182,849 results match your criteria brain injury


Microinfarcts in the Deep Gray Matter on 7T MRI: Risk Factors, MRI Correlates, and Relation to Cognitive Functioning-The SMART-MR Study.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care (R.G., I.R., M.I.G.)

Background And Purpose: The clinical relevance of cortical microinfarcts has recently been established; however, studies on microinfarcts in the deep gray matter are lacking. We examined the risk factors and MR imaging correlates of microinfarcts in the deep gray matter on 7T MR imaging and their relation to cognitive functioning.

Materials And Methods: Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR) study, 213 patients (mean age, 68 [SD, 8] years) had a risk-factor assessment, 7T and 1. Read More

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Behavioral and Emotional Dyscontrol Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of Neuroimaging and Electrophysiological Correlates.

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242.

Background: Behavioral and emotional dyscontrol commonly occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroimaging and electrophysiological correlates of dyscontrol have not been systematically summarized in the literature to date.

Objective: To complete a systematic review of the literature examining neuroimaging and electrophysiological findings related to behavioral and emotional dyscontrol due to TBI. Read More

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Plppr5 gene inactivation causes a more severe neurological phenotype and abnormal mitochondrial homeostasis in a mouse model of juvenile seizure.

Epilepsy Res 2022 May 20;183:106944. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Brain Science, Institute of Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Mice with inactivation of the Plppr5 gene (Plppr5-/-) had aggravated hypoxic-ischemic damage and partially weakened neuroprotection of melatonin (a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant), suggesting that abnormal mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to neurological abnormalities in these mice. We examined the hypothesis that Plppr5 inactivation disturbs mitochondrial homeostasis, which may cause long-term adverse consequences on behavior and cognition. We studied the long-term effects of Plppr5 knockout (KO) in both wild-type (WT) and Plppr5-null mice using a combination of neurobehavior, cognition, and standard cellular glutamate-induced excitotoxicity techniques. Read More

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Characteristics of Responders and Nonresponders in a Military Postconcussion Rehabilitation Program.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center (Mss Nix and Cummings and Drs Lu and Bowles), and Traumatic Brain Injury Center of Excellence, Defense Health Agency (Dr Lu), JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas; The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc, Bethesda, Maryland (Ms Nix); and General Dynamic Information Technology, Falls Church, Virginia (Dr Lu).

Objective: To characterize treatment responders and nonresponders as measured by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) in order to understand whether certain traits in our patient population would characterize favorable response.

Setting: Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service at Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas.

Patients: In total, 655 active duty military patients with a diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who received treatment between 2007 and 2020 and completed self-report measures as part of routine care. Read More

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Crash Risk Following Return to Driving After Moderate-to-Severe TBI: A TBI Model Systems Study.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Drs Novack, Dreer, and Brunner and Ms Marwitz), and Division of Gerontology, Geriatrics, and Palliative Care, Department of Medicine, Integrative Center for Aging Research (Drs Zhang and Kennedy), University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (Dr Rapport); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Washington, Seattle (Dr Bombardier); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Dr Bergquist); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Moss Rehabilitation/Einstein Healthcare Network, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania (Dr Watanabe); Research Department, Craig Hospital, Englewood, Colorado (Dr Tefertiller); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, JFK Rehabilitation Institute, Edison, New Jersey (Dr Goldin); and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Dr Walker).

Objective: To examine motor vehicle crash frequency and risk factors following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Setting: Eight TBI Model Systems sites. Participants: Adults (N = 438) with TBI who required inpatient acute rehabilitation. Read More

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An Investigation of Physiological System Impairments in Individuals 4 Weeks to 6 Months Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Neck and Head Research Unit, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia (Drs Galea, O'Leary, and Treleaven); and Physiotherapy Department, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia (Dr O'Leary).

Objective: The Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) was developed to identify potential physiological system impairment (PSI) underlying persistent symptoms post-mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This study evaluates PSI in individuals 4 weeks to 6 months post-mTBI using the BCTT "failure" criteria, and additional exploratory measures of test duration and heart rate (HR) response.

Setting: Tertiary hospital and university. Read More

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Characterizing Profiles of TBI Severity: Predictors of Functional Outcomes and Well-Being.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Rehabilitation Research Center, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (Dr Pasipanodya and Mr Dirlikov); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Atrium Health Carolinas Rehabilitation, Charlotte, North Carolina (Dr Teranishi); and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (Drs Duong and Huie).

Objective: To identify profiles of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity and relate profiles to functional and well-being outcomes.

Setting: Acute inpatient rehabilitation and general community settings.

Participants: Three hundred and seventy-nine individuals with moderate-severe TBI participating in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems. Read More

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Microglia-mediated degradation of perineuronal nets promotes pain.

Science 2022 May 26:eabl6773. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Activation of microglia in the spinal cord dorsal horn following peripheral nerve injury contributes to the development of pain hypersensitivity. How activated microglia selectively enhance the activity of spinal nociceptive circuits is not well understood. We discovered that following peripheral nerve injury, microglia degrade extracellular matrix structures, perineuronal nets (PNNs), in lamina I of the spinal cord dorsal horn. Read More

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Stat3/IL-6 signaling mediates sustained pneumonia induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 May 26;16(5):e0010461. Epub 2022 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-Sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, China.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC) is well-documented that parasitizes the host brain and causes eosinophilic meningitis. The migration route of AC in permissive hosts is well demonstrated, while in nonpermissive hosts, it remains to be fully defined. In the present study, we exploited live imaging technology, morphological and pathological configuration analysis, and molecular biological technologies to explore the migration route of AC and the accompanying tissue damage in nonpermissive and permissive hosts. Read More

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Seizure- or Epilepsy-Related Emergency Department Visits Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, 2019-2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 May 27;71(21):703-708. Epub 2022 May 27.

Seizures, transient signs or symptoms caused by abnormal surges of electrical activity in the brain, can result from epilepsy, a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal electrical brain activity causing recurrent, unprovoked seizures, or from other inciting causes, such as high fever or substance abuse (1). Seizures generally account for approximately 1% of all emergency department (ED) visits (2,3). Persons of any age can experience seizures, and outcomes might range from no complications for those with a single seizure to increased risk for injury, comorbidity, impaired quality of life, and early mortality for those with epilepsy (4). Read More

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Relationship between guideline adherence and outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines for managing severe TBI have been available for over 25 years. However, adherence to guidelines remains variable despite evidence highlighting improvement in outcomes with individual recommendations. Read More

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Deep transfer learning-based fully automated detection and classification of Alzheimer's disease on brain MRI.

Br J Radiol 2022 May 26:20211253. Epub 2022 May 26.

Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: To employ different automated convolutional neural network (CNN)-based transfer learning (TL) methods for both binary and multi class classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain MRI.

Methods: Herein, we applied three popular pre-trained CNN models (ResNet101, Xception, and InceptionV3) using a fine-tuned approach of TL on 3D -weighted brain MRI from a subset of ADNI dataset ( = 305 subjects). To evaluate power of TL, the aforementioned networks were also trained from scratch for performance comparison. Read More

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[Effect of electroacupuncture invention on activities of PGC-1α/Irisin (FNDC5)/BDNF signaling in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and muscles in focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):428-34

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) on the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivators-1-alpha (PGC-1α), Irisin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ischemic peripheral cortex, hippocampus and local skeletal muscle in rats with focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury (CI/RI), so as to explore its underlying mechanism of improving of CI/RI.

Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation, model and EA (11 rats in each group). The focal CI/RI model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Read More

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[Effect of electroacupuncture on expression of hippocampal Caspase-3 in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):422-7

Integrated Hospital of Chinese and Western Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510315, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression level of Caspase-3, so as to explore its mechanism in inhibiting apoptosis after cerebral ischemia reperfusion.

Methods: SD male rats were randomly divided into sham-operation, model, EA and Caspase-3 inhibitor groups (=20 rats in each group). The focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury rat model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Read More

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[Acupuncture mediated miR-34c-5p regulates the autophagy of hippocampal neurons in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):415-21

College of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410007, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of miR-34c-5p, autophagy-related proteins and apoptosis rate in hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI), so as to explore its mechanism in regulating autophagy in hippocampal neurons in CI/RI rats.

Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, medication and acupuncture groups, with 20 rats in each group. The rat model of CI/RI was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Read More

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[Effect of moxibustion on Nogo/neurotrophin receptor signaling pathway in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):401-8

The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330006, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of moxibustion treatment on the expression of Nogo-A, Nogo receptor (NgR), neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) and leucine rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 (Lingo-1) in brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI), so as to analyze its mechanism underlying improvement of CI/RI.

Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (16 rats), model group (17 rats), NEP1-40 (extracellular peptide residues 1-40, a blocker targeting NgR) group (model+blocker, 17 rats) and moxibustion group (model+moxibustion, 17 rats). The CI/RI model was established by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO). Read More

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Activation of the Lateral Habenula-Ventral Tegmental Area Neural Circuit Contributes to Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 26:e2202228. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common and is associated with poor outcome. Neural circuit involvement in POCD is unknown. Lateral habenula (LHb) that regulates coping and depression-like behaviors after aversive stimuli is activated by surgery in the previous study. Read More

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The effect of preconditioning agents on cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity of carbon monoxide poisoning in animal studies: a systematic review.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2022 May 26:1-15. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common intoxication and many people die yearly due to CO poisoning and preconditioning agents attenuate brain and cardiac injury caused by intoxication. It is critical to fully understand the efficacy of new methods to directly target the toxic effect of CO, such as conditioning agents, which are currently under development. This study aims to systematically investigate current evidence from animal experiments and the effects of administration preconditions in acute and late phases after CO poisoning on cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Read More

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ErbB Signaling Pathway Genes Are Differentially Expressed in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Sports-Related Concussion.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2022 May 26:1-8. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Transcriptional changes involved in neuronal recovery after sports-related concussion (SRC) may be obscured by inter-individual variation in mRNA expression and nonspecific changes related to physical exertion. Using a co-twin study, the objective of this study was to identify important differences in mRNA expression among a single pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for concussion. A pair of MZ twins were enrolled as part of a larger study of concussion biomarkers among collegiate athletes. Read More

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Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase downregulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and decreases brain injury in a cardiac arrest rat model.

Physiol Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China; Intensive Care Unit, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China. and Department of Physiology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) is the predominant cause of neurological disability after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR). The endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs)-induced apoptosis plays an important role in neuronal survival/death in CIRI. Our previous studies reported that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, alleviates CIRI after CA/CPR. Read More

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The effect of sulforaphane on perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in rats.

Physiol Res 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Centre of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Laboratory of Developmental Epileptology, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult (HII) is one of the main devastating causes of morbidity and mortality in newborns. HII induces brain injury which evolves to neurological sequelae later in life. Hypothermia is the only therapeutic approach available capable of diminishing brain impairment after HII. Read More

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The Effect Player Position on Serum Biomarkers During Participation in a Season of Collegiate Football.

J Neurotrauma 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Pennsylvania State University, Kinesiology, 19 Rec Hall, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, 16802;

This prospective cohort study examined the relationship between a panel of four serum proteomic biomarkers (GFAP, UCH-L1, total Tau and NF-L) in 52 players from two different cohorts of male collegiate student football athletes from two different competitive seasons of Division I NCAA Football. This study evaluated changes in biomarker concentrations (as indicators of brain injury) over the course of the playing season and also assessed biomarker concentrations by player position using two different published classification systems. Player positions were divided into: 1) speed (quarterbacks, running backs, halfbacks, fullbacks, wide receivers, tight ends, defensive backs, safety, and linebackers) versus non-speed (offensive and defensive linemen), and 2) 'profile 1' (low frequency/high strain magnitudes positions including quarterbacks, wide receivers, and defensive backs), 'profile 2' (mid-range impact frequency and strain positions including linebackers, running backs and tight ends), and 'profile 3' (high frequency/low strains positions including defensive and offensive linemen). Read More

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Early Cerebral Blood Flow Changes, Cerebrovascular Reactivity and Cortical Spreading Depolarizations in Experimental Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Model.

Turk Neurosurg 2022 ;32(3):488-499

Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of early cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), and vascular responses to cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) in an experimental mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) model with laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique.

Material And Methods: The weight-drop model was used to induce blunt head trauma. The mice were divided into two groups as mild TBI (n=12), and sham (n=6). Read More

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January 2022

Hypoxic/Ischemic Inflammation, MicroRNAs and δ-Opioid Receptors: Hypoxia/Ischemia-Sensitive Versus-Insensitive Organs.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 9;14:847374. Epub 2022 May 9.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Acupuncture Mechanism and Acupoint Function, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Hypoxia and ischemia cause inflammatory injury and critically participate in the pathogenesis of various diseases in various organs. However, the protective strategies against hypoxic and ischemic insults are very limited in clinical settings up to date. It is of utmost importance to improve our understanding of hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) inflammation and find novel therapies for better prevention/treatment of H/I injury. Read More

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NLRP3/Caspase-1-Mediated Pyroptosis of Astrocytes Induced by Antipsychotics Is Inhibited by a Histamine H1 Receptor-Selective Agonist.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 9;14:847561. Epub 2022 May 9.

School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China.

Emerging data indicate that antipsychotic treatment causes brain volume loss and astrocyte death, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Pyroptosis, inflammatory cell death characterized by the formation of inflammatory bodies, increased expression of nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs) such as NLRP3, and activation of caspases and gasdermin D (GSDMD) are largely associated with innate immunity, inflammation, and cell injury/death. However, the main effect of antipsychotics on astrocyte pyroptotic signaling and the molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Read More

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Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Improves Neuroinflammation in Mice with Repeated Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through the Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Response and TLR4/MyD88/NF-B Signaling Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 16;2022:8652741. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play a crucial role in the pathology of vascular dementia (VD). Previously, we have found that Dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in VD, whereas little is known about its mechanism. Therefore, the objective of our study was to explore the contribution of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) to NBP and its effects on anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of VD. Read More

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Effects of 3-Methyladenine on Microglia Autophagy and Neuronal Apoptosis After Radiation-Induced Brain Injury.

Dose Response 2022 Apr-Jun;20(2):15593258221100593. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, China.

Objective: To determine the effect of the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), on cognitive function changes, microglia activity, neuronal apoptosis, and inflammation in rats following radiation-induced brain injury.

Methods: The following groups were established: control, model, and 3-MA. A rat model of radiation-induced brain injury was generated with a medium dose of X-rays. Read More

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Diprotin A TFA Exerts Neurovascular Protection in Ischemic Cerebral Stroke.

Front Neurosci 2022 9;16:861059. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Background: It has been established that the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor Diprotin A TFA can reduce vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin disruption by inhibiting the increase in cleaved β-catenin in response to hypoxia, thereby protecting the vascular barrier of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this study, we sought to investigate the possible effect of Diprotin A TFA on the VE barrier after cerebral ischemic stroke in mice.

Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups, namely, (1) sham, (2) stroke, (3) stroke + dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (4) stroke + Diprotin A TFA, and (5) stroke + Diprotin A TFA + XAV-939. Read More

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Sugar or salt ("SOS"): A protocol for a UK multicentre randomised trial of mannitol and hypertonic saline in severe traumatic brain injury and intracranial hypertension.

J Intensive Care Soc 2022 May 25;23(2):222-232. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Critical Care Directorate, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Hyperosmolar solutions are widely used to treat raised intracranial pressure following severe traumatic brain injury. Although mannitol has historically been the most frequently administered, hypertonic saline solutions are increasingly being used. However, definitive evidence regarding their comparative effectiveness is lacking. Read More

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Multimodal brain monitoring following traumatic brain injury: A primer for intensive care practitioners.

J Intensive Care Soc 2022 May 14;23(2):191-202. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common and potentially devastating. Traditional examination-based patient monitoring following TBI may be inadequate for frontline clinicians to reduce secondary brain injury through individualized therapy. Multimodal neurologic monitoring (MMM) offers great potential for detecting early injury and improving outcomes. Read More

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