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Comparative Evaluation of Two Glass Polyalkenoate Cements: An In Vivo Pilot Study Using a Sheep Model.

J Funct Biomater 2021 Aug 5;12(3). Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science, Biomedical Engineering Program, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada.

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used to manage bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). However, the application of PMMA has been associated with complications such as volumetric shrinkage, necrosis, wear debris, and loosening. Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have potential bone cementation applications. Read More

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A Composite Membrane System with Gold Nanoparticles, Hydroxyapatite, and Fullerenol for Dual Interaction for Biomedical Purposes.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Jul 27;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Trojdena 4 St., 02-109 Warsaw, Poland.

Wound dressing plays a vital role in post-operative aftercare. There is the necessity to develop dressings for application on the border of soft and hard tissue. This study aimed to develop multifunctional polyelectrolyte layers enhanced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and/or fullerenol nanocomposites to achieve a wound dressing that could be applied on the bone-skin interface. Read More

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A novel linear epitope at the C-terminal region of the classical swine fever virus E2 protein elicits neutralizing activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 14;189:837-846. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China; International Associated Research Center of National Animal Immunology, Zhengzhou 450046, China; Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonose, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, which causes serious economic losses. The re-emergence of the disease in Japan in 2018 has increased awareness of CSFV. In this study, Balb/c mice were immunized with plant-derived E2 protein, and four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4B11, 7B3, 11A5 and 6F3 were generated. Read More

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Non-Equilibrium Crystallization of Monotectic Zn-25%Bi Alloy under 600 .

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 3;14(15). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Material Science, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstańców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland.

This study investigated the influence of supergravity on the segregation of components in the Zn-Bi monotectic system and consequently, the creation of an interface of the separation zone of both phases. The observation showed that near the separation boundary, in a very narrow area of the order of several hundred microns, all types of structures characteristic for the concentration range from 0 to 100% bismuth occurred. An additional effect of crystallization in high gravity is a high degree of structural order and an almost perfectly flat separation boundary. Read More

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Message Passing Interface Parallelization for Two-Way Coupled Euler-Lagrange Simulation of Microbubble Enhanced HIFU.

J Fluids Eng 2021 Aug 7;143(8):081105. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Dynaflow, Inc., 10621-J Iron Bridge Road, Jessup, MD 20794.

Microbubble enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is of great interest to tissue ablation for tumor treatment such as in liver and brain cancers. To accurately characterize the acoustic and thermal fields during this process, a coupled Euler-Lagrange model is used. The ultrasound field is modeled using compressible Navier-Stokes equations on an Eulerian grid, while the microbubbles are tracked in a Lagrangian fashion. Read More

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An analysis of select swine feed ingredients and pork products imported into the United States from African swine fever virus affected countries.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

VetNOW, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA.

The potential for feed ingredients to serve as a vehicle for African swine fever virus (ASFV) introduction to the United States remains a significant concern. It is therefore imperative that channels through which high-risk livestock feeds and feed ingredients are imported into the United States from ASFV-positive countries are identified and considered into the USDA's ASF National Response Framework. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of a novel analytical tool to categorically quantify pork products and potential high-risk feed ingredients that have entered the United States from ASFV-positive countries over a 5-year period (2016-2020). Read More

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Numerical Modeling of Flow through Foam Nodes within the Dry and Wet Limits.

Langmuir 2021 Aug 20;37(30):8929-8936. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122, Victoria, Australia.

We present a numerical simulation using three-dimensional microscale models to illustrate flow dynamics through different foam geometries. These were designed to represent the flow with various liquid volume fractions throughout the Plateau border (PB) and node system within the "dry" limit and throughout the two nodes and PB system within the "wet" limit. Most surfaces in the models involve a gas-liquid interface. Read More

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Living on the Edge of the CNS: Meninges Cell Diversity in Health and Disease.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 1;15:703944. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Section of Developmental Biology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, United States.

The meninges are the fibrous covering of the central nervous system (CNS) which contain vastly heterogeneous cell types within its three layers (dura, arachnoid, and pia). The dural compartment of the meninges, closest to the skull, is predominantly composed of fibroblasts, but also includes fenestrated blood vasculature, an elaborate lymphatic system, as well as immune cells which are distinct from the CNS. Segregating the outer and inner meningeal compartments is the epithelial-like arachnoid barrier cells, connected by tight and adherens junctions, which regulate the movement of pathogens, molecules, and cells into and out of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma. Read More

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Extensive Analysis on the Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing for ALD-Deposited AlO on an n-Type Silicon Substrate.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 16;14(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea.

In this study, an investigation was performed on the properties of atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (AlO) on an n-type silicon (n-Si) substrate based on the effect of post-deposition heat treatment, which was speckled according to ambient temperature and treatment applied time. Based on these dealings, a series of distinctions for extracted capacitance and dielectric constant, hysteresis was performed on annealed and nonannealed samples. The interface and border trap responses, including stress behavior after an application of constant voltage for a specific time and surface morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, were also analyzed between the two above-mentioned sample types. Read More

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Border Habitat Effects on Captures of (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Pheromone Traps and Fruit Injury at Harvest in Apple and Peach Orchards in the Mid-Atlantic, USA.

Insects 2021 May 8;12(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA.

The invasive invades crop fields from various bordering habitats, and its feeding on crops has caused significant economic losses. Thus, is considered a perimeter-driven threat, and research on alternative management tactics against it has focused on intervention at crop edges. Woodlands adjacent to crop fields contain many hosts of and are therefore considered "riskiest" in terms of pest pressure and crop injury. Read More

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Age-related carotid extra-media thickening is associated with increased blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2021 Sep 12;41(5):461-466. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinical Exercise Physiology, Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Ageing results in higher blood pressure and arterial stiffening leading to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The extra-media thickness (EMT) is a composite measure of the arterial adventitia, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and the jugular vein, but the association among EMT and ageing, blood pressure and arterial stiffness is largely unknown. We hypothesized that EMT is associated with ageing, blood pressure and arterial stiffness. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical Characteristics of Eyes Showing a Discrete Margin of Different Retinal Reflectivity.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2021 May 1;52(5):273-280. Epub 2021 May 1.

Background And Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of discrete margins of different retinal reflectivity (DMDRR) in ultra-widefield fundus photography.

Patients And Methods: This DMDRR comprises a discrete border, with differing patterns of reflectivity on either side. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was performed on both the macula and the margin. Read More

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Distinct Features of Brain-Resident Macrophages: Microglia and Non-Parenchymal Brain Macrophages.

Mol Cells 2021 May;44(5):281-291

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Tissue-resident macrophages play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and innate immune defense against invading microbial pathogens. Brain-resident macrophages can be classified into microglia in the brain parenchyma and non-parenchymal brain macrophages, also known as central nervous system-associated or border-associated macrophages, in the brain-circulation interface. Microglia and non-parenchymal brain macrophages, including meningeal, perivascular, and choroid plexus macrophages, are mostly produced during embryonic development, and maintained their population by self-renewal. Read More

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En-face analysis of short posterior ciliary arteries crossing the sclera to choroid using wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8732. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

UPMC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh, 203 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

To study the topographic distribution of the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCA) entry sites into the choroid in normal eyes using structural en-face swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Retrospective analysis of SS-OCT scans (wide-field structural SS-OCT 12 × 12 mm) of 13 healthy subjects was performed. Cross-sectional swept-source OCT scans derived from a volume scan were represented as en-face image display following the Choroid-Scleral Interface to obtain en-face OCT. Read More

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Managing the risk of a COVID-19 outbreak from border arrivals.

J R Soc Interface 2021 04 21;18(177):20210063. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Manaaki Whenua, Lincoln, New Zealand.

In an attempt to maintain the elimination of COVID-19 in New Zealand, all international arrivals are required to spend 14 days in government-managed quarantine and to return a negative test result before being released. We model the testing, isolation and transmission of COVID-19 within quarantine facilities to estimate the risk of community outbreaks being seeded at the border. We use a simple branching process model for COVID-19 transmission that includes a time-dependent probability of a false-negative test result. Read More

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The Development and Implementation of Preventive Medicine Resident Rotations in a Shelter Serving Asylum-Seekers at the US-Mexico Border.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2021 May-Jun 01;27(Suppl 3):S129-S132

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (Drs Hill, Fischer, and Thorne and Ms Folsom) and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine (Dr Horton), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Asylum-seekers present to the US-Mexico border with a variety of acute health needs. In December 2018, the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency partnered with the University of California, San Diego to provide health screenings to asylum-seekers at a humanitarian shelter administered by Jewish Family Services. The assessments screened for communicable diseases and acute conditions. Read More

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Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Interface Enhancement Gradient Measured on Dual-Energy CT Images Improves Prognostic Evaluation.

Radiol Imaging Cancer 2020 07 17;2(4):e190074. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Departments of Radiology (A.M.A., D.S., C.M.B., M.M.M., A.D.S., D.E.M.) and Biostatistics (Y.L.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th St S, JTN 338, Birmingham, AL 35294-2172.

Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of differential enhancement on baseline dual-energy CT images in patients with treatment-naive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with a focus on tumor-host interface characterization.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective, institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study of 158 consecutive adult patients (mean age, 68 years; age range, 40.9-88. Read More

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A Probabilistic Failure Risk Approach to The Problem of Articular Cartilage Lubrication.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 May 16;203:106053. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The geometrical and mechanical properties that characterise the cartilage contact gap are uncertain and spatially varied. To date the effects of such uncertainties on cartilage lubrication have not been explored. Using a probabilistic approach, the purpose of this study is to numerically investigate the influence of surficial cartilage glycoaminoglycan (GAG) content on joint lubrication behaviour. Read More

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A distinct microglial subset at the tumor-stroma interface of glioma.

Glia 2021 Jul 11;69(7):1767-1781. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Program in Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Renaissance School of Medicine at Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

The characterization of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in high grade gliomas (HGG) has generated significant interest in an effort to understand how neoplastic lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) are supported and to devise novel therapeutic targets. The TME of the CNS contains unique and specialized cells, including the resident myeloid cells, microglia. Myeloid involvement in HGG, such as glioblastoma, is associated with poor outcomes. Read More

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Molecular Diversity of Hard Tick Species from Selected Areas of a Wildlife-Livestock Interface Ecosystem at Mikumi National Park, Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

Vet Sci 2021 Feb 24;8(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7036, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Ticks are one of the most important arthropod vectors and reservoirs as they harbor a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes, which can cause diseases in human and livestock. Due to their impact on human, livestock, and wild animal health, increased knowledge of ticks is needed. So far, the published data on the molecular diversity between hard ticks species collected in Tanzania is scarce. Read More

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February 2021

Pandemics Throughout History.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:631736. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

CHU de Québec - Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

The emergence and spread of infectious diseases with pandemic potential occurred regularly throughout history. Major pandemics and epidemics such as plague, cholera, flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have already afflicted humanity. The world is now facing the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Read More

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January 2021

Electrically Tunable Room Temperature Hysteresis Crossover in Underlap MoS Field-Effect Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 8;13(7):9186-9194. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India.

Clockwise to anticlockwise hysteresis crossover in current-voltage transfer characteristics of field-effect transistors (FETs) with graphene and MoS channels holds significant promise for nonvolatile memory applications. However, such crossovers have been shown to manifest only at high temperature. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrate room temperature hysteresis crossover in few-layer MoS FETs using a gate-drain underlap design to induce a differential response from traps near the MoS-HfO channel-gate dielectric interface, also referred to as border traps, to applied gate bias. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of Patient-Specific Cranial Implant Design Using Finite Element Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 04 30;148:198-204. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Engineering Science, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section of Biomechanics, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Various studies have investigated the load-bearing capacity of patient-specific cranial implants. However, little attention has been given to the evaluation of the design of ceramic-titanium (CeTi) implants.

Methods: A biomechanical evaluation of 3 patient-specific cranial implants was performed using finite element analysis. Read More

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Resonance photogeneration of hot electrons through Tamm surface states.

Opt Lett 2021 Feb;46(3):568-571

Internal surface photoemission of electrons from 1D crystal into a barrier with participation of Tamm state (TS) at the interface crystal barrier is considered theoretically for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It is shown that resonant tunneling of electrons through a TS could lead to substantial enhancement of the quantum efficiency and lowering the red border to a value defined by the TS. In contrast to the Fowler quadratic law, the photocurrent scales linearly with photon energy near the red border. Read More

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February 2021

The interface of multisectoral and multilateral dimensions of public health policy: what's new in the 21st century?

Haik Nikogosian

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies - Global Health Centre, Geneva 1211, Switzerland.

The article examines key developments unfolding in the 21st century in the intersection of multisectoral and multilateral dimensions of public health policy. Several processes and mechanisms, relatively new or rapidly evolving, are fuelling this dynamic interface. They include, in particular, expansion of the spectrum of sectors involved in the health domain, the upsurge of trans-border and commercial determinants of health, growing presence of health issues in multilateral instruments and processes that are outside of the health sector, and strengthening the legal base of intersectoral relations and responsibilities for health. Read More

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January 2021

Development of a CMOS-Compatible Carbon Nanotube Array Transfer Method.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Jan 18;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Centre for Micro- and Nano-Electronics (CMNE), School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Ave, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have, over the years, been used in research as a promising material in electronics as a thermal interface material and as interconnects amongst other applications. However, there exist several issues preventing the widespread integration of CNTs onto device applications, e.g. Read More

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January 2021

Genetic Relationship Between Hard Ticks () Infesting Cattle from Select Areas of a Wildlife-Livestock Interface Ecosystem at Mikumi National Park, Tanzania.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Mar 15;21(3):191-199. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Section of Virology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

There has recently been a substantial increase in the number of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents in Tanzania. Owing to their impact on human, livestock, and wild animal health, increased knowledge of ticks is needed. So far, no published data on the genetic relationship between hard tick () sequences collected from cattle are available in Tanzania. Read More

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Characterization of Electrical Traps Formed in AlO under Various ALD Conditions.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 19;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 19.

School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Korea.

Frequency dispersion in the accumulation region seen in multifrequency capacitance-voltage characterization, which is believed to be caused mainly by border traps, is a concerning issue in present-day devices. Because these traps are a fundamental property of oxides, their formation is expected to be affected to some extent by the parameters of oxide growth caused by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In this study, the effects of variation in two ALD conditions, deposition temperature and purge time, on the formation of near-interfacial oxide traps in the AlO dielectric are examined. Read More

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December 2020

Electrophysiological and anatomical factors determine arrhythmic risk in acute myocardial ischaemia and its modulation by sodium current availability.

Interface Focus 2021 Feb 11;11(1):20190124. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Computer Science, British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD, UK.

Acute myocardial ischaemia caused by coronary artery disease is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. Even though sodium current blockers are used as anti-arrhythmic drugs, decreased sodium current availability, also caused by mutations, has been shown to increase arrhythmic risk in ischaemic patients. The mechanisms are still unclear. Read More

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February 2021

Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Case Tracking System for COVID-19: Development Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 Dec 22;8(12):e20567. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Taiwan e-Health Association, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: COVID-19 has affected more than 180 countries and is the first known pandemic to be caused by a new virus. COVID-19's emergence and rapid spread is a global public health and economic crisis. However, investigations into the disease, patient-tracking mechanisms, and case report transmissions are both labor-intensive and slow. Read More

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December 2020