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Estradiol correlates with the accumulation of Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Pre-term birth: A possible explanation of immune suppression in pre-term babies.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jul 19;147:103350. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

Synergistic interplay of immune endocrine interaction is prerequisite for an effective maternal fetal tolerance. Pre-term birth (PTB) may be a consequence of altered immune-endocrine crosstalk during third trimester resulting in early breakdown of this tolerance. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogenous population of immature immune cells are increased in pregnant women and healthy newborns, but their role in PTB still remains obscure. Read More

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Actigraphy: Metrics reveal it is not a valid tool for determining sleep in neonates.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jul 22:e13444. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Study of emerging sleep-wake patterns in neonates is important for promptly identifying and treating abnormal sleep behaviours to ensure healthy infant development and neurobehavioral outcomes. Current methods to assess sleep are costly, labour intensive, and particularly difficult to implement in fragile, hospitalised infants requiring intensive medical care. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of actigraphy as a tool for detecting sleep in preterm infants, using polysomnography (PSG) as the "gold standard". Read More

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Favorable Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Well-Controlled Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:689764. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Since pregnancy in women with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality, it is recommended that pregnancy should be avoided in PAH. However, some women with mild PAH may consider this recommendation as unsuitable. Unfortunately knowledge on pregnancy outcomes and best management of PAH during pregnancy is limited. Read More

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Serum levels of immunoglobulin isotypes and immunoglobulin g subtypes in healthy term turkish newborns.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jul;24(7):1061-1066

Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Research and Training Hospital of Sakarya University, Adapazarı, Sakarya, Türkiye.

Aims: We aimed to determine the normal immunoglobulin values of Turkish new-borns by studying IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgG subgroups (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) from term, healthy neonates born in the Sakarya province of Turkey.

Subjects And Methods: In our study, IgA, IgM, IgG, and IgG subgroup levels were measured nephelometrically in 54 new-borns (15-21-day-old). They were born between 39 and 41 weeks of gestation by problem-free delivery and with Apgar scores >8 at 1 and 5 minutes. Read More

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Isolation and Culture of Neonatal Murine Primary Cardiomyocytes.

Curr Protoc 2021 Jul;1(7):e196

Cardiovascular and Muscle Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

The cardiomyocyte is the main cell type in the heart responsible for its contractile function. Culturing primary cardiomyocytes from mammalian sources to study their function remains challenging as they are terminally differentiated and cease to multiply soon after birth. The major technical hurdles associated with primary cardiomyocyte culture include attaining high yields, obtaining healthy/viable cells that show spontaneous contractions upon culture, and avoiding contamination by non-myocyte cardiac cell types such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Read More

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Hepatic fat in early childhood is independently associated with estimated insulin resistance: The Healthy Start Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Fatty liver disease is a common metabolic abnormality in adolescents with obesity, but remains under-studied in early childhood.

Objectives: To describe hepatic fat deposition in prepubertal children and examine associations with metabolic markers and body composition.

Methods: Data were from 286 children ages 4-8 years old in the Healthy Start Study, a longitudinal pre-birth cohort in Colorado. Read More

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Differential maturation trajectories of innate antiviral immunity in health and atopy.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Second Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: The maturation of innate immune responses in health and atopy is still incompletely understood.

Methods: We aimed to evaluate age-related trajectories of the TLR3 and TLR7/8 pathways from birth to adulthood and whether these differ between healthy and atopic individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 39 otherwise healthy atopic and 39 non-atopic subjects, aged 0-45 years. Read More

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Expression and significance of let-7a and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in placenta of severe preeclampsia.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 21:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Obstetrics, Lianyungang First People's Hospital, Lianyungang, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of let-7a and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in placental tissue of patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE).

Methods: From January 2018 to October 2019, 64 cases of puerperal delivery at the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang City, 44 cases of SPE (SPE group), and 20 cases of healthy pregnant women (NC group) were selected. QRT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression levels of let-7a, TNF-αmRNA, and protein in the two groups of placental tissues. Read More

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Breastfeeding in the First Days of Life Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure at 3 Years of Age.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 21:e019067. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health University of Manitoba Winnipeg Canada.

Background Breastfeeding in infancy is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood; however, the amount of breastfeeding required to achieve this benefit is unknown. Methods and Results In the CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) Cohort Study, we analyzed 2382 children with complete data on early life feeding and blood pressure. Infant feeding was documented from hospital records in the first few days of life and reported by mothers throughout infancy. Read More

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Perinatal effects of maternal FT3/FT4 ratio on gestational transient thyrotoxicosis.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, University of Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, Turkey.

Objective: The effects of maternal thyroid hormone levels on the course of pregnancy and birth weight have attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to consider FT3 and FT3/FT4 ratio in the evaluation of the effects of maternal thyroid functions in gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT).

Methods: This case-control study included 45 patients with GTT and 45 healthy pregnant women. Read More

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Association of increased abdominal adiposity at birth with altered ventral caudate microstructure.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), A*STAR, Brenner Centre for Molecular Medicine, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Neonatal adiposity is associated with a higher risk of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in later life. It is however unknown if central food intake regulating networks in the ventral striatum are altered with in-utero abdominal growth, indexed by neonatal adiposity in our current study. We aim to examine the relationship between striatal microstructure and abdominal adipose tissue compartments (AATCs) in Asian neonates from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. Read More

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Mercury and Prenatal Growth: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 3;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.

The intrauterine environment is critical for healthy prenatal growth and affects neonatal survival and later health. Mercury is a toxic metal which can freely cross the placenta and disrupt a wide range of cellular processes. Many observational studies have investigated mercury exposure and prenatal growth, but no prior review has synthesised this evidence. Read More

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Pregnancy and deep brain stimulation therapy for epilepsy.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary, MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MRI Research Group, Hungary, Pécs, Hungary.

Neuromodulation therapy -vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS)- is one of the therapeutic options for drug-resistant epilepsy. With the increasing number of DBS implantations in women with epilepsy, it has become a burning issue whether DBS is safe in pregnancy. We report here two women with epilepsy who gave birth to healthy children with DBS therapy. Read More

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Diabetes prevention interventions for women after gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of reviews.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Jul 1;4(3):e00230. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Section for Clinical Social Medicine and Rehabilitation Gødstrup Hospital Herning Denmark.

Aims: To present an overview of reviews of interventions for the prevention of diabetes in women after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with the overall aim of gaining information in order to establish local interventions.

Methods: Six databases were searched for quantitative, qualitative or mixed-methods systematic reviews. All types of interventions or screening programmes were eligible. Read More

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Relationship between inferior frontal sulcal hyperintensities on brain MRI, ageing and cerebral small vessel disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jun 21;106:130-138. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Centre for Clinical Brain Science, Edinburgh Imaging and UK Dementia Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Raised signal in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) may indicate raised CSF protein or debris and is seen in inferior frontal sulci on routine MRI. To explore its clinical relevance, we assessed the association of inferior frontal sulcal hyperintensities (IFSH) on FLAIR with demographics, risk factors, and small vessel disease markers in three cohorts (healthy volunteers, n=44; mild stroke patients, n=105; older community-dwelling participants from Lothian birth cohort 1936, n=101). We collected detailed clinical data, scanned all subjects on the same 3T MRI scanner and 3-dimensional FLAIR sequence and developed a scale to rate IFSH. Read More

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Sengers Syndrome: A Rare Case of Cardiomyopathy Combined with Congenital Cataracts in an Infant: Post-Mortem Case Report.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2021 Jul 15:107371. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.. Electronic address:

Sengers syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the Acylglycerol Kinase (AGK) gene with subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. It is a combination of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, congenital bilateral cataracts, and lactic acidosis following exertion. The current study describes an extremely rare case of Sengers syndrome that is diagnosed during post-mortem examination. Read More

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Evaluation of the effects of glycated hemoglobin on cardiac function in patients with short-duration type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 14:108952. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Aims: To investigate the association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and myocardial dysfunction and to determine whether its association is independent of myocardial perfusion.

Methods: Sixty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. They were divided into groups according to their HbA1c level: the controlled T2DM group (HbA1c <7%) and uncontrolled T2DM groups (HbA1c ≥7%). Read More

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The perinatal transition and early neonatal period in hypoplastic left heart syndrome is associated with reduced systemic and cerebral perfusion.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Cardiology Division, Stollery Children's Hospital and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of the striking perinatal circulatory changes on blood flow distribution have not to date been well-examined in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This study aims to document perinatal redistribution of cardiac output in HLHS compared to healthy controls, to further understand the impact of perinatal transition on cerebral and systemic blood flow.

Methods: Prospectively recruited HLHS cases (n=31) and healthy controls (n=19) underwent serial echocardiography from late fetal stages to 96 hours after birth. Read More

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A new approach for classifying fetal growth restriction.

Epidemiology 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley CA Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley CA Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. . Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Fetal growth restriction is commonly defined using small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth (birthweight <10th percentile) as a proxy, but this approach is problematic because most SGA infants are small but healthy. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to develop a new approach for identifying fetal growth restriction at birth that combines information on multiple, imperfect measures of fetal growth restriction in a probabilistic manner.

Methods: We combined information on birthweight, placental weight, placental malperfusion lesions, maternal disease, and fetal acidemia using latent profile analysis to classify fetal growth in births at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada, 2001-2009. Read More

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Longitudinal Vitamin D Deficiency Among Malaysian Pregnant Women and Its Correlation With Neonatal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels.

Front Public Health 2021 29;9:654292. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal relationship between maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and neonatal vitamin D concentrations at birth. A prospective cohort of 236 healthy pregnant women from various ethnicity in early pregnancy (≤20 weeks of pregnancy) was followed at late pregnancy (28-40 weeks of pregnancy) and birth. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was assessed at early pregnancy (baseline) and late pregnancy, while neonatal cord serum 25(OH)D at birth. Read More

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The relationship between internal migration and the likelihood of high-risk pregnancy: Hukou system and high-risk pregnancies in China.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jul 15;21(1):509. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Suite 425, Toronto, ON, M5T 3M6, Canada.

Background: China has one of the world's largest internal migrant populations. The Chinese Hukou system is a unique household registration system that limits internal migrants in their access to basic urban public services, such as public health insurance and social assistance of their host city. In the case of female internal migrants, this may lead to high-risk pregnancies. Read More

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The Edinburgh Lifetime Musical Experience Questionnaire (ELMEQ): Responses and non-musical correlates in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(7):e0254176. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Reid School of Music, Edinburgh College of Art, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

There is growing evidence of the potential effects of musical training on the human brain, as well as increasing interest in the potential contribution of musical experience to healthy ageing. Conducting research on these topics with older adults requires a comprehensive assessment of musical experience across the lifespan, as well as an understanding of which variables might correlate with musical training and experience (such as personality traits or years of education). The present study introduces a short questionnaire for assessing lifetime musical training and experience in older populations: the Edinburgh Lifetime Musical Experience Questionnaire (ELMEQ). Read More

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The effect of early probiotic exposure on the preterm infant gut microbiome development.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1951113

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Premature birth, especially if born before week 32 of gestation, is associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic use of probiotics has been suggested to protect preterm infants via supporting a healthy gut microbiota (GM) development, but the suggested strains and doses vary between studies. In this study, we profiled the GM of 5, 10 and 30-day fecal samples from two cohorts of preterm neonates (born <30 weeks of gestation) recruited in the same neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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Effectiveness of multimodal nutrition interventions during pregnancy to achieve 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight gain guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):1178-1196

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal & Child Health Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China.

Background: In 2009, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a revision to its 1990 recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG). The objective of this review is to update a previous systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in achieving recommended GWG.

Methods: We conducted updated literature searches in MEDLINE (2012 through 2019), Web of Science (2012 to 6 February 2017), Embase (2016 through 2019), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2012 through 2019). Read More

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December 2021

momHealth: A Feasibility Study of a Multibehavioral Health Intervention for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescent Mothers.

Kans J Med 2021 9;14:176-181. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Introduction: In 2016, 209,809 babies were born to mothers 15 - 19 years of age, for a live birth rate of 20.3 per 1,000 in this age group. Many health issues surround adolescent mothers and their infants, many of which can be addressed through behavioral change. Read More

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Neonatal Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis Mediated by Breast Milk-Borne Maternal IgA.

JAMA Dermatol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Importance: Neonatal linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare disease that can be fatal when associated with respiratory failure. All previously reported cases of neonatal LABD have been in newborns with healthy asymptomatic mothers, and the pathogenic IgA was of unknown origin.

Objective: To clarify the origin of IgA associated with LABD in neonates born of healthy asymptomatic mothers. Read More

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Gut microbiota absence and transplantation affect growth and intestinal functions: An investigation in a germ-free pig model.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 22;7(2):295-304. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

This study was conducted to investigate host-microbiota interactions and explore the effects of maternal gut microbiota transplantation on the growth and intestinal functions of newborns in a germ-free (GF) pig model. Twelve hysterectomy-derived GF Bama piglets were reared in 6 sterile isolators. Among them, 6 were considered as the GF group, and the other 6 were orally inoculated with healthy sow fecal suspension as fecal microbiota transplanted (FMT) group. Read More

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Edema associated with low plasma protein level and any gestational hypertension as warning signs of HELLP syndrome.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jul 13:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jean Verdier Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Bondy, France.

Because preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder, its definition has recently been revised, including cases with evidence of renal, liver, neurological, or hematological dysfunction. However, the role of edema remains unclear. While the presence of mild edema is common in normal pregnancy, in severe preeclampsia protein transfer from the vascular into the interstitial compartment could lead to low serum protein level and favor the transport of fluid to the interstitial compartment. Read More

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It Is Time to Abandon the Dogma That Brain Death Is Biological Death.

Hastings Cent Rep 2021 Jul;51(4):18-21

Drawing on a recent case report of a pregnant, brain-dead woman who gave birth to a healthy child after over seven months of intensive care treatment, this essay rejects the established doctrine in medicine that brain death constitutes the biological death of the human being. The essay describes three policy options with respect to determination of death and vital organ transplantation in the case of patients who are irreversibly comatose but remain biologically alive. Read More

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Immature Platelet Counts and Thrombopoietin Plasma Concentrations in Thrombocytopenic and Non-thrombocytopenic Preterm Infants.

Front Pediatr 2021 25;9:685643. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Neonatology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Immature platelet counts (IPC) may prove useful in guiding platelet transfusion management in preterm neonates. However, the relationship between IPCs and thrombopoietin (Tpo) concentrations has not been evaluated in preterm neonates. Prospective cohort study in thrombocytopenic ( = 31) and non-thrombocytopenic very low birth weight (VLBW) infants ( = 38), and healthy term neonates (controls; = 41). Read More

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