10,746 results match your criteria bout


Exercise of high intensity ameliorates hepatic inflammation and the progression of NASH.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 9:101270. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology ranging from simple fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Notably, immune cell-driven inflammation is a key mechanism in the transition from fatty liver to the more serious NASH. Although exercise training is effective at ameliorating obesity-related diseases, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise remain unclear. Read More

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Aspects of tree shrew consolidated sleep structure resemble human sleep.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):722. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuroscience and Movement Sciences, Section of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Understanding human sleep requires appropriate animal models. Sleep has been extensively studied in rodents, although rodent sleep differs substantially from human sleep. Here we investigate sleep in tree shrews, small diurnal mammals phylogenetically close to primates, and compare it to sleep in rats and humans using electrophysiological recordings from frontal cortex of each species. Read More

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Circulating MicroRNA Responses to Postprandial Lipemia with or without Prior Exercise.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, United States.

Repeated exposure to a high-fat meal triggers inflammation and oxidative stress, contributing to the onset of cardiometabolic diseases. Regular exercise prevents cardiometabolic diseases and a prior bout of acute endurance exercise can counteract the detrimental cardiovascular effects of a subsequent high-fat meal. Circulating microRNAs (ci-miRs) are potential mediators of these vascular effects through regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Read More

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Downhill Running Decreases the Acetylation of Tubulins and Impairs Autophagosome Degradation in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Sports Science, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, CHINA College of Rehabilitation, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, CHINA.

Purpose: This study was designed to probe the effect of downhill running on microtubule acetylation and autophagic flux in rat skeletal muscle.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an exercise protocol of a 90-min downhill run with a slope of -16° and a speed of 16 m/min, and then the soleus was sampled at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after exercise. Protein expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), p62/sequestosome 1 (p62), α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin (AcK40 α-tubulin) were detected by Western blotting. Read More

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Exercisers' Affective and Enjoyment Responses: A Meta-Analytic and Meta-Regression Review.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Jun 10:315125211024212. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Sydney School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Affective responses and enjoyment of exercise mediate exercise adherence, but previous research findings have failed to examine nuances that may moderate this relationship. We examined the effects of exercise on affective and enjoyment responses during and post exercise through a systematic literature review and meta-regression analysis. We searched major databases up to July 9, 2020 for studies evaluating healthy adults' acute and chronic responses to exercise, using either of The Feeling Scale or Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales. Read More

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Daily cumulative load and body mass index alter knee cartilage response to running in women.

Gait Posture 2021 Jun 2;88:192-197. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; School of Rehabilitation, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: It is unknown whether a greater accumulation of knee load over a typical day is related to how cartilage responds to an acute bout of loading. This information may clarify the role of habitual activity on cartilage function.

Research Question: Is there a relationship between change in tibial and femoral cartilage thickness, volume, and T2 relaxation time following running with daily cumulative knee load in women? Secondarily, is there a relationship between cartilage change following running and the statistical interaction of body mass index (BMI) and daily steps?

Methods: Participants (n = 15) completed gait analyses and wore an accelerometer over a week. Read More

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A single oral glucose load decreases arterial plasma [K ] during exercise and recovery.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(11):e14889

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Aim: We investigated whether acute carbohydrate ingestion reduced arterial potassium concentration ([K ]) during and after intense exercise and delayed fatigue.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover design, eight males ingested 300 ml water containing 75 g glucose (CHO) or placebo (CON); rested for 60 min, then performed high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) at 130% , comprising three 45-s exercise bouts (EB), then a fourth EB until fatigue. Radial arterial (a) and antecubital venous (v) blood was sampled at rest, before, during and after HIIC and analyzed for plasma ions and metabolites, with forearm arteriovenous differences (a-v diff) calculated to assess inactive forearm muscle effects. Read More

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Neither Peristaltic Pulse Dynamic Compressions nor Heat Therapy Accelerate Glycogen Resynthesis following Intermittent Running.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, West Lafayette, IN Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Gatorade Sport Science Institute, PepsiCo R&D Life Sciences, Barrington, IL.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of a single session of either peristaltic pulse dynamic leg compressions (PPDC) or local heat therapy (HT) following prolonged intermittent shuttle running on skeletal muscle glycogen content, muscle function and the expression of factors involved in skeletal muscle remodeling.

Methods: Twenty-six trained individuals were randomly allocated to either a PPDC (n=13) or a HT (n=13) group. After completing a 90-min session of intermittent shuttle running, participants consumed 0. Read More

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Validity and reliability of RPE as a measure of intensity during isometric wall squat exercise.

J Clin Transl Res 2021 Apr 24;7(2):248-256. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Human and Life Sciences, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

Background And Aims: Isometric exercise (IE), including wall squat training, has been shown to be effective at reducing resting blood pressure (BP). Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is also widely used as an accessible additional measure of IE intensity. Despite this, no RPE scales have been specifically designed for use with IE and it is not clear whether RPE is sensitive enough to distinguish between different lower limb IE workloads. Read More

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Electromyography-controlled gamified exercise system for the distal upper extremity: a usability assessment in subacute post-stroke patients.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2021 Jun 8:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine I, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

Purpose: Movement repetition is known to play a key role in promoting functional improvements or maintaining functional levels in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. However, repetitive movements tend to be monotonous, making it challenging for patients to continue. Here, we developed a new gamified system to allow patients perform repetitive movements with enjoyment. Read More

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A single bout of hybrid intradialytic exercise did not affect left-ventricular function in exercise-naïve dialysis patients: a randomized, cross-over trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Physical Education, Sport Science and Dietetics, University of Thessaly, 42100, Trikala, Greece.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, especially those receiving hemodialysis (HD) therapy. HD has many side effects that are related to patients' hearts, such as recurrent myocardial ischemia and global or segmental left-ventricular dysfunction, which is associated with intradialytic hypotension, long-term loss of systolic function, and high incidence of cardiovascular events and death. Systematic exercise training has a beneficial effect on measures of cardiovascular fitness and reducing cardiovascular risk factors in ESRD. Read More

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Multiomic analysis of stretched osteocytes reveals processes and signalling linked to bone regeneration and cancer.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Jun 7;6(1):32. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biosciences, Centre for Health, Ageing and Understanding Disease (CHAUD), School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.

Exercise is a non-pharmacological intervention that can enhance bone regeneration and improve the management of bone conditions like osteoporosis or metastatic bone cancer. Therefore, it is gaining increasing importance in an emerging area of regenerative medicine-regenerative rehabilitation (RR). Osteocytes are mechanosensitive and secretory bone cells that orchestrate bone anabolism and hence postulated to be an attractive target of regenerative exercise interventions. Read More

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High-flow Nasal Cannula therapy: A feasible treatment for vulnerable elderly COVID-19 patients in the wards.

Heart Lung 2021 May 25;50(5):654-659. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maasstad Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Invasive mechanical ventilation is the treatment of choice in COVID-19 patients when hypoxemia persists, despite maximum conventional oxygen administration. Some frail patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure are deemed not eligible for invasive mechanical ventilation.

Objectives: To investigate whether High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in the wards could serve as a rescue therapy in these frail patients. Read More

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Neuromuscular, biomechanical, and energetic adjustments following repeated bouts of downhill running.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 1N4, Canada; Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan,20133, Italy; Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), France. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study utilized downhill running as a model to investigate the repeated bout effect (RBE) on neuromuscular performance, running biomechanics, and metabolic cost of running.

Methods: Ten healthy recreational male runners performed two 30-min bouts of downhill running (DR1 and DR2) at -20% slope and 2.8 m/s 3 weeks apart. Read More

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Examining the Effects of Acute Cognitively Engaging Physical Activity on Cognition in Children.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:653133. Epub 2021 May 20.

Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Cognitively engaging physical activity (PA) has been suggested to have superior effects on cognition compared to PA with low cognitive demands; however, there have been few studies directly comparing these different types of activities. The aim of this study is to compare the cognitive effects of a combined physically and cognitively engaging bout of PA to a physical or cognitive activity alone in children. Children were randomized in pairs to one of three 20-min conditions: (1) a cognitive sedentary activity; (2) a non-cognitively engaging PA; and a (3) cognitively engaging PA. Read More

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Liver Transcriptome Dynamics During Hibernation Are Shaped by a Shifting Balance Between Transcription and RNA Stability.

Front Physiol 2021 21;12:662132. Epub 2021 May 21.

RNA Bioscience Initiative, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

Hibernators dramatically lower metabolism to save energy while fasting for months. Prolonged fasting challenges metabolic homeostasis, yet small-bodied hibernators emerge each spring ready to resume all aspects of active life, including immediate reproduction. The liver is the body's metabolic hub, processing and detoxifying macromolecules to provide essential fuels to brain, muscle and other organs throughout the body. Read More

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Identification of discriminating behavioural and movement variables in lameness scores of dairy cows at pasture from accelerometer and GPS sensors using a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2021 May 24:105383. Epub 2021 May 24.

INRAE, BIOEPAR, Oniris, 44307, Nantes, France.

The behaviour and movement of lame dairy cows at pasture have been studied little, yet they could be relevant to improve the automatic detection of lameness in cows in pasture-based systems. Our aim in this study is to identify behavioural and movement variables of dairy cows at pasture that could discriminate lameness scores. Individual cow behaviours were predicted from accelerometer data and movements measured using GPS data. Read More

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived physical activity and stationary behavior with self-reported mental and physical health during midlife.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 06 6;18(1):74. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Background: Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is associated with favorable self-rated mental and physical health. Conversely, poor self-rated health in these domains could precede unfavorable shifts in activity. We evaluated bidirectional associations of accelerometer-estimated time spent in stationary behavior (SB), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and MVPA with self-rated health over 10 years in in the CARDIA longitudinal cohort study. Read More

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Affective Responses during High-Intensity Interval Exercise Compared with Moderate-Intensity Continuous Exercise in Inactive Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106209, Taiwan.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on affective responses in inactive women. Thirty women with normal body mass index (BMI) and 30 women with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m participated in the study. All participants completed a graded exercise test and performed two exercise sessions (HIIE and MICE) in random order. Read More

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Effects of Feeding Time on Markers of Muscle Metabolic Flexibility Following Acute Aerobic Exercise in Trained Mice Undergoing Time Restricted Feeding.

Nutrients 2021 May 19;13(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Health Sciences Memphis, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA.

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) is becoming a popular way of eating in physically active populations, despite a lack of research on metabolic and performance outcomes as they relate to the timing of food consumption in relation to the time of exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding/fasting after exercise training differently affects muscle metabolic flexibility and response to an acute bout of exercise. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized to one of three groups for 8 weeks. Read More

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Executive Function Improves Following Acute Exercise in Adults with Down Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2021 May 13;11(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39762, USA.

The influence of exercise on brain function is an important topic, especially in persons with intellectual deficits. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an acute bout of resistance training (RT) compared to assisted cycle therapy (ACT) and no training (NT) in adults with DS on cognitive function. Fourteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an assisted cycling therapy (ACT) session, a resistance training (RT) session, and a session of no training (NT). Read More

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Measuring Outdoor Walking Capacities Using Global Positioning System in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Methodological Insights from an Exploratory Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 4;21(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Physical Education and Sports Sciences (IFEPSA), West Catholic University (UCO), F-49136 Les Ponts-de-Cé, France.

We aimed at showing how Global Positioning System (GPS) along with a previously validated speed processing methodology could be used to measure outdoor walking capacities in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We also deal with methodological issues that may occur when conducting such measurements, and explore to what extent GPS-measured outdoor walking capacities (maximal walking distance [MWD] and usual walking speed) could be related to traditional functional outcomes (6-min total walking distance) in people with MS. Eighteen people with MS, with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤6, completed a 6-min walking test and an outdoor walking session (60 min maximum) at usual pace during which participants were wearing a DG100 GPS receiver and could perform several walking bouts. Read More

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Effects of Caffeine on Exercise Duration, Critical Velocity, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Repeated-Sprint Exercise in Physically Active Men.

Int J Exerc Sci 2021 1;14(2):435-445. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Kinesiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Caffeine improves short-to-moderate distance running performance, but the effect of caffeine on repeated sprints are equivocal. This research determined if caffeine improved exercise tolerance during repeated-sprint exercise. iCV is a running velocity that distinguishes intermittent running velocities (velocities ≤ iCV) that are sustainable from those resulting in a predictable time to exhaustion (velocities > iCV). Read More

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Acute Beet Juice Supplementation Does Not Improve 30- or 60-second Maximal Intensity Performance in Anaerobically Trained Athletes.

Int J Exerc Sci 2021 1;14(2):60-75. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA USA.

Research suggests that beet juice is beneficial during aerobic exercise. However, the impact of beet juice during primarily anaerobic exercise is equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute beet juice supplementation on maximal intensity performance during 30-s and 60-s maximal-intensity cycling sprints. Read More

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WaveSleepNet: An interpretable deep convolutional neural network for the continuous classification of mouse sleep and wake.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 May 28;360:109224. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Recent advancement in deep learning provides a pivotal opportunity to potentially supplement or supplant the limiting step of manual sleep scoring.

New Method: In this paper, we characterize the WaveSleepNet (WSN), a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that uses wavelet transformed images of mouse EEG/EMG signals to autoscore sleep and wake.

Results: WSN achieves an epoch by epoch mean accuracy of 0. Read More

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Rationale and methods to characterize the acute exercise response in aging and Alzheimer's Disease: the AEROBIC pilot study.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 May 27;107:106457. Epub 2021 May 27.

University of Kansas Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, United States of America; Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States of America. Electronic address:

There is evidence that exercise benefits the brain, but the mechanisms for this benefit are unclear. The chronic benefits of exercise are likely a product of discreet, acute responses in exercise-related blood biomarkers and brain metabolism. This acute exercise response has not been compared in aging and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Read More

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The Walking Classroom: Measuring the Impact of Physical Activity on Student Cognitive Performance and Mood.

J Phys Act Health 2021 May 28:1-8. Epub 2021 May 28.

Background: The Walking Classroom is an education program that provides students with an opportunity to accumulate physical activity without losing instructional time.

Method: This research tests Kuczala's application of kinesthetic learning theory through measuring knowledge retention, postactivity information processing, and mood in students who engage in a short bout of physical activity while listening to Walking Classroom podcasts about language arts, science, and history, and those who remain seated during a podcast, compared with baseline levels. Students from 9 high-poverty fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms (n = 319) in a North Carolina county comprised the sample. Read More

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Playing around the anaerobic threshold during COVID-19 pandemic: advantages and disadvantages of adding bouts of anaerobic work to aerobic activity in physical treatment of individuals with obesity.

Acta Diabetol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, IRCCS MultiMedica, Via Milanese 300, Sesto San Giovanni, Italy.

Introduction: Obesity is a condition that generally limits work capacity and predisposes to a number of comorbidities and related diseases, the last being COVID-19 and its complications and sequelae. Physical exercise, together with diet, is a milestone in its management and rehabilitation, although there is still a debate on intensity and duration of training. Anaerobic threshold (AT) is a broad term often used either as ventilatory threshold or as lactate threshold, respectively, detected by respiratory ventilation and/or respiratory gases (VCO and VO), and by blood lactic acid. Read More

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A hindbrain dopaminergic neural circuit prevents weight gain by reinforcing food satiation.

Sci Adv 2021 May 26;7(22). Epub 2021 May 26.

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

The neural circuitry mechanism that underlies dopaminergic (DA) control of innate feeding behavior is largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified a subpopulation of DA neurons situated in the caudal ventral tegmental area (cVTA) directly innervating DRD1-expressing neurons within the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). This neural circuit potently suppresses food intake via enhanced satiation response. Read More

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Taurine in sports and exercise.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021 May 26;18(1):39. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, 125 Decatur Street, Suite 137, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.

Background: Taurine has become a popular supplement among athletes attempting to improve performance. While the effectiveness of taurine as an ergogenic aid remains controversial, this paper summarizes the current evidence regarding the efficacy of taurine in aerobic and anaerobic performance, metabolic stress, muscle soreness, and recovery.

Methods: Google Scholar, Web of Science, and MedLine (PubMed) searches were conducted through September 2020. Read More

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