2,792 results match your criteria black leaf


Anthocyanin synthesis in orange carrot cv. Danvers is activated by transgene expression of the transcription factors DcMYB113_NB and DcEGL1_NB from black carrot cv. Nightbird.

Plant Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Research Center Flakkebjerg, DK-4200, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Black carrots are potent sources of anthocyanin for the natural food color industry as their anthocyanins contain very high percentages of acylated anthocyanins which are much more stable than non-acylated anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are synthesized by a specific branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway activated by a triad of R2R3-MYB, bHLH and WD40 transcription factors (TFs). Recent studies in black carrots have elucidated major anthocyanin related structural genes and also regulatory TFs. Read More

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Poplar protease inhibitor expression differs in an herbivore specific manner.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Apr 9;21(1):170. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology (MPI-CE), Hans-Knöll-Str. 8, 07745, Jena, Germany.

Background: Protease inhibitors are defense proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom. By reducing the activity of digestive enzymes in insect guts, they reduce the availability of nutrients and thus impair the growth and development of the attacking herbivore. One well-characterized class of protease inhibitors are Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors (KTIs), which have been described in various plant species, including Populus spp. Read More

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First Report of Wilt of European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) Caused by in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nanjing Forestry University, 74584, College of Forestry, No.159, Longpan Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing, China, 210037.

European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) has been used as an important ornamental species for urban landscaping since the Italian Renaissance (Rocchi et al. 2010). Read More

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Widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) throughout interior Alaskan boreal forests resulting from a novel canker disease.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0250078. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

Over the past several decades, growth declines and mortality of trembling aspen throughout western Canada and the United States have been linked to drought, often interacting with outbreaks of insects and fungal pathogens, resulting in a "sudden aspen decline" throughout much of aspen's range. In 2015, we noticed an aggressive fungal canker causing widespread mortality of aspen throughout interior Alaska and initiated a study to quantify potential drivers for the incidence, virulence, and distribution of the disease. Stand-level infection rates among 88 study sites distributed across 6 Alaska ecoregions ranged from <1 to 69%, with the proportion of trees with canker that were dead averaging 70% across all sites. Read More

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First report of fruit blight caused by on sesame in Northeast China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dongling Road No.84Shenyang, China, 110161;

Sesame ( L.) is an important oilseed crop in China and it is also used in food and health products. In August of 2019, a blight sesame fruit was observed in a field of Liaoyang city, Liaoning province of China. Read More

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First Report of Colletotrichum boninense Causing Anthracnose on Rosa chinensis in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guiyang , China;

Chinese rose (Rosa chinensis Jacq.) is cultivated for edible flowers in southwestern China (Zhang et al. 2014). Read More

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First Report of Grammothele lineata Causing Stem Rot of Areca catechu in Hainan Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Haikou, China;

Areca catechu L. (areca) belongs to the Arecaceae family, which is composed of 181 genera and 2,600 species (Christenhusz and Byng 2016), is cultivated extensively in Southern and Southeastern Asia (Peng et al. 2015). Read More

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First Report of Leaf Blight on Caused by in Malaysia.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Universiti Putra Malaysia Faculty of Agriculture, 119196, Department of Plant Protection, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia;

Weeds may act as inoculum reservoirs for fungal pathogens that could affect other economically important crops (Karimi et al. 2019). In February 2019, leaves of the ubiquitous invasive weed, L. Read More

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First report of Flavescence dorée-related Phytoplasma in Grapevine in Germany.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI) Federal Research Institute for Cultivated Plants, Siebeldingen, Germany;

Flavescence dorée (FD) and Bois noir (BN) are the principal grapevine yellows diseases in Europe caused by distinct phytoplasmas: FD by 16SrV phytoplasmas (FDp), BN by Candidatus Phytoplasma solani. FDp is spread epidemically by the introduced Nearctic Deltocephalinae Scaphoideus titanus and is listed as a quarantine pest in the European Union (Regulation (EU) 2019/2072). Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa) is a common asymptotic host of 16SrV phytoplasmas in Europe and considered the original host of FDp (Malembic-Maher et al. Read More

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Molecular and biological characterization of a new mulberry Idaeovirus.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 3:198411. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Mustafa Kemal University, Plant Protection Department, Hatay, 31034, Turkey.

A virus-like disease with symptoms including mosaic structure, deformation, vein clearing and necrosis on the leaves and deformation, crumbling, and scab on the fruits was detected in black mulberry trees (Morus nigra L.) in Kayseri province of Turkey. A novel positive single-stranded RNA virus with a bipartite genome and the mulberry badnavirus 1 (MBV-1) were detected in the black mulberry trees by high throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Cladosporium tenuissimum on Panicle Hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculate) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Northeast Agricultural University, 12430, School of Life Science, No. 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, P.R. China, Harbin, China, 150030;

Panicle Hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculate) is an ornamental flowering plant native to China and Japan. In August 2019, leaf spot symptoms with about 30% disease incidence were observed on panicle hydrangea in two grower fields (about 0.1 ha in total) of Northeast Agriculture University, China (126. Read More

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Exposure Assessment of Fluoride Intake Through Commercially Available Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) from Areas with High Incidences of Chronic Kidney Disease with Undetermined Origin (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Schlossgarten 5, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Fluoride is a beneficial trace element for human health as its deficiency and excess levels can cause detrimental health effects. In Sri Lanka, dry zone regions can have excessive levels of fluoride in drinking water and can cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. In addition to drinking water, traditional habits of tea consumption can cause an additional intake of fluoride in the population. Read More

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Recent Insights into Anthocyanin Pigmentation, Synthesis, Trafficking, and Regulatory Mechanisms in Rice ( L.) Caryopsis.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

State Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China.

Anthocyanins are antioxidants used as natural colorants and are beneficial to human health. Anthocyanins contribute to reactive oxygen species detoxification and sustain plant growth and development under different environmental stresses. They are phenolic compounds that are broadly distributed in nature and are responsible for a wide range of attractive coloration in many plant organs. Read More

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Green Synthesis of Iron Oxides and Phosphates via Thermal Treatment of Iron Polyphenols Synthesized by a Extract.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, Edifício Haroldo Lisboa da Cunha, IQ, room 312a, Maracanã, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeONPs) prepared with plant extracts have been emerging as green and sustainable materials. FeONPs are usually amorphous due to the chelation of the tea polyphenols (TPs) to the iron, and the real nature of the iron compounds is not completely understood. The main goal of this study was to investigate the behavior of the green FeONPs synthesized from an Fe salt and (black tea) extract upon thermal treatment, in order to remove TPs and enable the formation of crystalline materials suitable for a thorough characterization and with the potential for diverse applications. Read More

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First Record of Chaetomium globosum Causing Leaf Spot of Pomegranate in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Lahore, Pakistan;

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a non-climacteric and a favorite fruit of tropical, sub-tropical and arid regions of the world. During a survey in autumn 2019, leaf lesions were observed on plants (cv. Read More

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Warming induces divergent stomatal dynamics in co-occurring boreal trees.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7, Canada.

Climate warming will alter photosynthesis and respiration via direct temperature effects on leaf biochemistry, but also by increasing atmospheric dryness, thereby reducing stomatal conductance and suppressing photosynthesis. Our knowledge on how climate warming affects these processes is mainly derived from seedlings grown under highly controlled conditions. However, little is known regarding temperature responses in trees growing under field settings. Read More

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First report that Colletotrichum aenigma causes leaf spots on Aquilaria sinensis in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Changsha, China;

Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng, also known as eaglewood, belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family and has a considerably high medicinal value. It has been enlisted as the class II national key protective plant. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Diaporthe tulliensis on Boston Ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata) in Taiwan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

National Taiwan University, 33561, Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Taipei, Taiwan;

Starting from the May to August 2020 (average humidity 76.6% and temperature 25.2°C in Taipei), Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata) plants on the campus of National Taiwan University (25°01'05. Read More

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-Induced Black Point, Common Root Rot, and Spot Blotch Diseases of Wheat: A Review.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 11;11:584899. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Alkhoud, Oman.

Wheat is among the ten top and most widely grown crops in the world. Several diseases cause losses in wheat production in different parts of the world. (teleomorph, ) is one of the wheat pathogens that can attack all wheat parts, including seeds, roots, shoots, and leaves. Read More

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Illicium verum and Eucommia ulmoides leaf extracts promote nutrient availability and antioxidant capacity in piglets by upregulating duodenal and jejunal Nrf2/TNF-α.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Animal Sciences and Technology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian City, Shandong Province, China.

The effect of Illicium verum extracts (IVE) or Eucommia ulmoides leaf extracts (ELE) on nutrient availability, duodenal and jejunal antioxidant ability of Duroc ×Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) and Chinese native Licha-black (LCB) piglets was investigated. Ninety-six piglets (48 DLY and 48 LCB respectively) without significant difference in body weight (11.22 ± 0. Read More

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A world-wide analysis of reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides in the banana pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Wageningen Research, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal agent of the black leaf streak disease (BLSD) of banana. Bananas are important global export commodities and a major staple food. Their susceptibility to BLSD pushes disease management towards excessive fungicide use, largely relying on multisite inhibitors and sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs). Read More

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Towards completion of the species inventory of small-sized leaf-tailed geckos: two new species of Uroplatus from northern Madagascar.

Zootaxa 2020 Dec 15;4895(2):zootaxa.4895.2.5. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Zoologie et Biodiversité Animale, Université d'Antananarivo, BP 906, Antananarivo, 101 Madagascar.

The northern part of Madagascar is well known for its high species diversity and endemism. Exceptional species richness is related to the existence of large forest blocks and mountain complexes. These areas shelter a diverse variety of habitats occupied by a wide diversity of species, including leaf-tailed geckos of the genus Uroplatus. Read More

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December 2020

First report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing leaf spot on Cyclobalanopsis glauca in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Qingdao, Shandong, China;

Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst. is one of the most widely distributed species of evergreen broad-leaved tree in subtropical areas of China. Read More

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First Report of Round Spot Disease of Zanthoxylum armatum DC Caused by Fusarium fujikuroi in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

chengdu, China;

Zanthoxylum armatum DC, a deciduous tree in Rutaceae, has significant economic value as an important food condiment, spice, and medicine (Cao et al. 2019). Recently, an unknown round leaf spot disease has been found on Z. Read More

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First Report of a Ceratocystis manginecans Causing Quick Decline of Psidium guajava in Pakistan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 66724, Department of Plant Pathology University of Agriculture , Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan;

Psidium guajava is a widely grown fruit tree of Asia for food and medicinal purposes. Also being reported to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties (Somu, 2012). In April 2018, quick decline disease of guava was observed in orchards of Sheikhupura, Lahore, Faisalabad, Kasur and Chiniot districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot and Stem Canker on Watermelon Caused by Paramyrothecium foliicola in Mexico.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Research Center for Food and Development, Plant Pathology, km 5.5 carretera a Eldorado, Culiacan, SINALOA, Mexico, 80110;

Watermelon is an important vegetable crop in Mexico and produced on 358,105 ha, with nearly 1.5 x 106 tons. In September 2019, brown, irregular shape to round lesions with concentric rings were observed on the leaves and stems of watermelon plants in Sonora State. Read More

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First Report of Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium on Fagopyrum esculentum in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Lanzhou University, Pastoral Agriculture Sci. & Tech., Jiayuguan Xilu 768, Lanzhou, Gansu, China, 730020;

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a widely cultivated non-grass cereal. It has a considerable market value with nutritional qualities and ability to treat or prevent cancers, hypertension and diabetes (Cawoy et al., 2006). Read More

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First Report of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Charcoal Rot of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Mexico.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 3972, Centro de Agroecología, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla Edificio VAL 1, Km 1.7 carretera a San Baltazar Tetela, Zacachimalpa, Pueba, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, 72960;

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the third most important oilseed crop in the world. The cultivated area in Mexico is currently 52,046 ha with a production of 91,109 ton in 2018 (FAO, 2020). Read More

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Evaluation of morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits for assessing drought resistance in eleven tree species.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 16;779:146466. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Interdisciplinary Program in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; National Center for Agro Meteorology, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The frequency and severity of drought are expected to increase due to climate change; therefore, selection of tree species for afforestation should consider drought resistance of the species for maximum survival and conservation of natural habitats. In this study, three soil moisture regimes: control (100% precipitation), mild drought (40% reduction in precipitation), and severe drought (80% reduction in precipitation) were applied to six gymnosperm and five angiosperm species for two consecutive years. We quantified the drought resistance index based on the root collar diameter and assessed the correlation between species drought resistance and other morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits by regression analysis. Read More

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Nano-FeO-modified biochar promotes the formation of iron plaque and cadmium immobilization in rice root.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 9;276:130212. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, China; Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Control of Rice Quality and Safety, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, 410004, China. Electronic address:

Rice as a paddy field crops, iron-containing materials application could induce its iron plaque formation, thereby affecting cadmium (Cd) transportation in the rhizosphere and its uptake in root. In this study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three exogenous iron materials, namely nano-FeO-modified biochar (BC-Fe), chelated iron (EDTA-Fe), and ferrous sulfate (FeSO), on the iron plaque formation on the surface of rice root, and to investigate the effects of formed iron plaque on the absorption, migration, and transportation of Cd and Fe in rice plant. The results showed that yellow-brown and brown iron plaque was formed on surface cells of the Fe-treated rice root, and some black particles were embedded in the iron plaque formed by BC-Fe. Read More

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