14,054 results match your criteria bones commonly

Localised renal Langerhans cell histiocytosis coexisting with unilateral renal clear cell carcinoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 16;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an uncommon group of disorders, which can be either localised or systemic, characterised by abnormal proliferation of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. These disorders represent an aberrant response of myeloid progenitor cells. Bones are the most commonly affected organ but there can be involvement of the skin, lungs, liver and spleen. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pediatric Scaphoid Fracture Associated with Osteopetrosis: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 04 13;11(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

Case: A 12-year-old boy with osteopetrosis sustained a scaphoid waist fracture, which has not previously been reported with this condition. Healing was successfully achieved with percutaneous cannulated compression screw fixation, albeit with prolonged healing as is typical for this condition.

Conclusion: A lack of osteoclastic remodeling predisposes patients with osteopetrosis to fractures, commonly in long bones. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Osteoblastoma of the Distal Radius.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Osteoblastomas are rare, benign, bone-forming neoplasms that represent less than 1% of all bone tumors and occur mostly in people aged 10 to 30 years. In long bones, the metadiaphyseal region tends to be most commonly affected. However, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported to occur in the distal radius. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Photobiomodulation: An Effective Approach to Enhance Proliferation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Osteoblasts.

Stem Cells Int 2021 22;2021:8843179. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa 2028.

Osteoporosis is regarded as the most common chronic metabolic bone condition in humans. In osteoporosis, bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have reduced cellular function. Regenerative medicine using adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation can promote the growth and strength of new bones, improve bone stability, and reduce the risk of fractures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sex estimation from knee breadth dimensions in a Finnish population.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Mar 29;51:101873. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Forensic Medicine Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Sex estimation is an important part of osteological analysis of skeletons and forensic identification process. Traditionally cranial and pelvic traits are utilized for accurate sex estimation. However, post-cranial measurements have also been proven to accurately estimate sex especially from robust bones such as the femur. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Getting Down to the Bare Bones: Does laminoplasty or laminectomy With Fusion Provide Better Outcomes for Patients With Multilevel Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy?

Neurospine 2021 Mar 31;18(1):45-54. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA.

Objective: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative disorder leading to progressive decline in spinal cord function. Cervical laminoplasty (CLP) and cervical laminectomy with fusion (CLF) are standard treatments for multilevel CSM. However, it is still unclear whether one procedure over the other provides better outcomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Giant Cell Tumor of Triquetrum: A Case Report with Literature Review.

J Wrist Surg 2021 Apr 13;10(2):158-163. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Orthopaedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

 Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign, aggressive tumor of bone and occurs commonly around the knee and distal radius. GCT of bone rarely occurs in hand. In hand, metacarpals are the most common site and there have been only a few case reports of GCT of the carpal bone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influence of low dose naltrexone on Raman assisted bone quality, skeletal advanced glycation end-products and nano-mechanical properties in type 2 diabetic mice bone.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 5;123:112011. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Mandi, 175005, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) commonly affects the bone mineral phase and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) which eventually led to changes in bone material properties on the nano and macro-scale. Several anti-diabetic compounds are widely used to control high blood sugar or glucose caused by T2DM. Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN), an opiate receptor antagonist, and a known TLR4 antagonist, treatment can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-diet (HFD) induced T2DM mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vitamin A and Bone Health: A Review on Current Evidence.

Molecules 2021 Mar 21;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient essential for growth, immunity, and good vision. The preformed retinol is commonly found in food of animal origin whereas provitamin A is derived from food of plant origin. This review summarises the current evidence from animal, human and cell-culture studies on the effects of vitamin A towards bone health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the efficiency of computerized algorithms to formulate a decision support system for deepbite treatment planning.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Apr;159(4):512-521

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Future University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a newly constructed computer-based decision support system (DSS) on the basis of artificial intelligence technology and designed to plan treatment for patients with a deep overbite.

Methods: With the help of information technology, a DSS was developed specifically for treatment planning of deepbite malocclusion. The program inputs were the components and the contributing factors used commonly by the orthodontic clinicians in deepbite diagnosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fibrous Dysplasia at Unusual Anatomic Sites: A Series of 86 Cases With Emphasis on Histologic Patterns.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Apr 1:1066896921997141. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

195112Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

. Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign fibro-osseous neoplasm that most commonly arises in the ribs, femur, and craniofacial bones. We analyzed features of FD arising in the spine/short tubular/small bones of the hands/feet (STSBHF), specifically assessing for pattern of bone formation (conventional, complex/anastomosing, psammomatoid/cementum like), myxoid change, and presence of osteoclast-type giant cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact Protection Potential of Mammalian Hair: Testing the Pugilism Hypothesis for the Evolution of Human Facial Hair.

Integr Org Biol 2020 15;2(1):obaa005. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, University of Utah, 257 S. 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

Because facial hair is one of the most sexually dimorphic features of humans () and is often perceived as an indicator of masculinity and social dominance, human facial hair has been suggested to play a role in male contest competition. Some authors have proposed that the beard may function similar to the long hair of a lion's mane, serving to protect vital areas like the throat and jaw from lethal attacks. This is consistent with the observation that the mandible, which is superficially covered by the beard, is one of the most commonly fractured facial bones in interpersonal violence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Focused ultrasound ablation of a large canine oral tumor achieves efficient tumor remission: a case report.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):552-560

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Oral cancers are one of the commonly diagnosed tumors worldwide in human and veterinary patients. Most oral cancers are surgically resected; however, obtaining an adequate margin of safety in patients without compromising their quality of life is often challenging. Herein, we investigated the ability of non-invasive focused ultrasound (FUS) to thermally ablate a biopsy confirmed canine oral cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Occlusal Vertical Dimension: Best Evidence Consensus Statement.

J Prosthodont 2021 Apr;30(S1):12-19

Private Practice, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Patients in need of extensive prosthodontic treatment may need restoration of their occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) due to tooth wear, tooth loss, or changes that have occurred to existing prostheses over time. Prosthodontic treatment is based on the clinical application of the available evidence regarding interocclusal distance (IOD), the positional stability of rest vertical dimension (RVD), and the effect of altering the OVD. Hence, the purpose of this consensus document is to examine available data related to IOD, RVD, and alteration of the OVD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Operationalizing Treat-to-Target for Osteoporosis.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

New Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Treat-to-target (TTT) for osteoporosis is a concept for individualizing patient treatment decisions that focuses on achieving an acceptable level of fracture risk rather than response to treatment alone. While a response to treatment is essential in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk, it is not necessarily sufficient. Some patients have a good response to treatment yet remain at high level of fracture risk. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Proximity of the roots of maxillary posterior teeth to the floor of maxillary sinus and cortical plate: A cone-beam computed tomography assessment.

Indian J Dent Res 2020 Nov-Dec;31(6):911-915

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: The purpose of the study is to assess the vertical and horizontal relationship between the roots of maxillary posterior teeth and neighboring structures like the floor of the maxillary sinus and cortical plates using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Method And Materials: 100 CBCT scans of the patients from the Indian population were analyzed. Vertical and horizontal relationship between the roots of maxillary posterior teeth and the floor of the maxillary sinus was divided into 4 types and 3 types, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Osteonecrosis of Jaws in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Antiresorptive Drugs: A Review.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2021 Feb;42(2):62-67; quiz 68

Professor and Director of Implant Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York.

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among elderly men in the United States. Skeletal architecture is affected by metastasis and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is considered a gold standard treatment in prostate cancer. Osteoporosis and skeletal effects are reported among most patients on ADT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Revisiting metric sex estimation of burnt human remains via supervised learning using a reference collection of modern identified cremated individuals (Knoxville, USA).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Maritime Cultures Research Institute, Department of History, Archaeology, Arts, Philosophy and Ethics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Objectives: This study aims to increase the rate of correctly sexed calcined individuals from archaeological and forensic contexts. This is achieved by evaluating sexual dimorphism of commonly used and new skeletal elements via uni- and multi-variate metric trait analyses.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-two skeletal traits were evaluated in 86 individuals from the William M. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head with vascularized bone grafting].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Mar;35(3):381-386

Department of Hand and Foot Surgery and Reparative and Reconstructive, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin, 300121, P.R.China.

Objective: To summarize the current progress of vascularized bone grafting in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), and to provide reference for treatment of ONFH.

Methods: The literature at home and abroad on the treatment of ONFH with vascularized bone grafting was reviewed, and the mechanism, operating methods and effectiveness, indications, and complications were summarized.

Results: Vascularized bone grafting is a commonly used clinical hip-preserving operation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emulsion-free chitosan-genipin microgels for growth plate cartilage regeneration.

J Biomater Appl 2021 Mar 12:885328221999894. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.

The growth plate is a cartilage tissue near the ends of children's long bones and is responsible for bone growth. Injury to the growth plate can result in the formation of a 'bony bar' which can span the growth plate and result in bone growth abnormalities in children. Biomaterials such as chitosan microgels could be a potential treatment for growth plate injuries due to their chondrogenic properties, which can be enhanced through loading with biologics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Rare Tumor of Clivus Masquerading as Pituitary Adenoma.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):1091-1095. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Pathology, ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi, India.

Giant cell tumors (GCT) are generally benign, commonly affecting young adults, with a slight preponderance in females. They are locally aggressive with a high rate of local recurrence. Most of them are found in the epiphysis of long bones, making the base of the skull a rare site. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma with Brachial Plexus Infiltration.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):1068-1071. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors are aggressive malignant small round blue cell tumors of undifferentiated mesenchymal origin. Skeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a common entity that classically involves the diaphysis of the long bones, pelvis, ribs, and sacrum. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is rare, most commonly presenting as a paravertebral mass lesion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Adamantinoma-like Variant of Ewing Sarcoma in the Metatarsal Bone After Chemotherapy: Report of a Case Successfully Treated with Pedicled Osteocutaneous Fibular Transfer.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Mar 11:10668969211001449. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

National Health Laboratory Service, 121470Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma is a rare variant of Ewing sarcoma with histologic and immunohistochemical evidence of squamous differentiation. This variant most commonly occurs in the head and neck region with a few cases reported in the long bones of the limbs. It may be associated with poorer clinical outcome and could pose a diagnostic challenge, particularly if it occurs in older patients or as a metastatic lesion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Insidious Blastomycoses Osteomyelitis in a Young, Immunocompetent Male.

S D Med 2020 Dec;73(12):586-587

Sanford Dermatology Clinic, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Blastomyces is a fungus that is endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys and Great Lakes region. The fungus is a rare cause of infection, but most commonly causes infections of the lungs followed by the skin and bones. Infection of the bone is often not clinically suspected, which can slow the diagnosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Does the Low-Field MRI Appearance of Intraosseous STIR Hyperintensity in Equine Cadaver Limbs Change when Subjected to a Freeze-Thaw Process?

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4343, Australia.

Equine advanced imaging research involving racehorse fetlock pathology commonly uses cadaver limbs and a freeze-thaw process. The presence of short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signal intensity in the distal third metacarpal/metatarsal bone is of particular interest and may be clinically relevant in the diagnosis of horses at risk of fracture. However, little is known about the effect of the freeze-thaw process on the MRI appearance of STIR hyperintensity in these bones. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Oral manifestations in mild-to-moderate cases of COVID-19 viral infection in the adult population.

Dent Med Probl 2021 Jan-Mar;58(1):7-15

Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious worldwide threat presented by a broad range of symptoms, from mild flu to severe pneumonia. A rising number of atypical infections have been reported. Thus, scientists and clinicians are doing hard work to unravel scientific knowledge about this novel pandemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Does the presence of neuropathic pain affect the outcomes of the interlaminar epidural steroid injection for cervical disc herniation?: A prospective clinical study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e25012

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pain Medicine Section, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are commonly performed for the treatment of chronic cervical disc herniation (CDH). Although they are considered to be effective for both nociceptive and neuropathic types of pain, there is a lack of data regarding the impact of neuropathic pain (NP) and nociceptive pain components on treatment outcomes. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of interlaminar epidural steroid injection (ILESI) between patients with predominantly NP and nociceptive pain due to CDH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Independent Suture Tape Reinforcement: An In Vitro Biomechanical Full Construct Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 16;9(2):2325967120981875. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Orthopedic Research, Arthrex Inc, Naples, Florida, USA.

Background: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is commonly performed to restore joint stability and prevent posterior tibial translation at higher flexion angles. However, persistent knee laxity after reconstruction is often reported.

Purpose: To biomechanically evaluate the effect of independent suture tape (ST) reinforcement on different PCL reconstruction techniques. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Emerging evidence that adaptive bone formation inhibition by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases stress fracture risk.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Feb 27:1535370221993098. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Military Performance Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760, USA.

There is mounting evidence suggesting that the commonly used analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may inhibit new bone formation with physical training and increase risk of stress fractures in physically active populations. Stress fractures are thought to occur when bones are subjected to repetitive mechanical loading, which can lead to a cycle of tissue microdamage, repair, and continued mechanical loading until fracture. Adaptive bone formation, particularly on the periosteal surface of long bones, is a concurrent adaptive response of bone to heightened mechanical loading that can improve the fatigue resistance of the skeletal structure, and therefore may play a critical role in offsetting the risk of stress fracture. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021