with worse prognosis. Better understanding of the role of sialylation in cellular and molecular processes opens a new way in the development of therapeutic tools for human brain tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Progress on the effect of mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes on multiple organ dysfunction in sepsis].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jun;33(6):757-760

Department of the Intensive Care Unit, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University (The Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province), Kunming 650021, Yunnan, China. Corresponding author: Ling Bin, Email:

Mesenchymal stem cell derived (MSC) exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a diameter of about 50-200 nm. Exosomes contain a large number of biologically active substances including mRNAs, miRNAs, cytokines, chemokines, proteins, lipids, etc. MSC exosomes exert biological effects through paracrine and endocrine pathways in vivo. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Correlative optical photothermal infrared and X-ray fluorescence for chemical imaging of trace elements and relevant molecular structures directly in neurons.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Jul 22;10(1):151. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Microspectroscopy, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, 22180, Lund, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, costing about 1% of the global economy. Failures of clinical trials targeting amyloid-β protein (Aβ), a key trigger of AD, have been explained by drug inefficiency regardless of the mechanisms of amyloid neurotoxicity, which are very difficult to address by available technologies. Here, we combine two imaging modalities that stand at opposite ends of the electromagnetic spectrum, and therefore, can be used as complementary tools to assess structural and chemical information directly in a single neuron. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associations between lipids in selected brain regions, plasma miRNA, and behavioral and cognitive measures following Si ion irradiation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14899. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, L470, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

The space radiation environment consists of multiple species of charged particles, including Si ions, that may impact brain function during and following missions. To develop biomarkers of the space radiation response, BALB/c and C3H female and male mice and their F2 hybrid progeny were irradiated with Si ions (350 MeV/n, 0.2 Gy) and tested for behavioral and cognitive performance 1, 6, and 12 months following irradiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Large-scale lipidomic profiling identifies novel potential biomarkers for prion diseases and highlights lipid raft-related pathways.

Vet Res 2021 Jul 21;52(1):105. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, 54531, Republic of Korea.

Prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies induced by the abnormally-folded prion protein (PrP), which is derived from the normal prion protein (PrP). Previous studies have reported that lipid rafts play a pivotal role in the conversion of PrP into PrP, and several therapeutic strategies targeting lipids have led to prolonged survival times in prion diseases. In addition, phosphatidylethanolamine, a glycerophospholipid member, accelerated prion disease progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Automatic cell counting from stimulated Raman imaging using deep learning.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254586. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of System Science and Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, United States of America.

In this paper, we propose an automatic cell counting framework for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) images, which can assist tumor tissue characteristic analysis, cancer diagnosis, and surgery planning processes. SRS microscopy has promoted tumor diagnosis and surgery by mapping lipids and proteins from fresh specimens and conducting a fast disclose of fundamental diagnostic hallmarks of tumors with a high resolution. However, cell counting from label-free SRS images has been challenging due to the limited contrast of cells and tissue, along with the heterogeneity of tissue morphology and biochemical compositions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Serum Heparanase: A New Clinical Biomarker Involved in Senile Metabolic Inflammatory Syndrome.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 13;14:3221-3228. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Geriatrics, Huashan Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, People's Republic of China.

Aim: Metabolic inflammation syndrome (MIS) can lead to a series of complications, but its exact inflammatory mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between heparanase (HPA) and MIS, and the close relationship between HPA and other chronic low-grade inflammation index, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).

Methods: A total of 105 patients with MIS in the physical examination population of Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from May to June 2018 were selected as the MIS group, and 52 patients who were relatively healthy during the same period were used as the control group. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Age-Related Neurometabolomic Signature of Mouse Brain.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics, School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, United States.

Neurometabolites are the ultimate gene products in the brain and the most precise biomolecular indicators of brain endophenotypes. Metabolomics is the only "omics" that provides a moment-to-moment "snapshot" of brain circuits' biochemical activities in response to external stimuli within the context of specific genetic variations. Although the expression levels of neurometabolites are highly dynamic, the underlying metabolic processes are tightly regulated during brain development, maturation, and aging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigating causal relationships between exposome and human longevity: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

BMC Med 2021 Jul 20;19(1):150. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12th Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: Environmental factors are associated with human longevity, but their specificity and causality remain mostly unclear. By integrating the innovative "exposome" concept developed in the field of environmental epidemiology, this study aims to determine the components of exposome causally linked to longevity using Mendelian randomization (MR) approach.

Methods: A total of 4587 environmental exposures extracting from 361,194 individuals from the UK biobank, in exogenous and endogenous domains of exposome were assessed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Extracellular vesicles in the treatment of neurological disorders.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jul 13:105445. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Emory University, Department of Human Genetics, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small, cell-derived membranous particles containing various nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids that play essential roles in intercellular communication through the transfer of their cargos. Current evidence suggests that part of the regenerative benefit from stem cell therapy arises through EVs released from transplanted cells, which generated interest in using EVs for clinical applications. EVs from various cellular sources, including mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and glia, are efficacious in models of neurological disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Body fat, cardiovascular risk factors and brain structure in school-age children.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In adults, cardiovascular risk factors are known to be associated with brain health. We hypothesized that these associations are already present at school-age. We examined the associations of adverse body fat measures and cardiovascular risk factors with brain structure, including volumetric measures and white matter microstructure, in 10-year-old children. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ion mobility-based sterolomics reveals spatially and temporally distinctive sterol lipids in the mouse brain.

Nat Commun 2021 07 15;12(1):4343. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Aberrant sterol lipid metabolism is associated with physiological dysfunctions in the aging brain and aging-dependent disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases. There is an unmet demand to comprehensively profile sterol lipids spatially and temporally in different brain regions during aging. Here, we develop an ion mobility-mass spectrometry based four-dimensional sterolomics technology leveraged by a machine learning-empowered high-coverage library (>2000 sterol lipids) for accurate identification. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cholesterol is required for transcriptional repression by BASP1.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TD, United Kingdom

Lipids are present within the cell nucleus, where they engage with factors involved in gene regulation. Cholesterol associates with chromatin in vivo and stimulates nucleosome packing in vitro, but its effects on specific transcriptional responses are not clear. Here, we show that the lipidated Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) transcriptional corepressor, brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1), interacts with cholesterol in the cell nucleus through a conserved cholesterol interaction motif. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Research advances in the effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on neonates].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;23(7):755-760

Department of Neonatology, Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361001, China.

Adequate supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is of great importance for neonates, especially preterm infants. In particular, -3 LCPUFAs and -6 LCPUFAs play a key role in brain development, immune regulation, and disease prevention. Lack of LCPUFAs may lead to neurodevelopmental impairment, affect the development of neonatal immune system, and result in neonatal diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heterogeneous Expression of Proangiogenic and Coagulation Proteins in Gliomas of Different Histopathological Grade.

Pathol Oncol Res 2021 31;27:605017. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States.

Brain gliomas are characterized by remarkably intense invasive growth and the ability to create new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is a key process in the progression of these tumors. Coagulation and fibrinolysis factors play a role in promoting angiogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals endogenous substrates and metabolic adaptation in rats lacking Abcg2 and Abcb1a transporters.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(7):e0253852. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.

Abcg2/Bcrp and Abcb1a/Pgp are xenobiotic efflux transporters limiting substrate permeability in the gastrointestinal system and brain, and increasing renal and hepatic drug clearance. The systemic impact of Bcrp and Pgp ablation on metabolic homeostasis of endogenous substrates is incompletely understood. We performed untargeted metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma, transcriptomics of brain, liver and kidney from male Sprague Dawley rats (WT) and Bcrp/Pgp double knock-out (dKO) rats, and integrated metabolomic/transcriptomic analysis to identify putative substrates and perturbations in canonical metabolic pathways. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Excess membrane binding of monomeric alpha-, beta-, and gamma-synuclein is invariably associated with inclusion formation and toxicity.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 USA.

α-synuclein (αS) has been well-documented to play a role in human synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). First, the lesions found in PD/DLB brains-Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites-are rich in aggregated αS. Second, genetic evidence links missense mutations and increased αS expression to familial forms of PD/DLB. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Elucidating Axonal Injuries Through Molecular Modelling of Myelin Sheaths and Nodes of Ranvier.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 23;8:669897. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

PDC-Center for High Performance Computing, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Around half of the traumatic brain injuries are thought to be axonal damage. Disruption of the cellular membranes, or alternatively cytoskeletal damage has been suggested as possible injury trigger. Here, we have used molecular models to have a better insight on the structural and mechanical properties of axon sub-cellular components. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Differential RNA packaging into small extracellular vesicles by neurons and astrocytes.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Jul 10;19(1):75. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Background: Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) mediate intercellular communication by transferring RNA, proteins, and lipids to recipient cells. These cargo molecules are selectively loaded into sEVs and mirror the physiological state of the donor cells. Given that sEVs can cross the blood-brain barrier and their composition can change in neurological disorders, the molecular signatures of sEVs in circulation can be potential disease biomarkers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lycopene abrogates obesity-provoked hyperactivity of neurosignalling enzymes, oxidative stress and hypothalamic inflammation in female Wistar rats.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 7;149:105125. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, England, United Kingdom.

Obesity, a global epidemic, has been strongly associated with impairment of brain function. Lycopene has several therapeutic properties and can cross the blood-brain barrier. However, its effects on obesity-provoked brain dysfunction remain unexplored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Untargeted lipidomics uncovers lipid signatures distinguishing severe versus moderate forms of acutely decompensated cirrhosis.

J Hepatol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver Failure (EF Clif) and Grifols Chair, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Aim: Acutely decompensated of cirrhosis is a heterogeneous clinical entity associated with moderate mortality. In some patients, this condition develops quickly into a more often deadly acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), in which other organs such as the kidneys or brain fail. The aim of this study was to characterize the blood lipidome in a large series of patients with cirrhosis and identify specific signatures associated with acute decompensation and ACLF development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cocaine Induces Sex-Associated Changes in Lipid Profiles of Brain Extracellular Vesicles.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Neurochemistry, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Rd., Orangeburg, NY, 10962, USA.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant with diverse effects on physiology. Recent studies indicate the involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by neural cells in the cocaine addiction process. It is hypothesized that cocaine affects secretion levels of EVs and their cargos, resulting in modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity related to addiction physiology and pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Macrophage phagocytosis after spinal cord injury: when friends become foes.

Brain 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Immunology and Infection, Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

After spinal cord injury (SCI), macrophages can exert either beneficial or detrimental effects depending on their phenotype. Aside from their critical role in inflammatory responses, macrophages are also specialized in the recognition, engulfment, and degradation of pathogens, apoptotic cells, and tissue debris. They promote remyelination and axonal regeneration by removing inhibitory myelin components and cellular debris. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prokineticin-2 prevents neuronal cell deaths in a model of traumatic brain injury.

Nat Commun 2021 07 9;12(1):4220. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Prokineticin-2 (Prok2) is an important secreted protein likely involved in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic neurological diseases through currently unidentified regulatory mechanisms. The initial mechanical injury of neurons by traumatic brain injury triggers multiple secondary responses including various cell death programs. One of these is ferroptosis, which is associated with dysregulation of iron and thiols and culminates in fatal lipid peroxidation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Degradation of lipid droplets by chimeric autophagy-tethering compounds.

Cell Res 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Huashan Hospital, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Degrading pathogenic proteins by degrader technologies such as PROTACs (proteolysis-targeting chimeras) provides promising therapeutic strategies, but selective degradation of non-protein pathogenic biomolecules has been challenging. Here, we demonstrate a novel strategy to degrade non-protein biomolecules by autophagy-tethering compounds (ATTECs), using lipid droplets (LDs) as an exemplar target. LDs are ubiquitous cellular structures storing lipids and could be degraded by autophagy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Improving Drug Delivery for Alzheimer's Disease Through Nose-to-Brain Delivery Using Nanoemulsions, Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) and in situ Hydrogels.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 29;16:4373-4390. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, MEDTECH Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal.

Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) attenuate the progression of symptoms and aim to improve the patient's quality of life. Licensed medicines are mostly for oral administration and are limited by the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here in, the nasal route has been explored as an alternative pathway that allows drugs to be directly delivered to the brain via the nasal cavity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cardiometabolic, Dietary and Physical Health in Graduate Paramedics during the First 12-Months of Practice - A Longitudinal Study.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Jul 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Received April 1, 2021 from Paramedic Health and Wellbeing Research Unit, Monash University, Frankston, Australia (BM, APW, KS, LP, KAB, MPB); Department of Paramedicine, Monash University, Frankston, Australia (BM, KS, KAB); Ambulance Victoria, Doncaster, Australia (BM, KS); Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia (APW); Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University, Frankston, Australia (LP); Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University, Clayton, Australia (MPB). Revision received June 21, 2021; accepted for publication June 23, 2021.

Shift work is an established risk factor for poor health yet is necessary for paramedics to provide continuous care to the public. It is unknown how early into a career shift work may begin to impact health. This study sought to identify changes in cardiometabolic health, diet, aerobic capacity, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in graduate paramedics during the first 12-months of their career. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF