9,457 results match your criteria block copolymer


pH-Responsive Amphiphilic Polyether Micelles with Superior Stability for Smart Drug Delivery.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Despite widespread interest in the amphiphilic polymeric micelles for drug delivery systems, it is highly desirable to achieve high loading capacity and high efficiency to reduce the side effects of therapeutic agents while maximizing their efficacy. Here, we present a novel hydrophobic epoxide monomer, cyclohexyloxy ethyl glycidyl ether (CHGE), containing an acetal group as a pH-responsive cleavable linkage. A series of its homopolymers, poly(cyclohexyloxy ethyl glycidyl ether)s (PCHGEs), and block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(cyclohexyloxy ethyl glycidyl ether)s (PEG--PCHGE), were synthesized via anionic ring-opening polymerization in a controlled manner. Read More

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Foam Silica Films Synthesized by Calcium Chloride-Assisted Emulsification.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

The development of porous films with an accessible high specific surface area is important for designing new adsorbents, sensors, or catalyst supports. Here, we describe a simple method to prepare a silica foam coating using a calcium chloride-assisted evaporation-induced emulsification method. An alcoholic silica sol containing calcium chloride and a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer is deposited on a substrate by dipping. Read More

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Synthesis and characterization of a photo-cross-linked bioactive polycaprolactone-based osteoconductive biocomposite.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry/Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this study, a light cross-linkable biocomposite scaffold based on a photo-cross-linkable poly (propylene fumarate) (PPF)-co-polycaprolactone (PCL) tri-block copolymer was synthesized and characterized. The developed biodegradable scaffold was further modified with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) bioceramic for bone tissue engineering applications. The developed biocomposite was characterized using H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Read More

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Crystallization Induced Self-Assembly: A Strategy to Achieve Ultra-Small Domain Size.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

South China University of Technology, School of Molecular Science and Engineering, 318 Wushan Road, 510640, Guangzhou, CHINA.

Achieving self-assembled nanostructures with ultra-small feature sizes (e.g., below 5 nm) is an important prerequisite for the development of block copolymer lithography. Read More

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Functionalized Organosolv Lignins Suitable for Modifications of Hard Surfaces.

ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2020 May 20;8(20):7628-7638. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

CSGI-Center for Colloid and Surface Science, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Two different organosolv lignins (OSLs), that is, wheat straw and corn stover OSLs, were chemically and enzymatically functionalized. Functional groups were attached via the formation of stable ether bonds exploiting the reactivity of free phenolic OH groups along the lignin backbone. The functional groups introduced a range from compact charged and chargeable building blocks for the generation of surface-active lignins to oligomeric and polymeric species used in lignin block-copolymer productions. Read More

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Investigation of the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of planar and electrospun alkene-styrene copolymers against P(VDF-TrFE) and porcine skin: Potential use as second skin substrates.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 26;119:104481. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Bioengineering and IBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Elastomers have been used in a variety of biomedical fields, including tissue engineering, soft robotics, prostheses, and cosmetics. Elastomers used for skin grafting scaffolds tend to be biodegradable, but other applications require perdurable elastomers. Advances in perdurable elastomers would allow for the development of a range of substrates useful in the creation of joint prostheses, chronic neural electrodes, implantables, and wearables. Read More

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Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(l-Alanine)/Hyaluronic Acid Complex as a 3D Platform for Understanding Cancer Cell Migration in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Convergence Bioceramic Materials, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Cheongju 28160, Korea.

Cancer progression and migration in the tumor microenvironment are related to cell types and three-dimensional (3D) matrices. Therefore, developing biomimetic tumor models, including co-culture systems and a tunable 3D matrix, could play an essential role in understanding the cancer environment. Here, multicellular spheroids using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) within the 3D matrix were used as a tumor microenvironment (TME) mimicking platform. Read More

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Hydrophilic Cross-Linked Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Diblock Copolymer as Proton Exchange Membrane for Fuel Cells.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;14(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 117585, Singapore.

This study proposes a hydrophobic and hydrophilic aliphatic diblock copolymer wherein the hydrophobic block contains glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) units that are distanced by poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) segments to fabricate a proton exchange membrane (PEM). This diblock copolymer also known as ionomer due to the hydrophilic block comprising 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPM) block. The diblock copolymer was synthesized in the one-pot atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) synthesis. Read More

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Mesoscale Simulations of Polymer Solution Self-Assembly: Selection of Model Parameters within an Implicit Solvent Approximation.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Polymer Engineering, Graduate School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Coarse-grained modeling is an outcome of scientific endeavors to address the broad spectrum of time and length scales encountered in polymer systems. However, providing a faithful structural and dynamic characterization/description is challenging for several reasons, particularly in the selection of appropriate model parameters. By using a hybrid particle- and field-based approach with a generalized energy functional expressed in terms of density fields, we explore model parameter spaces over a broad range and map the relation between parameter values with experimentally measurable quantities, such as single-chain scaling exponent, chain density, and interfacial and surface tension. Read More

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Precise Synthesis and Thin Film Self-Assembly of PLLA--PS Bottlebrush Block Copolymers.

Molecules 2021 Mar 5;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LCPO, UMR 5629, F-33600 Pessac, France.

The ability of bottlebrush block copolymers (BBCPs) to self-assemble into ordered large periodic structures could greatly expand the scope of photonic and membrane technologies. In this paper, we describe a two-step synthesis of poly(l-lactide)--polystyrene (PLLA--PS) BBCPs and their rapid thin-film self-assembly. PLLA chains were grown from -5-norbornene-2-methanol via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide to produce norbornene-terminated PLLA. Read More

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Effect of Chitosan on the Activity of Water-Soluble and Hydrophobic Porphyrin Photosensitizers Solubilized by Amphiphilic Polymers.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

N.N. Semenov Federal Research Center for Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991, Russia.

In this work, we studied the photocatalytic activity of photosensitizers (PSs) of various natures solubilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ternary block copolymer ethylene and propylene oxide Pluronic F127 (F127) in a model reaction of tryptophan photo-oxidation in water in the presence of chitosan (CT). Water-soluble compounds (dimegin and trisodium salt of chlorin e6 (Ce6)) and hydrophobic porphyrins (tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and its fluorine derivative (TPPF20)) were used as PSs. It was shown that the use of chitosan (Mw ~100 kDa) makes it possible to obtain a system whose activity is comparable to that of the photosensitizer-amphiphilic polymer systems. Read More

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Thiol-ene Reaction: An Efficient Tool to Design Lipophilic Polyphosphoesters for Drug Delivery Systems.

Molecules 2021 Mar 20;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), CESAM Research-Unit, University of Liège, Allée du 6 août 13, B6a, Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium.

Poly(ethylene glycol)--polyphosphoester (PEG--PPE) block copolymer nanoparticles are promising carriers for poorly water soluble drugs. To enhance the drug loading capacity and efficiency of such micelles, a strategy was investigated for increasing the lipophilicity of the PPE block of these PEG--PPE amphiphilic copolymers. A PEG--PPE copolymer bearing pendant vinyl groups along the PPE block was synthesized and then modified by thiol-ene click reaction with thiols bearing either a long linear alkyl chain (dodecyl) or a tocopherol moiety. Read More

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Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Detection of DNA Hybridization by a Block Copolymer-Templating Fiber-Optic Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

College of Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

To overcome low surface coverage and aggregation of particles, which usually restricts the sensitivity and resolution of conventional localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) fiber-optic sensors, we propose a simple self-assembled templating technique that uses a nanometer thickness block copolymer (BCP) layer of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) to form a 33 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) monolayer with high uniformity and density for LSPR sensing. The LSPR resonance wavelength for this PS-b-P4VP templated methodology is 592 nm and its refractive index sensitivity is up to 386.36 nm/RIU, both of which are significantly improved compared to those of conventional LSPR techniques. Read More

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880 nm NIR-Triggered Organic Small Molecular-Based Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy of Tumor.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Key Laboratory of Display Materials & Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) has received constant attention as an efficient cancer therapy method due to locally selective treatment, which is not affected by the tumor microenvironment. In this study, a novel 880 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser-triggered photothermal agent (PTA), 3TT-IC-4Cl, was used for PTT of a tumor in deep tissue. Folic acid (FA) conjugated amphiphilic block copolymer (folic acid-polyethylene glycol-poly (β-benzyl-L-aspartate), FA-PEG-PBLA) was employed to encapsulate 3TT-IC-4Cl by nano-precipitation to form stable nanoparticles (TNPs), and TNPs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and photothermal conversion efficiency. Read More

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The Micellization of Well-Defined Single Graft Copolymers in Block Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion Crete, Greece.

A series of well-defined (polyisoprene)(polystyrene), IS, single graft copolymers with similar total molecular weights but different compositions, , were blended with a low molecular weight polyisoprene homopolymer matrix at a constant concentration 2 wt%, and the micellar characteristics were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering. To investigate the effect of macromolecular architecture on the formation and characteristics of micelles, the results on the single graft copolymers were compared with those of the corresponding linear polystyrene--polyisoprene diblock copolymers, SI. The comparison reveals that the polystyrene core chains are more stretched in the case of graft copolymer micelles. Read More

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Structural Evolution of Nanophase Separated Block Copolymer Patterns in Supercritical CO.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Chemistry, University College Cork, T12 YN60 Cork, Ireland.

Nanopatterns can readily be formed by annealing block copolymers (BCPs) in organic solvents at moderate or high temperatures. However, this approach can be challenging from an environmental and industrial point of view. Herein, we describe a simple and environmentally friendly alternative to achieve periodically ordered nanoscale phase separated BCP structures. Read More

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Collagen Pentablock Copolymers Form Smectic Liquid Crystals as Precursors for Mussel Byssus Fabrication.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8, Canada.

Protein-based biological materials are important role models for the design and fabrication of next generation advanced polymers. Marine mussels ( spp.) fabricate hierarchically structured collagenous fibers known as byssal threads bottom-up supramolecular assembly of fluid protein precursors. Read More

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Distinctive Dielectric Permittivity of Hierarchical Nanostructures with Ordered Nanoparticle Networks Self-Assembled from AB--NP/AC Block Copolymer Mixtures.

Nano Lett 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Frontiers Science Center for Materiobiology and Dynamic Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Directing nanoparticles into ordered organization in polymer matrix to improve macroscopic properties of nanocomposites remains a challenge. Herein, by means of theoretical simulations, we show the high permittivity of hybrid nanostructures designed with mixtures of AB block copolymer-grafted nanoparticles and lamella-forming AC diblock copolymers. The grafted nanoparticles self-assemble into parallel stripes or highly ordered networks in the lamellae of the AC diblock copolymers. Read More

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Unconventional Approach to Fabricating a TiO Nanoring with Precise Dimension Control Based on Starlike Polymeric Nanoreactors.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 1;12(13):3456-3463. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Living Polymerizations and Functional Nanomaterials, Henan Key Laboratory of Advanced Nylon Materials and Application, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

The past few years witnessed the rapid development of bottom-up synthesis strategies for preparing various nanostructures (i.e., nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, etc. Read More

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Efficient Moisture-Induced Energy Harvesting from Water-Soluble Conjugated Block Copolymer-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 10;6(11):7257-7265. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India.

This Research Article demonstrates a very simple approach of a moisture-induced power-generating phenomenon using water-soluble rod-coil conjugated block copolymer (poly(3-hexythiophene)--poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (P3HT--PSSA)-modified reduced graphene oxide. The block copolymer-modified reduced graphene oxide (BCP-RGO) was prepared by noncovalent surface functionalization cum in situ reduction of graphene oxide. A simple device made from BCP-RGO can generate voltage upon exposure to water vapor or under different humidity conditions. Read More

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Periodic Polymerization and the Generation of Polymer Giant Vesicles Autonomously Driven by pH Oscillatory Chemistry.

Front Chem 2021 22;9:576349. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science and Origins of Life Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Using the radicals generated during pH oscillations, a semibatch pH oscillator is used as the chemical fuel and engine to drive polymerization induced self-assembly (PISA) for the one-pot autonomous synthesis of functional giant vesicles. Vesicles with diameters ranging from sub-micron to ∼5 µm are generated. Radical formation is found to be switched ON/OFF and be autonomously controlled by the pH oscillator itself, inducing a periodic polymerization process. Read More

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February 2021

Block-Random Copolymer-Micellization-Mediated Formation of Polymeric Patches on Gold Nanoparticles.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 26;143(13):5060-5070. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, People's Republic of China.

Patchy colloidal nanoparticles are important for a broad range of applications, especially as building blocks for complex and functional structural materials, but the controllable generation of chemical patches on as-synthesized nanoparticles remains a challenge. This article describes a robust strategy for the scalable synthesis of high-quality patchy nanoparticles in high yield and solid content. A simple thermal treatment of a mixture of gold nanoparticles and thiol-terminated block-random copolymers in selected solvents produced a variety of patchy nanoparticles with a controlled morphology and number of polymeric patches (e. Read More

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Topology Reliable LCST-Type Behavior of ABA Triblock Polymer and Influence on Water Condensation and Crystallization.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Mar 26:e2100024. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, P. R. China.

As a kind of smart material, thermoresponsive hydrogels are widely investigated and applied in many fields. Due to the limitation of the freezing temperature of the water, it is a challenge to further broaden their sol-gel transition temperature (T ) range, especially below 0 °C. Herein, the lower critical solution temperature type of amphiphilic ABA triblock copolymers, synthesized via two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization is demonstrated. Read More

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Adsorption of Anionic Dyes Using a Poly(styrene--4-vinylpyridine) Block Copolymer Organogel.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 25;37(13):3996-4006. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Soft Matter Laboratory, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai 600119, Tamil Nadu, India.

An organogel was prepared by chemically cross-linking a poly(styrene--4-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymer using dibromododecane in dimethylformamide. Analysis of the prominent structure peak in small-angle X-ray scattering along with the results of light scattering and rheological profile suggests the bridging of the spherical micelles to one another to form an interconnected network after gelation. The use of this organogel as a selective adsorbent for removing anionic dyes from individual aqueous dye solutions and in a mixture of cationic and anionic dye solutions has shown more than 90% removal of the anionic dyes within 2 h. Read More

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Size-controlled bimodal nanoprobes as near-infrared phosphors and positive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2021 Mar 10;22(1):160-172. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Rare-earth-doped nanoparticles (NPs), such as NaGdF nanocrystals doped with light-emitting rare earth ions, are promising bimodal probes that allow the integration of over 1000 nm near-infrared (OTN-NIR; NIR-II/III) fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of live bodies. A precise control of the particle size is the key factor for achieving a high signal-to-noise ratio in both NIR fluorescence and MR images and for regulating their function in the body. In this study, size-controlled NaGdF:Yb, Er NPs prepared by stepwise crystal growth were used for in vivo bimodal imaging. Read More

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Stimuli-Responsive Proteinosomes Based on Biohybrid Shell Cross-Linked Micelles.

Langmuir 2021 04 22;37(13):3950-3959. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China.

A new method of stimuli-responsive proteinosome fabrication with the shell cross-linked micelle as a template is reported in this research. A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer poly[di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]--poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate--pyridyl disulfide methacrylamide] [PDEGMA--P(PEGMA--PDSMA)] was synthesized and self-assembled into micelles with PDEGMA cores and P(PEGMA--PDSMA) shells at the temperature above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Reduced bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules with six thiol groups were used to cross-link the shells of the micelles by reacting with the pendant pyridyl disulfide groups on the P(PEGMA--PDSMA) block. Read More

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Reversible Micron-Scale Spiral Self-Assembly in Liquid Crystalline Block Copolymer Film with Controllable Chiral Response.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

The spiral is a fundamental structure in nature and spiral structures with controllable handedness are of increasing interest in the design of new chiroptical materials. In this study, micron-scale spiral structures with reversible chirality were fabricated based on the assembly of a liquid crystalline block copolymer film assisted by enantiopure tartaric acid. Mechanistic insight revealed that the formation of the spiral structures was closely related to the liquid crystalline properties of the major phase of block copolymer under the action of chiral tartaric acid. Read More

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Understanding Thermal Behavior of Poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel Using Two-Dimensional Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy.

Appl Spectrosc 2021 Apr 8:37028211006681. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Kangwon Radiation Convergence Research Support Center, 34962Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea.

In this study, one of the thermoresponsive polymers, block copolymer consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(-isopropylacylamide), was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, principal component analysis (PCA), and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The apparent trend of the spectral changes in the temperature-dependent FT-IR spectra of poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(-isopropylacylamide) (PEG--PNiPAAm) hydrogel during the heating process looks similar to that during the cooling process. The results of the PCA and 2D-COS, however, clearly indicate an irreversible phase transition mechanism of PEG--PNiPAAm hydrogel during the heating and cooling processes. Read More

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A Near-Infrared Laser-Triggered Size-Shrinkable Nanosystem with In Situ Drug Release for Deep Tumor Penetration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, P.R. China.

The development of smart size-tunable drug delivery nanoplatform enables the solving of the paradox of inconsistent size-dependence of high tumor accumulation and deep penetration during its delivery process, thus achieving superior cancer treatment efficacy. Herein, we report a size-shrinkable nanomicelle complex system with an initial size of 101 nm enabling effective retention around the tumor periphery and could destruct to ultrasmall nanomicelles triggered by a near-infrared (NIR) laser to realize the deep tumor penetration. The nanomicelle system is consisted of an upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type block copolymer poly(acrylamide-acrylonitrile)-polyethylene glycol-lipoic acid (p(AAm--AN)--PEG-LA) encapsulating gold nanorods. Read More

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Ionic Transport and Robust Switching Properties of the Confined Self-Assembled Block Copolymer/Homopolymer in Asymmetric Nanochannels.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 18;13(12):14507-14517. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.

The self-assembly of block copolymers in a confined space has been proven to be a facile and robust strategy for fabricating assembled structures with various potential applications. Herein, we employed a new pH-responsive polymer self-assembly method to regulate ion transport inside artificial nanochannels. The track-etched asymmetric nanochannels were functionalized with PS--P4VP/hPS blend polymers, and the ionic conductance and rectification properties of the proposed system were investigated. Read More

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