10,681 results match your criteria black carbon

Accounting Carbonaceous Counterfeits in Graphene Materials Using the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Approach.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

Counterfeits in the supply chain of high-value advanced materials such as graphene and their derivatives have become a concerning problem with a potential negative impact on this growing and emerging industry. Recent studies have revealed alarming facts that a large percentage of manufactured graphene materials on market are not graphene, raising considerable concerns for the end users. The common and recommended methods for the characterization of graphene materials, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Raman spectroscopy based on spot analysis and probing properties of individual graphene particles, are limited to provide the determination of the properties of "bulk" graphene powders at a large scale and the identification of non-graphene components or purposely included additives. Read More

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An international application of the city-wide mobile noise mapping methodology: Retro-active traffic attribution on a bicycle commuters health study in New York City.

Proc Int Congr Noise Control Eng 2019 Sep;2019:3265-3276

Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 USA.

The spatial resolution of third party traffic data is not adequately describing the variation of air pollution exposure along the travelled routes of bicycle commuters. In prior work, a city-wide mobile noise mapping methodology was proposed to predict Black Carbon exposure for random bicycle trips, including meteorological variability. In a proof-of-concept pilot, funded by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), this method is examined in the context of a commuter study in New York City. Read More

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September 2019

Effects of carbonaceous nanomaterials on soil-grown soybeans under combined heat and insect stresses.

Environ Chem 2019 May;16(6):482-493

Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

Because carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNMs) are expected to enter soils, the exposure implications to crop plants and plant-microbe interactions should be understood. Most investigations have been under ideal growth conditions, yet crops commonly experience abiotic and biotic stresses. Little is known how co-exposure to these environmental stresses and CNMs would cause combined effects on plants. Read More

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Traffic-induced atmospheric pollution during the COVID-19 lockdown: Dispersion modeling based on traffic flow monitoring in Turin, Italy.

J Clean Prod 2021 Oct 22;317:128425. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering (DIATI), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino, Italy.

The COVID-19 pandemic, as a worldwide threat to public health, has led many governments to impose mobility restrictions and adopt partial or full lockdown strategies in many regions to control the disease outbreak. Although these lockdowns are imposed to save public health by reducing the transmission of the virus, rather significant improvements of the air quality in this period have been reported in different areas, mainly as a result of the reduction in vehicular trips. In this research, the city of Turin in the northern part of Italy has been considered as the study area, because of its special meteorology and geographic location in one of the most polluted regions in Europe, and also its high density of vehicular emissions. Read More

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October 2021

[Roles of ERK/JNK in carbon black induced AP-1 cell signaling pathway changes].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jul;50(4):533-538

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of ERK/JNK in the alteration of activator protein-1(AP-1) signaling pathway in human embryonic lung fibroblasts(HELFs) induced by carbon black.

Methods: HELFs were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 μg/mL carbon black for 24 h, and the appropriate dose of carbon black was determined by MTT assay result. HELFs were divided into three groups: HELFs, HELFs transfected with ERK dominant negative mutant plasmid(DN-ERK) and HELFs transfected with JNK dominant negative mutant plasmid(DN-JNK). Read More

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Emissions of soot, PAHs, ultrafine particles, NO and other health relevant compounds from stressed burning of candles in indoor air.

Indoor Air 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Burning candles release a variety of pollutants to indoor air, some of which are of concern for human health. We studied emissions of particles and gases from the stressed burning of five types of pillar candles with different wax and wick compositions. The stressed burning was introduced by controlled fluctuating air velocities in a 21. Read More

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Direct and Inverse Reduced-Form Models for Reciprocal Calculation of BC Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) concentrations are governed by both emissions and meteorological conditions. Distinguishing these effects enables quantification of the effectiveness of emission mitigation actions by excluding meteorological effects. Here, we develop reduced-form models in both direct (RFDMs) and inverse (RFIMs) modes to estimate ambient BC concentrations. Read More

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Genomics and transcriptomics yields a system-level view of the biology of the pathogen Naegleria fowleri.

BMC Biol 2021 Jul 22;19(1):142. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Background: The opportunistic pathogen Naegleria fowleri establishes infection in the human brain, killing almost invariably within 2 weeks. The amoeba performs piece-meal ingestion, or trogocytosis, of brain material causing direct tissue damage and massive inflammation. The cellular basis distinguishing N. Read More

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Efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalyst derived from facile Fe,N-surface treatment of carbon black.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 18;605:101-109. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Advanced Energy Devices, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China. Electronic address:

The development of nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a central task in renewable electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies. Iron-nitrogen doped carbon-based (Fe-N/C) materials are promising alternatives to Pt-based ORR electrocatalysts. Owing to large specific surface area and outstanding electrical conductivity, carbon black is an inborn support for electrocatalysts. Read More

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High-Pressure Structural Evolution of Disordered Polymeric CS.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 26:7229-7235. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

Carbon disulfide is an archetypal double-bonded molecule belonging to the class of group IV-group VI, AB compounds. It is widely believed that, upon compression to several GPa at room temperature and above, a polymeric chain of type (-(C═S)-S-), named Bridgman's black polymer, will form. By combining optical spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction data with ab initio simulations, we demonstrate that the structure of this polymer is different. Read More

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[Spatial Distribution Pattern and Influencing Factors of Industrial Pollution Emissions in Yangtze River Economic Belt].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3820-3828

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China.

The development of Yangtze River economic belt emphasizes the strategy of "no large-scale development, joint efforts in large-scale protection". The restoration of the Yangtze River environment has become an important part of the development of the region. Therefore, it is important to explore the spatial distribution of industrial pollution emissions and its influencing factors in the Yangtze River economic belt. Read More

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Semi-enclosed bays serve as hotspots for black carbon burial: A case study in Jiaozhou Bay, western Yellow Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;797:149100. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

The provenance of black carbon (BC) and its role in affecting contaminant cycling in both the atmosphere and aquatic environments have been extensively studied. However, the fate and cycling dynamics of BC, particularly in marine environments, are poorly understood. Herein, soot BC was determined in the semi-enclosed Jiaozhou Bay to examine the seasonal variability, residence timescale in seawater, and settling flux to sediments, together with particle-reactive Th. Read More

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Phototoxic versus photoprotective effects of tattoo pigments in reconstructed human skin models: In vitro phototoxicity testing of tattoo pigments: 3D versus 2D.

Toxicology 2021 Jul 22:152872. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The increasing number of tattooed persons urges the development of reliable test systems to assess tattoo associated risks. The alarming prevalence of 60% phototoxic reactions in tattoos ask for a more comprehensive investigation of phototoxic reactions in tattooed skin. Here, we aimed to compare the cellular responses of human skin cells to ultraviolet (UV)A and UVB irradiation in doses of short to intermitted sun exposure (3 - 48 J/cm² and 0. Read More

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Occupational exposure to particles and increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 21:111739. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit for Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 4, Plan 10, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Solnavägen 4, Plan 10, SE-113 65, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objectives: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disorder. Next to tobacco smoking, occupational exposure is the most important risk factor for COPD in high-income countries. To enable preventative measures, more knowledge is needed on which specific occupational exposures that are related to risk of developing COPD in men and women. Read More

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Characterization of black crusts developed on historic stones with diverse mineralogy under different air quality environments.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi 19, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Black crusts (BCs) are one of the most critical alteration forms found on stones belonging to architectural heritage. Since they could be considered as passive samplers of atmospheric pollution, it would be plausible to establish relations between the air contamination and the BCs. With this aim, we have characterized BCs collected on historic buildings from two Spanish cities (Granada and Vigo) with different polluted atmospheres, as well as formed on stone substrates of varied mineralogy and texture. Read More

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Associations of ultrafine and fine particles with childhood emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in a megacity.

Thorax 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Peking University School of Public Health, and Peking University Institute of Environmental Medicine, Beijing, China

Background: Ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM) has been associated with deteriorated respiratory health, but evidence on particles in smaller sizes and childhood respiratory health has been limited.

Methods: We collected time-series data on daily respiratory emergency room visits (ERVs) among children under 14 years old in Beijing, China, during 2015-2017. Read More

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In vitro-in vivo correlations of pulmonary inflammogenicity and genotoxicity of MWCNT.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 Jul 23;18(1):25. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have received attention due to extraordinary properties, resulting in concerns for occupational health and safety. Costs and ethical concerns of animal testing drive a need for in vitro models with predictive power in respiratory toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess pro-inflammatory response (Interleukin-8 expression, IL-8) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks) caused by MWCNT with different physicochemical properties in different pulmonary cell models and correlate these to previously published in vivo data. Read More

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Silicone Rubber Composites Reinforced by Carbon Nanofillers and Their Hybrids for Various Applications: A Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 15;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280, Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Without fillers, rubber types such as silicone rubber exhibit poor mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Carbon black (CB) is traditionally used as a filler in the rubber matrix to improve its properties, but a high content (nearly 60 per hundred parts of rubber (phr)) is required. However, this high content of CB often alters the viscoelastic properties of the rubber composite. Read More

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Phlogopite-Reinforced Natural Rubber (NR)/Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber (EPDM) Composites with Aminosilane Compatibilizer.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 18323, Korea.

Rubber compounding with two or more components has been extensively employed to improve various properties. In particular, natural rubber (NR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM) blends have found use in tire and automotive parts. Diverse fillers have been applied to NR/EPDM blends to enhance their mechanical properties. Read More

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Modification of Carbon Black with Hydrogen Peroxide for High Performance Anode Catalyst of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 13;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30041, Taiwan.

In this study, high-surface-area carbon black is used to support PtRu. In order to increase the functional groups on the surface of carbon black and to have a more homogenous dispersed PtRu metal, the surface of carbon black is functionalized by HO. PtRu/carbon black is synthesized by the deposition-precipitation method. Read More

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A Review of Conductive Carbon Materials for 3D Printing: Materials, Technologies, Properties, and Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 13;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Innovation Center for Textile Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Carbon material is widely used and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. It is often used as a filler to endow insulating polymer with electrical and thermal conductivity. Three-dimensional printing technology is an advance in modeling and manufacturing technology. Read More

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A Monodisperse Population Balance Model for Nanoparticle Agglomeration in the Transition Regime.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

Nanoparticle agglomeration in the transition regime (e.g. at high pressures or low temperatures) is commonly simulated by population balance models for volume-equivalent spheres or agglomerates with a constant fractal-like structure. Read More

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Zinc Complexes with 1,3-Diketones as Activators for Sulfur Vulcanization of Styrene-Butadiene Elastomer Filled with Carbon Black.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 7;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Polymer and Dye Technology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego Street 12/16, 90-924 Lodz, Poland.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (N-ZnO) and zinc complexes with 1,3-diketones of different structures were applied instead of microsized zinc oxide (M-ZnO) to activate the sulfur vulcanization of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The influence of vulcanization activators on the cure characteristics of rubber compounds, as well as crosslink density and functional properties of SBR vulcanizates, such as tensile properties, hardness, damping behavior, thermal stability and resistance to thermo-oxidative aging was explored. Applying N-ZnO allowed to reduce the content of zinc by 40% compared to M-ZnO without detrimental influence on the cure characteristic and performance of SBR composites. Read More

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Fully Integrated 3D-Printed Electronic Device for the On-Field Determination of Antipsychotic Drug Quetiapine.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 71 Athens, Greece.

In this work, we developed a novel all-3D-printed device for the simple determination of quetiapine fumarate (QF) via voltammetric mode. The device was printed through a one-step process by a dual-extruder 3D printer and it features three thermoplastic electrodes (printed from a carbon black-loaded polylactic acid (PLA)) and an electrode holder printed from a non-conductive PLA filament. The integrated 3D-printed device can be printed on-field and it qualifies as a ready-to-use sensor, since it does not require any post-treatment (i. Read More

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Qualitative Study on the Observations of Emissions, Transport, and the Influence of Climatic Factors from Sugarcane Burning: A South African Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 19;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.

There are two methods of harvesting sugarcane-manual or mechanical. Manual harvesting requires the burning of the standing sugarcane crop. Burning of the crop results in the emission of aerosols and harmful trace gases into the atmosphere. Read More

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First Evidence of "Earth Wax" Inside the Casting Molds from the Roman Era.

Molecules 2021 Jul 13;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. Listopadu 12, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

This research was focused on the analysis of material composition and organic residues present in three molds found in the Moravian region (Czech Republic) belonging to the Roman era. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy pointed out the possible remelting of Roman objects in Barbarian territory. The analysis of organic residues retrieved from the internal part of mold #2 by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry proved the presence of ozokerite wax ("earth wax"). Read More

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Antifungal Activity and Biosynthetic Potential of New sp. MW-W600-10 Strain Isolated from Coal Mine Water.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40032 Katowice, Poland.

Crop infections by fungi lead to severe losses in food production and pose risks for human health. The increasing resistance of pathogens to fungicides has led to the higher usage of these chemicals, which burdens the environment and highlights the need to find novel natural biocontrol agents. Members of the genus are known to produce a plethora of bioactive compounds. Read More

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Superhydrophobic leached carbon Black/Poly(vinyl) alcohol aerogel for selective removal of oils and organic compounds from water.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 17;286(Pt 1):131520. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Energy and Environmental Sustainability Solutions for Megacities (E2S2), Campus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterprise (CREATE), Singapore, 138602, Singapore; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585, Singapore. Electronic address:

The remediation of oil spills and treatment of oily wastewater remains challenging to cope with nowadays. This has caused a surge in demand on adsorbent materials with multi-functionalities to effectively separate oils and nonpolar solvents from water. A superhydrophobic composite aerogel prepared from industrial waste-derived leached carbon black waste (LCBW) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was developed in this work via conventional freeze-casting followed by surface coating. Read More

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The effect of black carbon on the chemical degradability of PCB1 via TENAX desorption technology from the perspective of adsorption states.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 17;286(Pt 1):131583. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310029, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province, 310020, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Chemical degradation is one of the crucial methods for the remediation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soil/sediment. The sequestration effect of black carbon (BC) can affect the adsorption state of HOCs, thereby affecting their chemical degradability. Our study focused on the chemical degradability of 2-Chlorobiphenyl (PCB1) sequestrated on the typical BC (fly ash (FC), soot (SC), low-temperature biochar (BC400) and high-temperature biochar (BC900)) by iron-nickel bimetallic nanomaterials (nZVI/Ni) based on TENAX desorption technology. Read More

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New Insights into the High-Performance Black Phosphorus Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 22:e2101259. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9, Canada.

Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising anode material in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to its high electrical conductivity and capacity. However, the huge volume change of BP during cycling induces rapid capacity fading. In addition, the unclear electrochemical mechanism of BP hinders the development of rational designs and preparation of high-performance BP-based anodes. Read More

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