2,459 results match your criteria body myositis


The pathophysiological effects of exercise in the management of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: A scoping review.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) is a term used for a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by severe muscle weakness. In addition to pharmacological treatment options, non-pharmacological methods such as exercising are essential for proper management of myositis. The present article aimed to provide an insight into the potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying exercise-related benefits in myositis. Read More

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Regarding Cricopharyngeal Myotomy in Inclusion Body Myositis: Comparison of Endoscopic and Transcervical Approaches.

Laryngoscope 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.

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Multimodal Imaging Characteristics of a Migrating Oropharyngeal-Spinal Foreign Body in a Cat.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

A 2.5 yr old female spayed domestic shorthair presented for acute tetraparesis, dull mentation, and fever. MRI and computed tomography identified a thin linear foreign body extending from the caudal nasopharynx through the atlanto-occipital joint and cervicomedullary junction. Read More

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[Which treatment attempts should be undertaken for inclusion body myositis?]

Authors:
Benedikt Schoser

Z Rheumatol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Friedrich-Baur-Institut, Neurologische Klinik, LMU Klinikum, Ziemssenstr 1, 80336, München, Deutschland.

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Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in a young adult with genetic mutation: Case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e24620

Department of Rheumatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong.

Rationale: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital skeletal deformities and soft tissue masses that progress into heterotopic ossification. Deformities of the great toes are distinctive and heterotrophic ossification usually begins in the first decade of the patient's life. Any invasive procedure could potentially trigger a flare and heterotopic calcification. Read More

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A Clinical Case of Polymyositis Complicated by Antisynthetase Syndrome.

Cureus 2021 Jan 16;13(1):e12737. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Internal Medicine, Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences, Trivandrum, IND.

Antisynthetase syndrome is an autoimmune condition that manifests clinically through signs and symptoms, such as interstitial lung disease, myositis, Raynaud's phenomenon, fever, hyperkeratotic fingertips (mechanic's hands), and arthritis. It is associated with antibodies against aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzyme, the most common autoantibody being the anti-Jo-1. An 18-year-old girl presented with weakness of both the upper and lower limb, swelling and generalized body pain, difficulty in swallowing. Read More

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January 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Bimagrumab in Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis: Long-term Extension of RESILIENT.

Neurology 2021 Mar 17;96(12):e1595-e1607. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

From the Department of Neurology (A.A.A.), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases (M.G.H., P.M.M.) and Institute of Neurology, Department of Neuromuscular Diseases & Centre for Rheumatology (P.M.M.), University College London; Department of Rheumatology & Queen Square Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases (P.M.M.), University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust; Department of Rheumatology (P.M.M.), Northwick Park Hospital, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (U.A.B.), Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands; National Institute for Health Research Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (H.C.), Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, UK; Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology (O.B.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France; Novartis Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. (K.A.K), Hyderabad, India; Novartis Pharmaceuticals (M.W., D.A.P.), East Hanover, NJ; Novartis Pharma AG (L.B.T., A.A.S-T.), Basel, Switzerland; Department of Neurology (T.E.L.), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Institute for Immunology & Infectious Diseases (M.N.), Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch University and Notre Dame University, Perth; Department of Neurology (C.L.), Royal North Shore Hospital, New South Wales; Calvary Health Care Bethlehem (K.A.R.), Caulfield South, Australia; Department of Neurology (M.d.V), Amsterdam University Medical Centre, the Netherlands; Department of Medicine (D.P.A.), University of Miami, FL; Department of Neurology (R.J.B., M.M.D.), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City; Department of Neurology (J.A.L.M.), Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (J.T.K.), The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus; Neuromuscular Research Center (B.O., N.C.J.), UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA; Department of Neurology (P.V.d.B.), University Hospital Saint-Luc, University of Louvain, Brussels; Neuromuscular Reference Centre, Department of Neurology (J.B.), Antwerp University Hospital; Institute Born-Bunge (J.B.), University of Antwerp; Department of Neurology (J.L.d.B.), Ghent University Hospital, Belgium; Department of Neurology (C.K.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Neurology (W.S.D.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Neuromuscular Diagnostic Center and Electromyography Laboratory, Boston; Department of Neurology (M.M.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (M.M.), Rome, Italy; Department of Neurology (S.P.N.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas; Department of Neurology (H.H.J.), University Hospital and University of Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Neurosciences (E.P.), University of Padova School of Medicine; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (L.M.), Milan; Unit of Neurology and Neuromuscular Disorders (C.R.), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico G Martino, University of Messina; Center for Neuromuscular Diseases (M.F.), Unit of Neurology, ASST Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, Italy; Nerve and Muscle Center of Texas (A.I.S.), Houston; Neuromuscular Research Center (K.S.), Phoenix, AZ; Department of Neurology (N.A.G.), ALS & Neuromuscular Center, University of California Irvine, Orange; Department of Neurology (M.M.-Y.), National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Kumamoto University Hospital; Department of Neurology (N.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi; Department of Neurology (M.A.), Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai; Department of Neurology (M.K.), Nagoya University Hospital, Aichi; Department of Neurology (H.M.), Osaka City General Hospital; Wakayama Medical University Hospital (K.M.); Tokushima University Hospital (H.N.); Department of Neuromuscular Research (I.N.), National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; RTI Health Solutions (C.D.R., V.S.L.W.), Research Triangle Park, NC; Copenhagen Neuromuscular Center (J.V.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; and UCB (L.Z.A.), Bulle, Switzerland. H.N. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan. B.O. is currently affiliated with the Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To assess long-term (2 years) effects of bimagrumab in participants with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM).

Methods: Participants (aged 36-85 years) who completed the core study (RESILIENT [Efficacy and Safety of Bimagrumab/BYM338 at 52 Weeks on Physical Function, Muscle Strength, Mobility in sIBM Patients]) were invited to join an extension study. Individuals continued on the same treatment as in the core study (10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg bimagrumab or matching placebo administered as IV infusions every 4 weeks). Read More

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Challenges for Treatment Trials of Inclusion Body Myositis.

Neurology 2021 Mar 17;96(12):555-556. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

From the Yale University School of Medicine (B.R.), New Haven, CT; and University of Rochester Medical Center (R.C.G.), NY.

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Cricopharyngeal Myotomy in Inclusion Body Myositis: Comparison of Endoscopic and Transcervical Approaches.

Laryngoscope 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, U.S.A.

Objective: Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a progressive inflammatory myopathy with dysphagia as a debilitating sequalae. Otolaryngologists are consulted for surgical candidacy when there are findings of cricopharyngeal dysfunction. We aim to compare transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy (TCPM) versus endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy (ECPM) in the IBM population with particular focus on objective swallow study outcomes, complications, and recurrence rates. Read More

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February 2021

Coexistence of TDP-43 and C5b-9 staining of muscle in a patient with inclusion body myositis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 9;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Neurology, Penn State Health Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA

While sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most commonly acquired inflammatory myopathy above 50 years of age, its refractory response to conventional immunosuppressive treatments raises questions about its perplexing pathogenesis. Muscle biopsy typically reveals major histocompatibility complex I antigens and CD8+ T cell endomysial infiltrates invading non-necrotic muscle fibres early in the disease course with rimmed vacuoles, protein aggregates and amyloid inclusions later in the disease. Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a protein implicated in transcriptional repression in neurodegenerative diseases, is also found in sIBM. Read More

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February 2021

[Clinicopathological Features of Myositis and Necrotizing Myopathy: How to Distinguish between Myositis and Muscular Dystrophy on Muscle Pathology].

Brain Nerve 2021 Feb;73(2):147-159

Department of Neuromuscular Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry.

In the field of neurology, idiopathic inflammatory myopathy has been classified into four sub-categories, namely, dermatomyositis, anti-synthetase syndrome, inclusion body myositis, and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), based upon histological and serological findings. Among them, IMNM has features similar to muscular dystrophy, and it may thus be difficult to differentiate between these two conditions, not only clinically but also pathologically, especially in chronic cases and pediatric patients. This is partly because the main pathological feature of both IMNM and muscular dystrophy is myofiber necrosis and regeneration. Read More

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February 2021

Clinical utility of anti-cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A antibody in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 03 8;8(3):571-578. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: To define the clinicopathologic features and diagnostic utility associated with anti-cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (NT5C1A) antibody seropositivity in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs).

Methods: Anti-NT5C1A antibody status was clinically tested between 2014 and 2019 in the Washington University neuromuscular clinical laboratory. Using clinicopathologic information available for 593 patients, we classified them as inclusion body myositis (IBM), dermatomyositis, antisynthetase syndrome, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), nonspecific myositis, or noninflammatory muscle diseases. Read More

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Role of MRI in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: a review article.

Acta Radiol 2021 Feb 7:284185121990305. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Picture This By Jankharia, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a rare heterogeneous group of chronic, autoimmune conditions characterized by the slow, progressive weakness of the skeletal muscles and inflammatory infiltrates in the muscle tissue. The predominant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myositis imaging is to assess disease activity and to identify the target site for biopsy. Its role in phenotyping the disease is less explored. Read More

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February 2021

Myositis Ossificans Traumatica, an Unusual Cause of Mandibular Hypomobility.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Rahnemoun Hospital Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd Private Practice, Karaj Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Abstract: Myositis ossificans traumatica is a rare condition in which causes restriction of mandibular movement. In this entity, temporomandibular joint is depleted of any problems; although all the patients have the history of trauma to the mandible and the face. Myositis ossificans traumatica can involve other parts of the body like femoral region with higher incidence in compare to the maxillofacial area. Read More

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January 2021

More prominent fibrosis of the cricopharyngeal muscle in inclusion body myositis.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 23;422:117327. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.

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A Rare Presentation of Parvovirus Induced Pure Red Cell Aplasia in Elderly Male With Inclusion Body Myositis.

Cureus 2020 Dec 15;12(12):e12095. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Hematology and Oncology, Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital, Sayre, USA.

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare condition leading to erythroid bone marrow failure. Parvovirus is one of the rare causes of PRCA in older adults. We present a 73-year-old man on high dose prednisone who presented with rapid functional decline and shortness of breath and was found to have normocytic normochromic anemia with low reticulocyte counts. Read More

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December 2020

SVIP is a molecular determinant of lysosomal dynamic stability, neurodegeneration and lifespan.

Nat Commun 2021 01 21;12(1):513. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Missense mutations in Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP) are linked to diverse degenerative diseases including IBMPFD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), muscular dystrophy and Parkinson's disease. Here, we characterize a VCP-binding co-factor (SVIP) that specifically recruits VCP to lysosomes. SVIP is essential for lysosomal dynamic stability and autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion. Read More

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January 2021

Staphylococcus-associated acute glomerulonephritis in a patient with dermatomyositis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 20;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Staphylococcus-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) occurs as a complication of staphylococcal infection elsewhere in the body. Dermatomyositis (DM) can be associated with glomerulonephritis due to the disease per se. We report a case of a 40-year-old male patient with DM who presented with acute kidney injury, and was initially pulsed with methylprednisolone for 3 days, followed by dexamethasone equivalent to 1 mg/kg/day prednisolone. Read More

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January 2021

NAD boosting reduces age-associated amyloidosis and restores mitochondrial homeostasis in muscle.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(3):108660

Laboratory of Integrative Systems Physiology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Aging is characterized by loss of proteostasis and mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we provide bioinformatic evidence of dysregulation of mitochondrial and proteostasis pathways in muscle aging and diseases. Moreover, we show accumulation of amyloid-like deposits and mitochondrial dysfunction during natural aging in the body wall muscle of C. Read More

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January 2021

Inflammatory myopathies: update on diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapies, and COVID-19-related implications.

Acta Myol 2020 Dec 1;39(4):289-301. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA USA and the Neuroimmunology Unit, National and Kapodistrian University University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

The inflammatory myopathies constitute a heterogeneous group of acquired myopathies that have in common the presence of endomysial inflammation. Based on steadily evolved clinical, histological and immunopathological features and some autoantibody associations, these disorders can now be classified in five characteristic subsets: Dermatomyositis (DM) Polymyositis (PM), Necrotizing Autoimmune Myositis (NAM), Anti-synthetase syndrome-overlap myositis (Anti-SS-OM), and Inclusion-Body-Myositis (IBM). Each inflammatory myopathy subset has distinct immunopathogenesis, prognosis and response to immunotherapies, necessitating the need to correctly identify each subtype from the outset to avoid disease mimics and proceed to early therapy initiation. Read More

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December 2020

Late-onset myopathies: clinical features and diagnosis.

Acta Myol 2020 Dec 1;39(4):235-244. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Late-onset myopathies are not well-defined since there is no clear definition of 'late onset'. For practical reasons we decided to use the age of 40 years as a cut-off. There are diseases which only manifest as late onset myopathy (inclusion body myositis, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy and axial myopathy). Read More

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December 2020

Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory diseases: Where are we now? Results of an International Survey by the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Mar 9;136:109533. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: To investigate the current role of WB-MRI for rheumatic inflammatory diseases in clinical practice using a survey addressed to musculoskeletal radiologists.

Methods: A survey composed of 61 questions, subdivided in three sections, demographics (five questions), application of WB-MRI for inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases in adults and children (28 questions: 7 open and 21 multiple choice for each subgroup) was distributed via the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR) from July 2 to December 31, 2018 to radiologists working in academic, private, and public workplaces. Comparisons among the different workplaces were performed using the Chi-squared and the Kruskal-Wallis test for nominal and ordinal data, respectively (p < 0. Read More

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Determinants and functional impacts of diaphragmatic involvement in patients with inclusion body myositis.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Apr 24;63(4):497-505. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Département de Médecine, Service de Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: We evaluated the functional consequences of diaphragm involvement in patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM).

Methods: Ultrasound diaphragm thickening fraction (TFdi), lung function and dyspnea levels were compared between IBM patients and matched controls. Patients with IBM were grouped into "low" and "high" diaphragm activity based on TFdi values (with cutoff value being the lowest observed TFdi in the control group), and clinical characteristics were compared between groups. Read More

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COVID-19-induced sarcopenia and physical deconditioning may require reassessment of surgical risk for patients with cancer.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 11;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Oeosphagogastric Surgery, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK.

Background: The long-term physiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) infection are not known. The ability of COVID-19 to cause chronic illness, sarcopenia, and physical deconditioning may be underestimated and go beyond the anticipated respiratory sequelae. Myalgia, lethargy, and anorexia are common symptoms even in mild to moderate cases and have the potential to exacerbate frailty. Read More

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January 2021

Anesthetic Management for Inclusion Body Myositis in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

Authors:
Uoo Kim

Case Rep Anesthesiol 2020 24;2020:6679156. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Anesthetic management for patients with certain neuromuscular disorders may be challenging due to contraindications to triggering agents secondary to increased susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia (MH). Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an inflammatory muscle disease that causes concern for the anesthesiologist due to potential respiratory muscle weakness and hyperkalemia with succinylcholine. Elevated serum creatinine kinase levels found in IBM also raise the possibility of increased susceptibility to MH. Read More

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December 2020

Phenotyping of myocardial involvement by cardiac magnetic resonance in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Objectives: Cardiac dysfunction is commonly noted in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of cardiac dysfunction using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and necrotising myositis (NM).

Methods: Fifty-one patients with IIMs and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed using CMR examination. Read More

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January 2021

Rehabilitation Approach of a Patient with Myositis Ossificans: Non-surgical Management, Hazard of being Unguided Over Exercised.

Mymensingh Med J 2021 Jan;30(1):228-232

Dr Fatema Newaz, FCPS (Part-2) Student. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:

Myositis ossificans (MO) is a condition where calcification occurs in the soft tissue as well as around the bone following fracture, vigorous exercise or trauma. Although it is a radiological diagnosis, it often leads physician to an incorrect or missed diagnosis as recurrent fracture. Frequently, it follows haemorrhage into the muscle in the tissue space. Read More

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January 2021

Anti-cN1A antibodies do not correlate with specific clinical, electromyographic, or pathological findings in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

Muscle Nerve 2021 Apr 12;63(4):490-496. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Anti-cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (cN1A) antibodies are commonly detected in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). However, their pathogenic role has not been established. Moreover, efforts toward identifying sIBM distinct clinicopathologic characteristics associated with these antibodies have yielded conflicting results. Read More

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Diagnostic modelling and therapeutic monitoring of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy: role of electrical myotonia.

Brain Commun 2020 13;2(2):fcaa191. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Delayed diagnosis of immunemediated necrotizing myopathy leads to increased morbidity. Patients with the chronic course without 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase-IgG or signal recognition particle-IgG are often challenging to diagnose. Immunotherapy response can also be difficult to assess. Read More

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December 2020

Mitochondrial DNA variants in inclusion body myositis characterized by deep sequencing.

Brain Pathol 2020 Dec 22:e12931. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Muscle pathology in inclusion body myositis (IBM) typically includes inflammatory cell infiltration, muscle fibers with rimmed vacuoles and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibers. Previous studies have revealed clonal expansion of large mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in the COX-deficient muscle fibers. Technical limitations have prevented complete investigations of the mtDNA deletions and other mtDNA variants. Read More

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December 2020