9,587 results match your criteria black communities


Long-term air pollution and other risk factors associated with COVID-19 at the census tract level in Colorado.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 14;287:117584. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, United States.

Previous nationwide studies have reported links between long-term concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. In order to translate these results to the state level, we use Bayesian hierarchical models to explore potential links between long-term PM2. Read More

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Characterization of faecal and caecal microbiota of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs () using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

Conserv Physiol 2021 15;9(1):coab042. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E., Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Black-tailed prairie dogs () are keystone species within their grassland ecosystems; their population stability affects a multitude of other species. The goals of this study were to explore, describe and compare the bacterial communities in caecal and hard faecal samples from free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs ( = 36) from KS, USA, using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare sex and geographic locations. A total of 22 paired faecal and caecal samples were collected post-mortem from free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs from 5 different geographical locations. Read More

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Response of soil enzyme activity and soil bacterial community to PCB dissipation across different soils.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 16;283:131229. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Soils are a repository for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A pot incubation experiment was performed with four soils (black soil, paddy soil, oasis soil, and fluvo-aquic soil) treated with Aroclor 1242 to achieve PCB concentrations of 5 mg kg. The soil enzyme activities of protease, phosphatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and laccase were determined by spectrophotometry. Read More

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Multigenerational immigrant trajectories and children's unequal exposure to fine particulate matter in the US.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 11;282:114108. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Utah, USA.

Fine particulate matter is a serious health threat and exposures are particularly damaging for children. The environmental justice (EJ) literature shows that racial/ethnic minority communities experience disproportionate exposure to particulate pollution in the US. While important, those EJ studies tend to neglect people's complex identities, including their nativity and their families' generational histories of residence in the US. Read More

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The COVID-19 Vaccine and the Black Community: Addressing the Justified Questions.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

The National Academies Roundtable for Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering and Medicine, Washington, D.C., USA.

Established in 2019, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in STEM convenes a broad array of stakeholders that focus on the barriers and opportunities encountered by Black men and Black women as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. Through meetings, public workshops, and publications, the Roundtable advances discussions that raise awareness and/or highlight promising practices for increasing the representation, retention, and inclusiveness of Black men and Black women in STEM. In keeping with the charge of the Roundtable, Roundtable leadership and leaders of the COVID-19 action group conducted an informational video in January 2021 to provide an in-depth discussion around common, justified questions in the Black community pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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An analysis of threats, strategies, and opportunities for African rhinoceros conservation.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jun 1;11(11):5892-5910. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation Chinhoyi University of Technology Chinhoyi Zimbabwe.

The complexity and magnitude of threats to black () and white () rhinoceros conservation in Africa have triggered global concerns and actions. In this study, we analyzed (i) threats to rhinoceros conservation including external shocks, (ii) historical rhinoceros conservation strategies in Zimbabwe and Africa, more broadly, and (iii) opportunities for enhanced rhinoceros conservation in Zimbabwe and Africa. A literature search from 1975 to 2020 was carried out using a predefined search protocol, involving a number of filters based on a set of keywords to balance search sensitivity with specificity. Read More

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Over-the-counter medication use in residents of senior living communities: A survey study.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Background: Self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC) products is common among older adults. Although OTC self-medication is a convenient way to manage some health issues, older persons may be at higher risk of experiencing medication-related problems. This study examines the prevalence, practices, and preferences associated with OTC medication use in older adult residents of senior living communities. Read More

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Twitter discourse reveals geographical and temporal variation in concerns about COVID-19 vaccines in the United States.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Penn Medicine Center for Digital Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Leondard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, United States.

The speed at which social media is propagating COVID-19 misinformation and its potential reach and impact is growing, yet little work has focused on the potential applications of these data for informing public health communication about COVID-19 vaccines. We used Twitter to access a random sample of over 78 million vaccine-related tweets posted between December 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021 to describe the geographical and temporal variation in COVID-19 vaccine discourse. Urban suburbs posted about equitable distribution in communities, college towns talked about in-clinic vaccinations near universities, evangelical hubs posted about operation warp speed and thanking God, exurbs posted about the 2020 election, Hispanic centers posted about concerns around food and water, and counties in the ACP African American South posted about issues of trust, hesitancy, and history. Read More

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Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease in Individuals with a Family History of Coronary Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Jun 17:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: The degree to which a family history of coronary heart disease (FHCHD) is associated with silent cerebral small-vessel disease (cSVD) among healthy adults, independent of prevalent CHD and traditional risk factors, is unknown.

Methods: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a community-based cohort study with self-reported family history data and brain magnetic resonance imaging (ages 68-88). The association between markers of cSVD (lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds), or log-transformed white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, and FHCHD, or the number of affected relatives was examined using separate adjusted logistic or linear regression models, respectively. Read More

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Kairos care in a Chronos world: Midwifery care as model of resistance and accountability in public health settings.

Birth 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Rory Meyers College of Nursing, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In the Unites States (US), pregnancy-related mortality is 2-4 times higher for black and indigenous women irrespective of income and education. The integration of midwifery as a fundamental component of standard maternity services has been shown to improve health outcomes and service user satisfaction, including among underserved and minoritized groups. Nonetheless, there remains limited uptake of this model in the United States. Read More

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"I felt like it would've been perfect, if they hadn't been rushing": Black women's childbirth experiences with medical providers when accompanied by perinatal support professionals.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Birthing Beautiful Communities, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Aims: This study examined the nature and characteristics of Black women's interactions with medical providers during childbirth when accompanied by a perinatal support professional (PSP; similar to a doula).

Design: The design was qualitative, and a phenomenological approach was employed to examine the meaning of women's experiences.

Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 25 Black women enrolled in a perinatal support program in Cleveland, Ohio, in late 2017 and early 2018, exploring their interactions with medical providers, the meaning of their experiences, and the roles their PSPs played. Read More

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Gender disparities in access and retention in outpatient methadone treatment for opioid use disorder in low-income urban communities.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Aug 20;127:108399. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

I-LEAD Institute, Research to End Health Disparities Corp, 12300 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 210, Los Angeles, CA 90025, United States of America.

The purpose of this study was to detect and understand gender disparities in access and retention among outpatient methadone treatment programs located in low-income urban communities in Los Angeles, California. The study collected client- and program-level data in 4 waves in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 from 34 publicly funded methadone treatment programs serving 11,169 clients with opioid use disorder (OUD). The sample included 29. Read More

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Effects of black carbon-based thin-layer capping for nitrogen-overloaded sediment remediation on microbial community assembly.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 19;788:147888. Epub 2021 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, PR China.

Black carbon is considered as a promising material for thin-layer capping for sediment remediation. However, the effects of black carbon-based thin-layer capping on microbial communities have not been thoroughly studied. Here, the preparation conditions of capping material were optimized, and the interaction and assembly mechanisms of the microbial community in sediment under black carbon capping were studied. Read More

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September 2021

Interest in Clinic-Based Financial Services among Low-Income Prenatal Patients and its Association with Health-Related Social Risk Factors.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211024425

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Poverty and financial stress affect prenatal health and well-being as well as early childhood development. This study sought to examine interest in clinic-based financial services to address financial stress in low-income, Medicaid-enrolled prenatal patients and its relationship with self-reported social risks.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients at a large safety-net prenatal clinic. Read More

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Black-white racial disparities in household food insecurity from 2005 to 2014, Canada.

Can J Public Health 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: To understand the differential vulnerability to household food insecurity of the Black population as compared with white counterparts in Canada.

Methods: Using data for households with Black and white respondents in pooled Canadian Community Health Survey cycles from 2005 to 2014, the 18-question Household Food Security Survey Module was analyzed (N = 491,400). Bivariate and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression models were run using respondent's race, immigration status, and six well-established predictors of household food insecurity in the general population. Read More

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"I'm not going to be a guinea pig:" medical mistrust as a barrier to male contraception for Black American men in Los Angeles, CA.

Contraception 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Lundquist Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA.

Background: Racial disparities in unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use in the United States are not mediated by access to family planning services alone. Rather, a history of medical mistrust underlies Black Americans' adoption of new medical technologies, inclusive of contraception. Efforts to develop hormonal male contraceptives need to incorporate Black Americans' experiences and perspectives so that new contraceptives enable their reproductive goals and promote gender equity. Read More

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Associations with COVID-19 Symptoms, Prevention Interest, and Testing Among Sexual and Gender Minority Adults in a Diverse National Sample.

LGBT Health 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Sexual and gender minority (SGM) and racial/ethnic minority populations may differ in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention, testing, and vaccine interest, although little research has explored these disparities. It is critical to understand the differential experiences within minoritized communities to ensure effective intervention and vaccine rollout. In a national online survey of U. Read More

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The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) Study: JACC Focus Seminar 3/8.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(23):2939-2959

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) initiated community-based surveillance in 1987 for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality and created a prospective cohort of 15,792 Black and White adults ages 45 to 64 years. The primary aims were to improve understanding of the decline in CHD mortality and identify determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis and CHD in Black and White middle-age adults. ARIC has examined areas including health disparities, genomics, heart failure, and prevention, producing more than 2,300 publications. Read More

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Racial equity in the fight against COVID-19: a qualitative study examining the importance of collecting race-based data in the Canadian context.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2021 Jun 10;7(1):15. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Health and Society, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4, Canada.

Background: A failure to ensure racial equity in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has caused Black communities in Canada to disproportionately be impacted. The aim of the current study was to determine the needs and concerns of Black communities in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and to highlight the importance of collecting race-based COVID-19 data early on to address these needs.

Methods: Six qualitative interviews were conducted with local community health centre leaders who serve a high population of racialized communities within the GTA. Read More

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Widening health inequalities related to Type 1 diabetes care in children and young people in the UK- a time to act now.

Authors:
S M Ng M L Evans

Diabet Med 2021 Jun 10:e14620. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Wellcome Trust/ MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, UK.

In this recent 2019/20 audit, 96% (168/173) of paediatric diabetes teams submitted data and included a total of 29,242 children and young people (CYP) up to the age of 24 years, and Type 1 diabetes consisted of 27,653 CYP. One of the key findings was that CYP with T1D from minority ethnic communities have higher HbA1 compared to white ethnicity and that significantly lower use of insulin pumps or real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems were used amongst black children. There has been an increasing trend of widening health inequalities reported the past 6 years. Read More

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Addressing Racial/Ethnic Equity in Access to COVID-19 Testing Through Drive-Thru And Walk-In Testing Sites in Chicago.

Med Res Arch 2021 May 25;9(5). Epub 2021 May 25.

University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine.

Mile Square Health Center (MSHC), a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) run by the University of Illinois Hospital (UIH) in Chicago, established Drive-Thru and Walk-Up COVID-19 testing sites. The primary aim of the UIH/MSHC testing project was to increase testing capacity in the most affected, racial/ethnic minority communities. More than 7,500 tests were performed over a six-month period. Read More

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Association of Smartphone Ownership and Internet Use With Markers of Health Literacy and Access: Cross-sectional Survey Study of Perspectives From Project PLACE (Population Level Approaches to Cancer Elimination).

J Med Internet Res 2021 06 9;23(6):e24947. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, United States.

Background: Telehealth is an increasingly important component of health care delivery in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, well-documented disparities persist in the use of digital technologies.

Objective: This study aims to describe smartphone and internet use within a diverse sample, to assess the association of smartphone and internet use with markers of health literacy and health access, and to identify the mediating factors in these relationships. Read More

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COVID-19 among Minority Children in Detroit, Michigan during the Early National Surge of the Pandemic.

Glob Pediatr Health 2021 31;8:2333794X211022710. Epub 2021 May 31.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

. The COVID-19 pandemic has shed light on communities of racial/ethnic minority groups in the US where long-standing health issues and structural inequities are now known to have resulted in increased risk for infection, severe illness, and death from the virus. The objective of our study was to describe demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, medical interventions and outcomes of pediatric patients with COVID-19 treated at Children's Hospital of Michigan (CHM), a tertiary care center in urban Detroit, an early hotspot during the initial surge of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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Opening a next-generation black box: ecological trends for hundreds of species-like taxa uncovered within a single bacterial >99% 16S rRNA operational taxonomic unit.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Department for Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Mondseestrasse 9, A-5310, Mondsee, Austria.

Current knowledge on environmental distribution and taxon richness of free-living bacteria is mainly based on cultivation-independent investigations employing 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. Yet, 16S rRNA genes are evolutionarily rather conserved, resulting in limited taxonomic and ecological resolutions provided by this marker. The faster evolving protein-encoding gene priB was used to reveal ecological patterns hidden within a single OTU defined by >99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity. Read More

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Structural Violence Education: A Critical Moment for Psychiatric Training.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 Jun 7:7067437211016243. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Medicine, 70401University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine, Alberta, Canada.

The mental health ramifications of structural violence are borne disproportionately by marginalized patient populations in North America, which includes Black, Indigenous, and 2SLGBTQIA+ communities and people who use drugs. Structural violence can comprise, for example, police or state violence, colonialism, and medical violence. We chronicle the history of psychiatric discourse around structural violence over the past 50 years and highlight the critical need for new formalized competencies to become incorporated into the training of medical students across Canada, specifically addressing the impacts of structural violence for the aforementioned populations. Read More

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Optimising pyrolysis conditions for high-quality biochar production using black soldier fly larvae faecal-derived residue as feedstock.

Heliyon 2021 May 21;7(5):e07025. Epub 2021 May 21.

Agriprotein Technologies, 1 Rochester Rd, Philippi, Cape Town, 7750, South Africa.

The disposal of feacal matter from Urine Diversion Dry Toilets is a significant challenge due to limited land availability, possible underground water contamination, and the risk of spreading diseases. The collected faecal matter can be fed to Black Soldier Fly Larvae to produce protein-rich larvae used as animal feed. The disposal of the leftover waste (BSFL residue) is still a problem due to the risk of residual pathogen contamination. Read More

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Association of Lower Socioeconomic Status and SARS-CoV-2 Positivity in Los Angeles, California.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 May 13;54(3):161-165. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads heterogeneously, disproportionately impacting poor and minority communities. The relationship between poverty and race is complex, with a diverse set of structural and systemic factors driving higher rates of poverty among minority populations. The factors that specifically contribute to the disproportionate rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, are not clearly understood. Read More

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The "black box" of plant demography: How do seed type, climate and seed fungal communities affect grass seed germination?

New Phytol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

University of Oregon, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Eugene, Oregon, USA, 97403.

•Demographic studies measure drivers of plant fecundity including seed production and survival, but few address both abiotic and biotic drivers of germination such as variation in climate among sites, population density, maternal plants, seed type and fungal pathogen abundance. •We examined germination and microbial communities of seeds of Danthonia californica, which are either chasmogamous (external, wind-pollinated) or cleistogamous (internal, self-fertilized) and Festuca roemeri, which are solely chasmogamous. Seed populations were sourced across environmental gradients. Read More

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