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The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES) as radiographic marker of clinically relevant intracranial hypertension and unfavorable outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosurgery and Spine Surgery, University Hospital of Essen, Germany.

Objective: The severity of early brain edema after aneurysm rupture was reported to be strongly associated with the risk of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using the recently developed SEBES (Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score), we analyzed the predictors of early brain edema and its impact on the complications related to intracranial pressure (ICP) increase after SAH and poor outcome.

Methods: All consecutive SAH cases treated between January 2003 and June 2016 with assessable SEBES were included (n=745). Read More

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Motion perception in Vestibular Migraine.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

inAmind Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.

We read with interest the recent report by Wurthmann and colleagues of increased motion sensitivity as well as enhanced susceptibility to motion sickness in vestibular migraine (1). Our previous experimental data supports the findings of enhanced sickness susceptibility (2) but, in apparent contradiction, we observed that motion thresholds were raised (3). Read More

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Sequencing of Circulating Microbial Cell-Free DNA Can Identify Pathogens in Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hospital for Special Surgery Research Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Over 1 million Americans undergo joint replacement each year, and approximately 1 in 75 will incur a periprosthetic joint infection. Effective treatment necessitates pathogen identification, yet standard-of-care cultures fail to detect organisms in 10% to 20% of cases and require invasive sampling. We hypothesized that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments from microorganisms in a periprosthetic joint infection can be found in the bloodstream and utilized to accurately identify pathogens via next-generation sequencing. Read More

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An Analysis of Frequency of Continuous Blood Pressure Variation and Haemodynamic Responses during Haemodialysis.

Blood Purif 2021 Jul 22:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Kidney Research and Innovation, Academic unit for Translational Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Higher beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) variation during haemodialysis (HD) has been shown to be associated with elevated cardiac damage markers and white matter ischaemic changes in the brain suggesting relevance to end-organ perfusion. We aimed to characterize individual patterns of BP variation and associated haemodynamic responses to HD.

Methods: Fifty participants underwent continuous non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring during HD and BP variation were assessed using extrema point (EP) frequency analysis. Read More

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HEDOS - a computational tool to assess radiation dose to circulating blood cells during external beam radiotherapy based on whole-body blood flow simulations.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Radiation Biophysics, Department of Radiation Oncology, , Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, UNITED STATES.

We have developed a time-dependent computational framework, HEDOS (HEmatological DOSe), to estimate dose to circulating blood cells from radiation therapy treatment fields for any treatment site. Two independent dynamic models were implemented in HEDOS: one describing the spatiotemporal distribution of blood particles (BPs) in organs and the second describing the time-dependent radiation field delivery. A whole-body blood flow network based on blood volumes and flow rates from ICRP Publication 89 was simulated to produce the spatiotemporal distribution of BPs in organs across the entire body using a discrete-time Markov process. Read More

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Astrocyte-derived CCL7 promotes microglia-mediated inflammation following traumatic brain injury.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 19;99:107975. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Neurology Department, Jintan Hospital affiliated to Jiangsu University, Changzhou 213200, China. Electronic address:

Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system that mediate neuroinflammation. It is widely known that microglia-mediated inflammation in the brain contribute to the widespread tissue damage and neurological deficits in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the mechanisms responsible for this inflammatory response remain elusive. Read More

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A patient with concurrent multiple sclerosis and moyamoya disease.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 16;54:103151. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Neuro-Immunology, Department of Neurology, Lenox Hill Hospital, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Great Neck, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare vasculopathy and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease which causes CNS demyelination. While most literature has focused on misdiagnosis of MMD as an "MS-mimic", we present a patient in which both co-existed.

Methods: Case Report RESULTS: A 57-year-old woman presented with gait dysfunction and paresthesias in both feet. Read More

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The usefulness of postmortem computed tomography angiography for subdural hematoma caused by rupture of the cortical artery: A report of two autopsy cases and a literature review.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 12;53:101941. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Legal Medicine, Department of Community Preventive Medicine, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan; Center of Cause of Death Investigation, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) occurs following severe head trauma with brain contusion or rupture of bridging veins. Conversely, SDH caused by rupture of a cortical artery without trauma or with minor trauma is also possible. Although over 150 cases of the latter SDH have been reported, they were predominantly diagnosed only during surgery, and therefore, no adequate histological evaluation has been performed. Read More

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Role of deep learning in brain tumor detection and classification (2015 to 2020): A review.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 May 15;91:101940. Epub 2021 May 15.

iVision Lab, Electrical Engineering Department, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

During the last decade, computer vision and machine learning have revolutionized the world in every way possible. Deep Learning is a sub field of machine learning that has shown remarkable results in every field especially biomedical field due to its ability of handling huge amount of data. Its potential and ability have also been applied and tested in the detection of brain tumor using MRI images for effective prognosis and has shown remarkable performance. Read More

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The predictive value of segmentation metrics on dosimetry in organs at risk of the brain.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 13;73:102161. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

ARTORG Center for Biomedical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Fully automatic medical image segmentation has been a long pursuit in radiotherapy (RT). Recent developments involving deep learning show promising results yielding consistent and time efficient contours. In order to train and validate these systems, several geometric based metrics, such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Hausdorff, and other related metrics are currently the standard in automated medical image segmentation challenges. Read More

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Porous carbon nanotube microspheres with tailorable surface wettability areas for oil adsorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 15;604:737-745. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.8 South 3rd Street Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190, China; School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Yanqihu East Road, Huairou District, Beijing 100049, China; Wenzhou Institute, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.1 Jianlian Road, Longwan District, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325001, China; Songshan Lake Materials Laboratory, Songshan Lake Scenic Area, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, China; Oujiang Laboratory (Zhejiang Lab for Regenerative Medicine, Vision and Brain Health), No.1 Jianlian Road, Longwan District, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325001, China. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Oil adsorption is significant for water purification and environmental protection. However, the conventional bulk sorbents face the predicament of uncontrollable motion as well as hydrophobic nature the whole body, which largely restricts their uptake capacity underwater. Hence, novel adsorbent material for high-efficient oil uptake both at the surface and under the water is urgently required. Read More

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Electrophysiological predictors of response to subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 12;132(9):2184-2190. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Ellen & Martin Prosserman Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess axonal function prior to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy or placebo in relation to relapse in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to determine whether axonal damage can predict therapy response.

Methods: Relapse rates in patients from the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, where patients were treated with placebo or SCIG (IgPro20), were analyzed by baseline (post-intravenous immunoglobulin stabilization) axonal damage (≤1 mV peroneal compound muscle action potential) status.

Results: In patients with non-axonal damage, relapses were significantly higher with placebo (73. Read More

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Effects of single-dose L-theanine on motor cortex excitability.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jul 10;132(9):2062-2064. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

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The effects of anesthetic change on electrographic seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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Subthalamic low frequency stimulation in Parkinson's disease: Ready for everyday use to improve cognition?

Brain Stimul 2021 Jul 19;14(5):1068-1069. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.

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The impact of modifying obsessive-compulsive beliefs about perfectionism.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2021 Jul 17;73:101675. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive beliefs about perfectionism play a key role in the development and maintenance of OCD. Cognitive-bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) is an experimental procedure that can test this proposed causal relation.

Methods: As such, the current study investigated whether multiple CBM-I sessions administered in different contexts can modify perfectionism biases. Read More

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Deep learning for sex classification in resting-state and task functional brain networks from the UK Biobank.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 20;241:118409. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 0SZ, UK.

Classification of whole-brain functional connectivity MRI data with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has shown promise, but the complexity of these models impedes understanding of which aspects of brain activity contribute to classification. While visualization techniques have been developed to interpret CNNs, bias inherent in the method of encoding abstract input data, as well as the natural variance of deep learning models, detract from the accuracy of these techniques. We introduce a stochastic encoding method in an ensemble of CNNs to classify functional connectomes by sex. Read More

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Structural white matter connectometry of reading and dyslexia.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 19:118411. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O.Box 21, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Current views on the neural network subserving reading and its deficits in dyslexia rely largely on evidence derived from functional neuroimaging studies. However, understanding the structural organization of reading and its aberrations in dyslexia requires a hodological approach, studies of which have not provided consistent findings. Here, we adopted a whole brain hodological approach and investigated relationships between structural white matter connectivity and reading skills and phonological processing in a cross-sectional study of 44 adults using individual local connectome matrix from diffusion MRI data. Read More

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Impact of anesthesia on static and dynamic functional connectivity in mice.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 20;241:118413. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishinbashi, Minato City, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan; Riken, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

A few studies have compared the static functional connectivity between awake and lightly anesthetized states in rodents by resting-state fMRI. However, impact of light anesthesia on static and dynamic fluctuations in functional connectivity has not been fully understood. Here, we developed a resting-state fMRI protocol to perform awake and anesthetized functional MRI in the same mice. Read More

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Novel cross-regulation interactions between dlx genes in larval zebrafish.

Gene 2021 Jul 19:145848. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Marie-Curie Private, Ottawa, ON K1N9A4, Canada. Electronic address:

The homeodomain-containing transcription factors dlx1a, dlx2a, dlx5a and dlx6a are expressed in the zebrafish brain in overlapping patterns and are important in vertebrate development. Previous work in mice have suggested the overlapping expression pattern is in part due to cross-regulatory interactions among the aforementioned dlx genes. However, the extent of these interactions and whether they are conserved among vertebrates remains to be determined. Read More

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Pregnancy influences the selection of appropriate reference genes in mouse tissue: Determination of appropriate reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription PCR studies in tissues from the female mouse reproductive axis.

Gene 2021 Jul 19:145855. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University of Westminster, School of Life Sciences, 115 New Cavendish Street, London, W1W 6UW, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Selecting stably expressed reference genes which are not affected by physiological or pathophysiological conditions is crucial for reliable quantification in gene expression studies. This study examined the expression stability of a panel of twelve reference genes in tissues from the female mouse reproductive axis and the uterus. Gene expression studies were carried out using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Read More

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Lysophosphatidylcholine induces apoptosis and inflammatory damage in brain microvascular endothelial cells via GPR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 19:105227. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen Hospital (Guang ming), No. 39 Huaxia Road, Guangming District, Shenzhen 518107, China. Electronic address:

Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), as the main active component of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs), has significant effects in cerebrovascular disease. However, the complex mechanism by which LPC functions in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is not clearly understood. In this study, BMECs were transfected with G protein-coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) siRNA or an NLRP3-overexpression plasmid, and GPR4 expression was identified by RT-qPCR and western blotting; IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Read More

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Application of in vitro data in physiologically-based kinetic models for quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation: A case-study for baclofen.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jul 19:105223. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, 3508TD Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models can simulate concentrations of chemicals in tissues over time without animal experiments. Nevertheless, in vivo data are often used to parameterise PBK models. This study aims to illustrate that a combination of kinetic and dynamic readouts from in vitro assays can be used to parameterise PBK models simulating neurologically-active concentrations of xenobiotics. Read More

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Neurochemical abnormalities in the hippocampus of male rats displaying audiogenic seizures, a genetic model of epilepsy.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 19:136123. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratório de Neurofarmacologia, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Av Antonio Carlos 6627, Campus Pampulha, CEP 30190-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrent seizures that affects 1% of the population. However, the neurochemical alterations observed in epilepsy are not fully understood. There are different animal models of epilepsy, such as genetic or drug induced. Read More

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Disrupted Small-world Networks are Associated with Decreased Vigilant Attention after Total Sleep Deprivation.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, The Second Medical Center, Sleep Medicine Research Center, National Clinical Research Centre for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China; School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Sleep deprivation critically affects vigilant attention. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed altered inter-regional functional connectivity after sleep deprivation, which may disrupt topological properties of brain functional networks. However, little is known about alterations in the topology of intrinsic connectivity and its involvement in attention performance after sleep deprivation. Read More

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Perinatal SSRI exposure disrupts G protein-coupled receptor BAI3 in developing dentate gyrus and adult emotional behavior: relevance to psychiatric disorders.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Neuroscience, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed to pregnant women suffering with depression, although the long-term impact of these medications on exposed offspring are poorly understood. Perinatal SSRI exposure alters human offspring's neurodevelopment and increases risk for psychiatric illness in later life. Rodent studies suggest that perinatal SSRI-induced behavioral abnormalities are driven by changes in the serotonin system as well as epigenetic and transcriptomic changes in the developing hippocampus. Read More

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Characterization of a mouse model of chronic hydrocephalus induced by partial occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius in the adult brain.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jul 19:109294. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Colima, Colima 28040, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: Hydrocephalus is a neurologic disturbance produced by the abnormal production, circulation, and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis induces normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in adults. To date, no animal model replicating chronic NPH is available to study the pathophysiological changes observed in these subjects. Read More

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A Pilot Behavioural and Neuroimaging Investigation on Photothrombotic Stroke Models in Rhesus Monkeys.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Jul 19:109291. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Resource Center for Non-Human Primates, Kunming Primate Research Center, and National Research Facility for Phenotypic & Genetic Analysis of Model Animals (Primate Facility), Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemic stroke leads to a long-term disability in humans and no efficient clinical therapy exists to date. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in non-human primates has shown to be of value for translational stroke research. New method In the current study, a photothrombotic (PT) stroke model was established in rhesus monkeys with either a proximal or distal segment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombosis. Read More

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Loss of APP in mice increases thigmotaxis and is associated with elevated brain expression of IL-13 and IP-10/CXCL10.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jul 19:113533. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory loss and is often accompanied by increased anxiety. Although AD is a heterogeneous disease, dysregulation of inflammatory pathways is a consistent event. Interestingly, the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is the source of the amyloid peptide Aβ, is also necessary for the efficient regulation of the innate immune response. Read More

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