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Practice Patterns and Pain Outcomes for Targeted Muscle Reinnervation: An Informed Approach to Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Use in the Acute Amputation Setting.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr;103(8):681-687

USU-Walter Reed Department of Surgery, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) and regenerative peripheral nerve interface (RPNI) procedures have been shown to improve patient-reported outcomes for the treatment of symptomatic neuromas after amputation; however, the specific indications and comparative outcomes of each are unclear. The primary research questions were what complement of nerves most frequently requires secondary pain intervention after conventional amputation, whether this information can guide the focused application of TMR and RPNI to the primary amputation setting, and how the outcomes compare in both settings.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of records for patients who had undergone lower-extremity TMR and/or RPNI at our institution. Read More

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Prediction of Nonunion After Nonoperative Treatment of a Proximal Humeral Fracture.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr;103(8):668-680

The Edinburgh Shoulder Clinic, New Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: The prevalence of nonunion after a proximal humeral fracture (PHF) and the risk factors for its occurrence are poorly defined. We aimed to estimate the rate of nonunion in nonoperatively treated patients and to produce a clinical model for its prediction.

Methods: Two thousand two hundred and thirty adult patients (median age, 72 years [range, 18 to 103 years]; 75. Read More

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Comparison of Revision Risk Based on Timing of Knee Arthroscopy Prior to Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr;103(8):660-667

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Knee arthroscopy may be performed prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with symptomatic degenerative knee changes that do not yet warrant TKA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the time interval between knee arthroscopy and subsequent primary TKA is associated with increased rates of revision and certain complications following TKA.

Methods: Data from 2006 to 2017 were collected from a national insurance database. Read More

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What's New in Sports Medicine.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr;103(8):653-659

Northern Light Orthopedics, Bangor, Maine.

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Influence of anthopometric variables on the mechanical properties of human rib cortical bone.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Eduard Maristany, 14, Barcelona, Catalunya, 08034, SPAIN.

Objective: The mechanical properties of ribs from a large number of post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were analyzed to search for variation according to age, sex or BMI in the sample. A large sample of specimens from different donors (N = 64) with a very wide range of ages and anthropometric characteristics was tested.

Methods: Uniaxial tensile tests were used for a sample of coupons machined from cortical bone tissue in order to isolate the purely mechanical properties from the geometrically influenced properties of the rib. Read More

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Paediatric long term continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation in France: A cross-sectional study.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 3;181:106388. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology Unit, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69677, Bron, France; Sorbonne Université, INSERM UMR-S 938, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), F-75014, Paris, France; Centre de Pneumologie de l'enfant, Ramsay Générale de Santé, 92100, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of children treated with long term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in France.

Design: Cross-sectional national survey.

Setting: Paediatric CPAP/NIV teams of 28 tertiary university hospitals in France. Read More

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Hypoxia depletes contaminating CD45 hematopoietic cells from murine bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) cultures: Methods for BMSC culture purification.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Apr 1;53:102317. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, USA; Department of Cell Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, USA; Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address:

Culture expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are easily isolated, can be grown rapidly en masse, and contain both skeletal stem cells (SSCs) and multipotent mesenchymal progenitors (MMPs). Despite this functional heterogeneity, BMSCs continue to be utilized for many applications due to the lack of definitive and universally accepted markers to prospectively identify and purify SSCs. Isolation is widely based on adherence to tissue culture plastic; however, high hematopoietic contamination is a significant impediment in murine models. Read More

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The surgical management of the cavity and bone defects in enchondroma cases: A prospective randomized trial.

Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 5;37:101565. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Science Research Department, Alexander Muss High School in Israel (AMHSI) Affiliated with Alexander Muss Institute for Israel Education (AMIIE), Hod HaSharon, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: We compared the curettage/bone grafting and the curettage/bone graft substitutes surgical techniques in their relation to functional outcomes, oncologic outcome (recurrence, malignant transformation), the rate of postsurgical complications, durations of surgery and of postsurgical immobilization for hand-localized cases of solitary and multiple enchondromas.

Methods: The current prospective randomized trial analyzed 200 adult patients (2012-2017) with enchondroma who underwent surgical intervention. The cases were randomly divided into Group 1 (n = 100; F 56, M 44) for surgeries with curettage and autogenous bone grafting, and Group 2 (n = 100; F 55, M 45) for surgeries with curettage and bone graft substitutes. Read More

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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuate silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting apoptosis and pyroptosis but not autophagy in rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 10;216:112181. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on silica-induced lung fibrosis in a rat model. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, silica group, and BMSC group (n = 10 rats per group). BMSCs were injected successively into rats on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days after silica exposure. Read More

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Exosome-derived miR-let-7c promotes angiogenesis in multiple myeloma by polarizing M2 macrophages in the bone marrow microenvironment.

Leuk Res 2021 Mar 31;105:106566. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, No. 100 Ke Xue Avenue, Zhengzhou, 450000, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Tumor Pathology, Zhengzhou University, No. 40 Da Xue Avenue, Zhengzhou, 450000, China; Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Jian She Dong Avenue, Zhengzhou, 450000, China. Electronic address:

Angiogenesis is an integral part of the multiple myeloma (MM) microenvironment, and affects tumorigenesis, progression, invasion, and metastasis. Exosomes are essential for cell-cell communication and help in regulating the bone marrow microenvironment. Herein, we investigated macrophage polarization and angiogenesis in MM in vitro via exosome-derived miR-let-7c. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in additional lumbar posterolateral fusion: minimum 1 year follow-up.

Spine J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background Context: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is the growth factor with the most striking osteoinductive performance in orthopedic operations; it is also able to induce heterotopic bone formation. However, there has been little clinical research on Escherichia coli-derived BMP-2 (E.BMP-2). Read More

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Comparison of bicortical, miniplate and hybrid fixation techniques in mandibular advancement and counterclockwise rotation: A finite element analysis study.

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Professor, Marmara University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aims to evaluate biomechanical stability and stress distribution of five different fixation types with finite element analysis using 10-mm advancement with or without counterclockwise rotation of the mandible.

Materials And Methods: After sagittal split osteotomy, 10-mm advancement was performed in the first group and 10-mm advancement and 10-degree counterclockwise rotation were performed in the second group. One miniplate (M-1), two-miniplate (M-2), one miniplate and a bicortical screw (H), L-shaped bicortical screw (B-1), and inverted L-shaped bicortical screw (B-2) systems were placed. Read More

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Genetic background and production periods shape the microRNA profiles of the gut in laying hens.

Genomics 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institute for Genome Biology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany; University Rostock, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 18059 Rostock, Germany.

There is growing evidence of the importance of miRNAs for intestinal functional properties and nutritional uptake. Comparative miRNAs profiles of the jejunal mucosa were established against two genetic backgrounds (Lohmann Brown-Classic (LB) and Lohmann LSL-Classic (LSL), which are similar in egg production but differ in physiological traits including mineral utilization, along the production periods of laying hens. The target genes of miRNAs higher expressed in LB vs. Read More

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Inflammasomes in Dendritic Cells: Friend or Foe?

Immunol Lett 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Dendritic Cell Biology, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91052, Erlangen, Germany; Medical Immunology Campus Erlangen, Germany; Deutsches Zentrum Immuntherapie (DZI), Germany; Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Area of Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), Germany. Electronic address:

Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that crucially contribute to host defense against pathogens but are also involved in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. Inflammasome formation leads to activation of effector caspases (caspase-1, 4, 5, or 11), the proteolytic maturation of IL-1β and IL-18 as well as cleavage of the pore-forming protein Gasdermin D. Dendritic cells are major regulators of immune responses as they bridge innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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Visual and haptic perceptibility of 3D printed skeletal models in orthognathic surgery.

J Dent 2021 Apr 10:103660. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging & Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven & Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: To assess the anatomical and tactile quality of 3D printed models derived from medical printers for application in orthognathic surgery.

Methods: A CBCT-scan of an 18 years old female patient was acquired with NewTom VGi evo (NewTom, Verona, Italy). Thereafter, mandibular bone was segmented and isolated from the scan using Mimics inPrint 2. Read More

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Pharmacological inhibition of SETD7 by PFI-2 attenuates renal fibrosis following folic acid and obstruction injury.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10:174097. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, The first Affiliated Hospital of SUN YAT-SEN University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Renal fibrosis is the common pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease, and SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (SETD7) promote considerably renal fibrosis. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying SETD7 driving renal fibrosis are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of SETD7 in M2 macrophages-myofibroblasts transition and the myeloid fibroblasts activation in folic acid and obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Read More

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Decline in IGF1 in the bone marrow microenvironment initiates hematopoietic stem cell aging.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA. Electronic address:

Decline in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function with age underlies limited health span of our blood and immune systems. In order to preserve health into older age, it is necessary to understand the nature and timing of initiating events that cause HSC aging. By performing a cross-sectional study in mice, we discover that hallmarks of aging in HSCs and hematopoiesis begin to accumulate by middle age and that the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment at middle age induces and is indispensable for hematopoietic aging. Read More

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Results of the Active Middle Ear Implantation in Patients With Mixed Hearing Loss After the Middle Ear Surgery: Prospective Multicenter Study (ROMEO Study).

Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea.

Objectives: To evaluate the user satisfaction, efficacy, and safety of round window (RW) vibroplasty using the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in patients with persistent mixed hearing loss after mastoidectomy.

Methods: The study included twenty-seven patients (mean age, 58.7 years; age range, 28-76 years; 11 men and 16 women) with mixed hearing loss after mastoidectomy surgery from 15 tertiary referral centers in Korea. Read More

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Absolute Neutrophil Count after the First Chemotherapy Cycle as a Surrogate Marker for Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Neuroblastoma.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: We performed this study to determine whether the degree of neutropenia after the first chemotherapy cycle can be used as a surrogate marker of individual susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents affecting treatment outcome in patients with neuroblastoma.

Materials And Methods: The study included 313 patients who received the first cycle chemotherapy with a CEDC regimen and had absolute neutrophil count (ANC) data available. The cumulative incidences of progression and treatment-related mortality (TRM) were estimated. Read More

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Analysis of Posterior Zirconia Crowns with Vertical Margin Preparations.

J Stack B J Millar

Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Kings College London, Restorative Dentistry, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RW.

Background: The interest in vertical crown preparation is growing and several variations are presented in the dental literature but limited clinical outcome data exists for teeth prepared for a vertical finish line.

Aim: To audit clinical outcomes for 73 teeth after vertical preparation for knife-edge zirconia crowns.

Method: Seventy-three teeth had knife-edge zirconia crowns placed after vertical finish line preparation. Read More

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T4DM Trial and its T4Bone Substudy Shed Further Light on Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Middle-Aged and Older Men.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Philadelphia, PA.

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Pediatric Scaphoid Fracture Associated with Osteopetrosis: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 Apr 13;11(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.

Case: A 12-year-old boy with osteopetrosis sustained a scaphoid waist fracture, which has not previously been reported with this condition. Healing was successfully achieved with percutaneous cannulated compression screw fixation, albeit with prolonged healing as is typical for this condition.

Conclusion: A lack of osteoclastic remodeling predisposes patients with osteopetrosis to fractures, commonly in long bones. Read More

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TREM2 Dictates Antibacterial Defense and Viability of Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages During Bacterial Infection.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Zhejiang University School of Medicine First Affiliated Hospital, 71069, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Hangzhou, China;

Macrophages undergo profound metabolic reprogramming to join key immunoregulatory functions, which can be initiated by pattern recognition receptors. TREM2, a macrophage phagocytic receptor, plays pivotal roles in sepsis by enhancing bacterial clearance, which is associated with regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, how intracellular ROS participate in TREM2-mediated bactericidal activity remains unclear. Read More

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In Vivo Elongation Patterns of the Collateral Ligaments in Healthy Knees During Functional Activities.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Laboratory for Movement Biomechanics, Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Improved knowledge of in vivo function of the collateral ligaments is essential for enhancing rehabilitation and guiding surgical reconstruction as well as soft-tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to quantify in vivo elongation patterns of the collateral ligaments throughout complete cycles of functional activities.

Methods: Knee kinematics were measured using radiographic images captured with a mobile fluoroscope while healthy subjects performed level walking, downhill walking, and stair descent. Read More

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Pediatric Thoracolumbar Spinal Injuries in United States Trauma Centers.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the *Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital †Division of Pediatric Hospital Medicine, Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center ‡Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Objectives: Injuries are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ages 1 to 18 years. There are limited studies about pediatric thoracolumbar (TL) spinal injuries; the purpose of this study was to characterize TL spinal injuries among pediatric patients evaluated in US trauma centers.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the National Trauma Data Bank. Read More

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Buccal Pedicle Flap Combined with Porcine Collagen Matrix: a Follow-up of 2 years on 40 Consecutive Cases.

Clin Adv Periodontics 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Director O.R.E.C.-Oral Reconstruction and Education Center Rome (Italy), Via Rovereto 6, Rome, 00198, Italy.

Introduction: A thick peri-implant mucosa is of importance to prevent recession, color alterations, bone remodeling and promote "creeping attachment". A volume stable porcine cross-linked collagen matrix has been recently introduced for soft tissue regeneration and volume maintenance. The aim of this study was to investigate peri-implant soft tissue healing and stability on 40 consecutive patients treated with buccal pedicle flap combined with the use of the collagen matrix. Read More

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Metastatic Esophageal Carcinoma: Prognostic Factors and Survival.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Worldwide, esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death. At initial diagnosis, about 50% of esophageal cancer patients present with metastasis. The prognosis of metastatic esophageal cancer is poor with 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Read More

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