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Multimorbidity and Regional Volumes of the Default Mode Network in Brain Aging.

Gerontology 2021 Jul 28:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Introduction: The default mode network (DMN) is selectively vulnerable in brain aging. Little is known about the effect of multimorbidity as a whole onto the brain structural integrity.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between multimorbidity and the structural integrity of DMN. Read More

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Equivalent time active cavitation imaging.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

1 Engineering Physics Department, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CANADA.

Rationale: Despite the development of a large number of neurologically active drugs, brain diseases are difficult to treat due to the inability of many drugs to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. High-intensity focused ultrasound blood-brain barrier opening in a site-specific manner could significantly expand the spectrum of available drug treatments. However, without monitoring, brain damage and off target effects can occur during these treatments. Read More

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Associations between exercise, inflammation and symptom severity in those with mental health disorders.

Cytokine 2021 Jul 25;146:155648. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

School of Exercise Science, Sport and Health, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-weeks of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on markers of inflammation and symptom severity in those undergoing management of a mental health disorder.

Method: Twenty six participants were allocated into two groups, those reporting as apparently healthy (AH, n = 13) or those undergoing the management of a mental health disorder (MI, n = 13). Following a baseline testing and familiarization session, participants commenced the 6-week aerobic training intervention, involving stationary cycling at 65% heart rate reserve for 35 min progressing to 70% for 40 min. Read More

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Immune Markers Are Associated with Cognitive Performance in a Multiethnic Cohort: the Northern Manhattan Study.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To determine whether immune protein panels add significant information to correlates of cognition.

Background: Immune mechanisms in vascular cognitive aging are incompletely characterized.

Design/methods: A subsample of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Read More

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Optical manipulation of local cerebral blood flow in the deep brain of freely moving mice.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(4):109427

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

An artificial tool for manipulating local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is necessary for understanding how CBF controls brain function. Here, we generate vascular optogenetic tools whereby smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express optical actuators in the brain. The illumination of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-expressing mice induces a local reduction in CBF. Read More

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Effects of early-life stress and sex on blood-brain barrier permeability and integrity in juvenile and adult rats.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Brain Biostructure, 31-343 Kraków, Smętna Street 12, Poland.

Early-life stress (ELS) is considered a relevant etiological factor for neurodegenerative and mental disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that ELS may persistently and sex-dependently influence blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and function during critical periods of brain development and consequently determine susceptibility to and sex-related prevalence of chronic diseases in adult life. We used the maternal separation (MS) procedure in rats to model ELS and evaluated BBB permeability and gene expression of selected tight junction (TJ) proteins, glucose transporter type 1 (Slc2a1) and aquaporin 4 (Aqp4) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and hippocampus of juvenile and adult rats. Read More

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Studies of salt and stress sensitivity on arterial pressure in renin-b deficient mice.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0250807. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Excessive sodium intake is known to increase the risk for hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Individuals who are more susceptible to the effects of high salt are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases even independent of their blood pressure status. Local activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain, among other mechanisms, has been hypothesized to play a key role in contributing to salt balance. Read More

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Alkoxy cyanoacrylate-based nanoparticles with stealth and brain-targeting properties.

J Drug Target 2021 Jul 28:1-33. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping road, Beijing, 100850, China.

Nanoparticles (NPs) with "stealth" properties have been designed to decrease the phagocytosis of such particles by mononuclear phagocytes and to protect them from enzymatic degradation, thus improving circulation time and bioavailability after intravenous administration. Brain-targeting modifications endow NPs with the capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier, facilitating chemotherapy for brain diseases such as glioma. In this study, newly designed alkoxy cyanoacrylate-based NPs with stealth and brain-targeting properties were synthesized and evaluated. Read More

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Variability in the type and layer distribution of cortical Aβ pathology in familial Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 28:e13009. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

The Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the PSEN1, PSEN2 or APP genes, giving rise to considerable clinical and pathological heterogeneity in FAD. Here we investigate variability in clinical data and the type and distribution of Aβ pathologies throughout the cortical layers of different FAD mutation cases. Brain tissue from 20 FAD cases [PSEN1 pre-codon 200 (n = 10), PSEN1 post-codon 200 (n = 6), APP (n = 4)] were investigated. Read More

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The influence of short-term high-altitude acclimatization on cerebral and leg tissue oxygenation post-orthostasis.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, UK.

Purpose: Orthostasis at sea level decreases brain tissue oxygenation and increases risk of syncope. High altitude reduces brain and peripheral muscle tissue oxygenation. This study determined the effect of short-term altitude acclimatization on cerebral and peripheral leg tissue oxygenation index (TOI) post-orthostasis. Read More

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Comparing amyloid-β plaque burden with antemortem PiB PET in autosomal dominant and late-onset Alzheimer disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can bind to different types of amyloid-β plaques and blood vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). However, the relative contributions of different plaque subtypes (diffuse versus cored/compact) to in vivo PiB PET signal on a region-by-region basis are incompletely understood. Of particular interest is whether the same staging schemes for summarizing amyloid-β burden are appropriate for both late-onset and autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer disease (LOAD and ADAD). Read More

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Near-Infrared Radiation-Assisted Drug Delivery Nanoplatform to Realize Blood-Brain Barrier Crossing and Protection for Parkinsonian Therapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction, which is directly involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), is characterized by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aberrant energy metabolism. Thus, regulating mitochondrial function might be an effective strategy to treat PD. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant challenge for the intracerebral delivery of drugs. Read More

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Risk factors for intradialytic decline in cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebral autoregulation in adults on hemodialysis.

Hemodial Int 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Kinesiology, Bruno Balke Biodynamics Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Introduction: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have significant burden of cerebral ischemic pathology noted on brain imaging. These ischemic type lesions maybe due to cerebral hypoperfusion that may be occurring during blood pressure (BP) fluctuations commonly noted during HD sessions. We evaluated changes in cerebral perfusion and measured an index of cerebral autoregulation (CA index) during HD to identify potential risk factors for intradialytic decline in cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebral autoregulation. Read More

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Antibody-Free Mass Spectrometry Identification of Vascular Integrity Markers in Major Trauma.

Neurotrauma Rep 2021 1;2(1):322-329. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, Richland, Washington, USA.

Antibody mediated strategies for protein biomarker detection are common, but may limit discovery. We hypothesized that the use of antibody-free proteomics is feasible for detecting protein biomarkers in plasma of patients sustaining major trauma. A subset of subjects with major trauma from a prospective observational trial were analyzed. Read More

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The role of diffuse correlation spectroscopy and frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy in monitoring cerebral hemodynamics during hypothermic circulatory arrests.

JTCVS Tech 2021 Jun 29;7:161-177. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

Objectives: Real-time noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) during surgery is key to reducing mortality rates associated with adult cardiac surgeries requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). We explored a method to monitor cerebral blood flow during different brain protection techniques using diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive optical technique which, combined with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS), also provides a measure of oxygen metabolism.

Methods: We used DCS in combination with FDNIRS to simultaneously measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO), an index of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and an index of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO) in 12 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with HCA. Read More

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Extended Pseudo-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Dec 2;2(15):2394-2396. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Neuroradiology, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France.

We report the case of an extended pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage (PSAH) related to contrast intracerebral diffusion from blood-brain barrier breakdown on periprocedural percutaneous coronary intervention right corticofrontal ischemic stroke. PSAH is a rare and complex phenomenon, and it is important to differentiate PSAH from subarachnoid hemorrhage to avoid inappropriate treatment with potentially severe consequences. (). Read More

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December 2020

Morphological characteristics of , and biofilms, and response to farnesol.

Vet World 2021 Jun 22;14(6):1608-1614. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Pharmacy, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Background And Aim: Different species isolated in humans and animals have different types of parasite activity. The most pathogenic species is followed by . However, the effects of the morphology of , and biofilms on the pathogenicity of these species have not been fully characterized. Read More

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Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Tuberculous Meningitis Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Perfusion.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Jan 1;31(1):30-36. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common form of central nervous system tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively evaluate blood-brain barrier (BBB) perfusion changes in TBM patients using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion. Thirty untreated patients of TBM and 10 healthy controls were prospectively evaluated by conventional imaging and DCE MR perfusion. Read More

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January 2021

The association between carotid blood flow and resting-state brain activity in patients with cerebrovascular diseases.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15225. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Precision Medicine Centre, Hokuto Hospital, Kisen-7-5 Inadacho, Obihiro, Hokkaido, 080-0833, Japan.

Cerebral hypoperfusion impairs brain activity and leads to cognitive impairment. Left and right common carotid arteries (CCA) are the major source of cerebral blood supply. It remains unclear whether blood flow in both CCA contributes equally to brain activity. Read More

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DiLFM: an artifact-suppressed and noise-robust light-field microscopy through dictionary learning.

Light Sci Appl 2021 Jul 27;10(1):152. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Light field microscopy (LFM) has been widely used for recording 3D biological dynamics at camera frame rate. However, LFM suffers from artifact contaminations due to the illness of the reconstruction problem via naïve Richardson-Lucy (RL) deconvolution. Moreover, the performance of LFM significantly dropped in low-light conditions due to the absence of sample priors. Read More

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Impact of Systolic Blood Pressure on Heart Failure Symptoms With Moderate Aortic Stenosis.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, California. Electronic address:

In patients with moderate aortic stenosis (AS), heart failure (HF) symptoms are often unrelated to the AS severity, and the causes of HF symptoms are often unclear. Hypertension is known as one of the most common comorbidities in degenerative AS. Therefore, we assessed the impact of systolic blood pressure (BP) on HF symptoms in patients with moderate AS. Read More

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Several miRNAs derived from serum extracellular vesicles are potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and progression of Parkinson's disease.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 Jul 28;10(1):25. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Experimental Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, China.

Background: Blood-based test for predicting disease progression and early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is an unmet need in the clinic. The profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) are regarded as potential diagnostic biomarkers for human diseases, whereas miRNAs in the periphery are susceptible to the influence of various components. MiRNAs enriched in serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) have demonstrated disease-specific advantages in diagnosis due to their high abundance, stability and resistance to degradation. Read More

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Alcohol and trauma: the influence of blood alcohol levels on the severity of injuries and outcome of trauma patients - a retrospective analysis of 6268 patients of the TraumaRegister DGU.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2021 Jul 27;29(1):101. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Witten/Herdecke, Cologne-Merheim-Medical-Center, Ostmerheimer Street 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Blood alcohol level (BAL) has previously been considered as a factor influencing the outcome of injured patients. Despite the well-known positive correlation between alcohol-influenced traffic participation and the risk of accidents, there is still no clear evidence of a positive correlation between blood alcohol levels and severity of injury. The aim of the study was to analyze data of the TraumaRegister DGU (TR-DGU), to find out whether the blood alcohol level has an influence on the type and severity of injuries as well as on the outcome of multiple-trauma patients. Read More

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Pioglitazone use associated with reduced risk of the first attack of ischemic stroke in patients with newly onset type 2 diabetes: a nationwide nested case-control study.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Jul 27;20(1):152. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: Pioglitazone use is known to be associated with a reduced risk of recurrent stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who have a history of stroke. However, it is unclear whether this benefit extends to patients without a history of stroke. We aimed to evaluate the association between pioglitazone use and development of first attack of ischemic stroke in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. Read More

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Comparative study of two isothiazolinone biocides, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), on barrier function and mitochondrial bioenergetics using murine brain endothelial cell line (bEND.3).

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 Jul 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Pharmacy Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea.

Isothiazolinone (IT) biocides are potent antibacterial substances used as preservatives and disinfectants. These biocides exert differing biocidal effects and display environmental stability based upon chemical structure. In agreement with our recent study reporting that 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) induced dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the potential adverse health effects of two IT biocides 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) were compared using brain endothelial cells (ECs) derived from murine brain endothelial cell line (bEND. Read More

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Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Analysis of Microvascular Permeability in Peritumor Brain Edema of Fibrous Meningiomas.

Eur Neurol 2021 Jul 27;84(5):361-367. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Introduction: This study aims to analyze the permeability of intra- and peri-meningiomas regions and compare the microvascular permeability between peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) and non-PTBE using DCE-MRI.

Methods: This was a retrospective of patients with meningioma who underwent surgery. The patients were grouped as PTBE and non-PTBE. Read More

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CCL5 via GPX1 activation protects hippocampal memory function after mild traumatic brain injury.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 17;46:102067. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ph.D. Program for Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and National Health Research, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Neural Regenerative Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent head injury worldwide which increases the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory chemokines after TBI induces secondary effects which damage neurons. Targeting NADPH oxidase or increasing redox systems are ways to reduce ROS and damage. Read More

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1,10-Seco-Eudesmane sesquiterpenoids as a new type of anti-neuroinflammatory agents by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB/MAPK pathways.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 21;224:113713. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, 3 Taicheng Road, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Dysregulation of neuroinflammation is a key pathological factor in the progressive neuronal damage of neurodegenerative diseases. An in-house natural products library of 1407 compounds were screened against neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia cells to identify a novel hit 1,6-O,O-diacetylbritannilactone (OABL) with anti-neuroinflammatory activity. Furthermore, a 1,10-seco-eudesmane sesquiterpenoid library containing 33 compounds was constructed by semisynthesis of a major component 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Inula Britannica L. Read More

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HIV-1 PERSISTENCE IN THE CNS: MECHANISMS OF LATENCY, PATHOGENESIS AND AN UPDATE ON ERADICATION STRATEGIES.

Virus Res 2021 Jul 24:198523. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Center for Translational Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Despite -four decades of research into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a successful strategy to eradicate the virus post-infection is lacking. The major reason for this is the persistence of the virus in certain anatomical reservoirs where it can become latent and remain quiescent for as long as the cellular reservoir is alive. The Central Nervous System (CNS), in particular, is an intriguing anatomical compartment that is tightly regulated by the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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Analysis of the Interaction Between Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes and Human Endothelial Cells Using a Laminar Flow System, Bioinformatic Tracking and Transcriptome Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2369:187-197

Bernhard Nocht Institut for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.

During malaria infection, the endothelial lining of the small blood vessels of the brain and other vital organs is strongly stimulated. This leads to fatal complications and poor prognosis of the infection. It is believed that two main reasons are responsible for this pathology, namely the cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) on the one hand and the proinflammatory products released by the IEs which activate the endothelial cells (ECs) on the other hand. Read More

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January 2021