Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1541-1552
Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
The American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, with its periodical updates and modifications, has represented and still represents the basis of cancer staging. The historical, long-standing limitations of anatomic-based TNM staging have been recently "threatened" by the impressive amount of data derived from molecular analyses, which have led to an unprecedented level of understanding of cancer genomics. In fact, current era of personalized oncology has witnessed important efforts towards the integration between clinical, anatomical and molecular features; however, despite the promises, personalized oncology faces many obstacles, due to the complex relationship between tumor biomarkers, previously unknown cancer subtypes and clinical and anatomical characteristics. Read More