9,389 results match your criteria bitter

Multi-energy reconstructions, central electron temperature measurements, and early detection of the birth and growth of runaway electrons using a versatile soft x-ray pinhole camera at MST.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jul;92(7):073502

DECTRIS Ltd., 5405 Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland.

A multi-energy soft x-ray pinhole camera has been designed, built, and deployed at the Madison Symmetric Torus to aid the study of particle and thermal transport, as well as MHD stability physics. This novel imaging diagnostic technique employs a pixelated x-ray detector in which the lower energy threshold for photon detection can be adjusted independently on each pixel. The detector of choice is a PILATUS3 100 K with a 450 μm thick silicon sensor and nearly 100 000 pixels sensitive to photon energies between 1. Read More

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Reduction in flavor-intense components in fish protein hydrolysates by membrane filtration.

J Food Sci 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Nofima, Bergen, Norway.

Enzymatic protein hydrolysates based on side stream materials from the fish-filleting industry are increasingly explored as food ingredients. However, intense sensory properties, and high salt contents, are often a limiting factor. Most of the sensory attributes, such as fish flavor and salty taste, can be ascribed to low-molecular-weight, water-soluble components, whereas bitterness is associated with small hydrophobic peptides. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of a flavonoid-rich dried extract of  ×  L. fruit (bitter orange extract) for use in all animal species (FEFANA asbl).

EFSA J 2021 Jul 27;19(7):e06709. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of a dried flavonoid-rich extract of  ×  L. fruit (bitter orange extract), when used as a sensory additive for all animal species. The use of the additive in feed was not expected to increase the exposure to furocoumarins of those target species that are already fed citrus by-products to a relevant extent (< 5%). Read More

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The pattern of Fos-like immunoreactivity expressed within the nucleus of the solitary tract is associated with individual variation in the taste quality of a stimulus.

Chem Senses 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Program in Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Outbred rats differ in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose. Psychophysical assessments have shown that the taste of sucralose is differentially generalized to either sucrose or a sucrose-quinine (QHCl) mixture in sucralose preferers (SP) and sucralose avoiders (SA), respectively. It remains to be determined if these differences in the psychophysical assessment of the taste of sucralose are due to an insensitivity to any bitter-like taste component of sucralose in SP or reduced sensitivity to a sweet-like component in SA that may mask any putative aversive side-taste in SP. Read More

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A high-quality sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) genome.

Hortic Res 2020 Aug 1;7(1):128. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for New Technology Research of Vegetables, Vegetable Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510640, China.

Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) is an important cultivated vegetable and medicinal plant in the family Cucurbitaceae. In this study, a draft genome sequence of the sponge gourd inbred line P93075 was analyzed. Using Illumina, PacBio, and 10× Genomics sequencing techniques as well as new assembly techniques such as FALCON and chromatin interaction mapping (Hi-C), a chromosome-scale genome of approximately 656. Read More

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High-Throughput Feeding Bioassay for Lepidoptera Larvae.

J Chem Ecol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement et Écologie, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Finding plant cultivars that are resistant or tolerant against lepidopteran pests, takes time, effort and is costly. We present here a high throughput leaf-disk consumption assay system, to screen plants for resistance or chemicals for their deterrence. A webcam capturing images at regular intervals can follow the feeding activities of 150 larvae placed into individual cages. Read More

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Development and application of diffusive gradients in thin-films for in situ sampling of the bitterest chemical - denatonium benzoate in waters.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 12;418:126393. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Environmental Research Institute/School of Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Denatonium benzoate (DB), a commonly used bitter agent in numerous products, has recently been recognized as a waterborne contaminant due to concern about its potential persistence, mobility and toxicity (PMT). However, its occurrence, levels and fate in global aquatic environments are largely unknown. In this study, a new sampling method, based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with mixed-mode cation exchange (MCX) as the binding agent, was developed for measuring DB in waters. Read More

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Equity in access to global healthcare should be priority: a bitter lesson from Covid-19 pandemic.

Ghulam Nabi

Scott Med J 2021 08;66(3):99-100

Professor of Surgical Uro-oncology, Head of Division of Imaging Science and Technology, Ninewells Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, UK.

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Quantification and Bitter Taste Contribution of Lipids and Their Oxidation Products in Pea-Protein Isolates ( L.).

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular and Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Str. 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-differential ion mobility (DMS)-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify 14 bitter-tasting lipids in 17 commercial pea-protein isolates ( L.). The DMS technology enabled the simultaneous quantification of four hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid isomers, namely, (10,12)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (), (10,12)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (), (9,11)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid (), and (9,11)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid (). Read More

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Artificial Taste Buds: Bioorthogonally Ligated Gustatory-Neuronal Multicellular Hybrids Enabling Intercellular Taste Signal Transmission.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Heterogeneous tissue models require the assembly and co-culture of multiple types of cells. Our recent work demonstrated taste signal transmission from gustatory cells to neurons by grafting single-stranded DNA into the cell membrane to construct multicellular assemblies. However, the weak DNA linkage and low grafting density allowed the formation of large gustatory cell self-aggregates that cannot communicate with neurons efficiently. Read More

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Intercrop mulch affects soil biology and microbial diversity in rainfed transgenic Bt cotton hybrids.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 1;794:148787. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Crop Production, ICAR-Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur 440010, Maharashtra, India.

Growing live mulch between the wide-row spaced transgenic Bt cotton hybrids is a low-cost option to control weeds compared to the use of plastic mulch. However, nothing is known about their effects on soil biology. Therefore, soil samples were collected from a long-term field study (2014-15 to 2018-19) to investigate the soil biological activities as well as the microbial diversity (soil metagenomic analysis). Read More

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Synthesis and characteristics of a rebaudioside-A like compound as a potential non-caloric natural sweetener by Leuconostoc kimchii dextransucrase.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 20;366:130623. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Integrative Food, Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

1. Stevioside (ST) is currently considered as a highly-demanded natural and zero-caloric replacer of sucrose with several health-promoting properties. Nonetheless, its bitter aftertaste limits its use in the food industry. Read More

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Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of green wheat under different treatments by GC-MS and GC-IMS.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jul 27:e13875. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Puyang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Puyang, China.

Volatile components in green wheat under different treatments including raw, washing, blanching, precooling, freezing, steaming, boiling, frying, and freeze-drying were evaluated by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five key aroma substances including n-hexanal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-pentylfuran, and (E)-oct-2-enal were found by Venn diagram and odor activity values (OAV). Furthermore, according to volatile fingerprints characteristics and the aroma profile of sensory evaluation, it was found that green wheat under different treatments mainly presented seven characteristic flavor notes including sweet flowers, fat fragrance, mushroom hay, waxy aldehyde, citrus fruity, vegetable-like bean, and bitter almond from the sensory evaluation, and they could be divided into four categories, which was consistent with the results of PCA and GC-IMS. Read More

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Menthol Mouth Rinsing Is More Than Just a Mouth Wash-Swilling of Menthol to Improve Physiological Performance.

Front Nutr 2021 7;8:691695. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Faculty of Science, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON, Canada.

Interventions that solely act on the central nervous system (CNS) are gaining considerable interest, particularly products consumed through the oral cavity. The oropharyngeal cavity contains a wide array of receptors that respond to sweet, bitter, and cold tastants, all of which have been shown to improve physiological performance. Of late, the ergogenic benefits of carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) mouth rinsings (MRs) have been widely studied; however, less is known about menthol (MEN). Read More

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Vanillin Activates Human Bitter Taste Receptors TAS2R14, TAS2R20, and TAS2R39.

Front Nutr 2021 9;8:683627. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

DeFENS - Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Vanilla is widely used in food preparation worldwide for its sensory properties, mainly related to its fragrance, being vanillin the major compound present in the processed vanilla. Vanillin is also known to elicit bitterness as a secondary sensory sensation, but the molecular mechanism of its bitterness has never been reported. Assay buffers of vanillin were tested on all known 25 human bitter taste receptors TAS2Rs. Read More

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Quantitative analysis of taste disorder in COVID-19 patients, the hypersensitivity to salty quality.

New Microbes New Infect 2021 Jul 17:100919. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Otorhinolaryngology, head & neck surgery department of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recently, many of studies have illustrated that the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2 can affect Central Nervous System through olfactory bulb. In addition to investigating anosmia or hyposmia induced by this virus, the quantitative analysis was needed to clarify the taste and smell disorder of the new corona virus The four basic taste quality with five concentrations for sweet, sour, bitter and salty were administered in to 75 subject divided in to three groups: COVID-19 patients with taste disorder, COVID-19 patients without taste disorder and control group. The results indicated the increment of sweet (2. Read More

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Acrid-release and bitter-downbearing therapy and banxia xiexin decoction regulate Wnt/β-catenin pathway, inhibit proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6211-6220. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, The 943 Hospital of The Joint Logistics Support Unit of The Chinese People's Liberation Army Wuwei, Gansu Province, China.

Objective: To explore the efficacy of the acrid-release and bitter-downbearing therapy and Banxia Xiexin Decoction (BXD) in treating gastric cancer (GC).

Methods: BXD was decocted, and serum containing medicine was prepared from rats. The SNU-16 cells were cultured with different concentrations of BXD serum (25, 50, 100 μL/mL). Read More

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Impact of Fluoxetine on Behavioral Invigoration of Appetitive and Aversively Motivated Responses: Interaction With Dopamine Depletion.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 9;15:700182. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Àrea de Psicobiologia, Universitat Jaume I, Castelló, Spain.

Impaired behavioral activation and effort-related motivational dysfunctions like fatigue and anergia are debilitating treatment-resistant symptoms of depression. Depressed people show a bias towards the selection of low effort activities. To determine if the broadly used antidepressant fluoxetine can improve behavioral activation and reverse dopamine (DA) depletion-induced anergia, male CD1 mice were evaluated for vigorous escape behaviors in an aversive context (forced swim test, FST), and also with an exercise preference choice task [running wheel (RW)-T-maze choice task]. Read More

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[Reliability of whole-mouth taste test in assessment of gustatory function in healthy adults].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;35(8):698-701

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Capital Institute of Pediatrics.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of gustatory function using whole-mouth taste tests in healthy adults. Fifty healthy subjects were tested by whole-mouth taste test. The taste test involved 5 tastants(sour, sweet, salty, umami and bitter) and 7 concentrations. Read More

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[Research progress on chemical compositions and pharmacological action of Drynariae Rhizoma].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jun;46(11):2737-2745

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology,Tianjin University Tianjin 300072,China.

Drynariae Rhizoma is warm in nature and bitter in taste, mainly acting on liver and kidney systems. It is a common Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fracture and bone injury. The chemical compositions of Drynariae Rhizoma mainly include flavonoids, triterpenoids, phenylpropanoids and lignans. Read More

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Temporal profile of low calorie lactose-free ice cream chocolate flavor: temporal dominance sensation and multiple time-intensity analysis.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Aug 6;58(8):3164-3173. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-862 Brazil.

The food industry has a consumer market with growing interest in modified products, so this study aimed to evaluate consumer acceptance and characterize the temporal profile of traditional and lactose-free "low calorie chocolate ice creams". Six different samples were produced: three formulated with traditional whole milk sweetened with sucrose, sucralose and stevia and three formulated with lactose-free whole milk, also sweetened with the same sweeteners. Time-intensity analysis, temporal dominance of sensation and acceptance analysis were performed. Read More

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Culturally based coping with COVID-19 pandemic: using constructive roles of the spiritual systems with appropriate function.

Sepideh Omidvari

Health Promot Int 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Considering the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths, it is not strange that COVID-19 disease is a reminiscent of concepts such as death and affliction with a serious disease. Furthermore, it might remind people of issues such as the reason(s) for occurrence of deplorable events in the universe, the meaning of life, individuals' duties toward themselves and others, the relationship between the nature and human beings, and individuals' relationship with a higher being (in case there is a belief in a higher being), i.e. Read More

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Double emulsion-based mayonnaise encapsulated with bitter gourd extract exhibits improvement in vivo anti-diabetic action in STZ induced rats.

3 Biotech 2021 Aug 4;11(8):363. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Animal Biochemistry Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001 India.

Bitter gourd contains charantin (steroidal saponins), insulin-like peptides, and alkaloids, which contribute to its hypoglycemic ability. The study aims to evaluate effects of anti-diabetic potential of bitter gourd () encapsulated double emulsion-based functional mayonnaise on the normal and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in albino male Wister rats. The rats were allocated into seven groups: a control group fed with synthetic diet (NC), two non-diabetic groups (NCM and NFM) and four diabetic-induced groups (DC, DCM, DFM, and DCMB) for 8 weeks and then analyzed for the various biochemical parameters. Read More

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Characterization of a traditional ripened cheese, Kurdish Kope: Lipolysis, lactate metabolism, the release profile of volatile compounds, and correlations with sensory characteristics.

J Food Sci 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Kope cheese has been characterized based on gross chemical composition, free fatty acids (FFAs), organic acids (OAs), volatile compounds (VCs), and sensory attributes (SAs) during 187 days of the ripening period. C16:0, C18:1cisΔ9, and C14:0 were the most abundant FFAs. Lactic and acetic acids were the most prevalent OAs affecting sensory properties. Read More

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Applied mutagenesis could improve economically important traits in bitter gourd ( L.).

J Genet 2021 ;100

Faculty of Horticulture, Department of Vegetable Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, India.

Mutants with unique characters have played a key role in discovery of gene, mapping, functional genomics and breeding in many vegetable crops, but information on bitter gourd is lacking. Induction of mutation by gamma rays (Co source) at five different doses (50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy and 250 Gy) was studied in four widely divergent bitter gourd genotypes BG-1346501, Meghna-2, Special Boulder and Selection-1 in M generation. Reduction in seed germination percentage, vine length and pollen fertility occurred in M1 generation with the increasing doses of mutagens. Read More

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January 2021

Predictors of Taste Dysfunction and Its Severity Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jul 19:1455613211019708. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, 113092University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often complain of taste dysfunction. The prevalent taste dysfunction among patients with CKD predisposes them to malnutrition, poor quality of life, and worsen disease prognoses. To appropriately treat the taste dysfunction in this group of patients, it's imperative that factors that predict taste dysfunction and its severity are identified for prompt treatment. Read More

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Taste sensitivity in healthy adults: gustatory test validation and observational study.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 Mar-Apr;35(2 Suppl. 1):173-180

Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Dental Clinic, Department of Oral Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Gustatory sensitivity has important biological functions and taste disorders are generally difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to investigate taste sensitivity on a sample of adult healthy patients through the validation and administration of a gustatory test, to describe a possible baseline of reference. A gustatory test was performed following a standardized protocol, using primary flavors solutions at 4 known increasing concentrations for a total of 16 sapid solutions. Read More

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High-Throughput Quantitation of Key Cocoa Tastants by Means of Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Application to a Global Sample Set.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 19;69(29):8200-8212. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Str. 34, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

Historically often described as the food of gods, cocoa-based products exhibit a pleasant aroma as well as a desirable astringent, bitter, and sour taste, which results in a high consumer preference. The key taste components of cocoa were identified and characterized by combining sensory analysis, fractionation, and structure elucidation. Cocoa astringency is driven by -phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids, polyphenol glycosides, and flavan-3-ols, while the latter compound class also contributes to bitterness. Read More

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The Bitter Truth: Lessons from Pandemic Covid-19.

Pinky Kain

Acta Sci Neurol 2020 Sep 25;3(9):39-40. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Neurogenetics, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

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September 2020

PPE38-Secretion-Dependent Proteins of Alter NF-kB Signalling and Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:702359. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence in Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

It was previously shown that secretion of PE-PGRS and PPE-MPTR proteins is abolished in clinical isolates with a deletion in the operon, which is associated with increased virulence. Here we investigate the proteins dependent on PPE38 for their secretion and their role in the innate immune response using temporal proteomics and protein turnover analysis in a macrophage infection model. A decreased pro-inflammatory response was observed in macrophages infected with PPE38-deficient CDC1551 as compared to wild type bacteria. Read More

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