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Biomaterials for Human Space Exploration: A Review of Their Untapped Potential.

Acta Biomater 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

100 Year Starship, Houston TX, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Henry Samueli School of Engineering, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA. Electronic address:

As biomaterial advances make headway into lightweight radiation protection, wound healing dressings, and microbe resistant surfaces, a relevance to human space exploration manifests itself. To address the needs of the human in space, a knowledge of the space environment becomes necessary. Both an understanding of the environment itself and an understanding of the physiological adaptations to that environment must inform design parameters. Read More

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The insulin-like growth factors: ligands, binding proteins and receptors.

Mol Metab 2021 May 4:101245. Epub 2021 May 4.

The insulin-like growth factor family of ligands (IGF-I, IGF-II and insulin), receptors (IGF-IR, M6P/IGF-IIR and the insulin receptor, IR) as well as the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1-6) play critical roles in normal human physiology and disease states. Insulin and the insulin receptors are the focus of other chapters in this series and will therefore not be discussed further. IGF-I has effects via the circulation and locally within tissues to regulate cellular growth, differentiation and survival thereby controlling overall body growth. Read More

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A survey of the mouse hindbrain in the fed and fasted state using single-nucleus RNA sequencing.

Mol Metab 2021 May 4:101240. Epub 2021 May 4.

MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitaris (NTS), located in the hindbrain, are key nuclei that sense and integrate peripheral nutritional signals and, consequently, regulate feeding behaviour. While single cell transcriptomics have been used in mice to reveal the gene expression profile and heterogeneity of key hypothalamic populations, similar in-depth studies have not yet been performed in the hindbrain.

Methods: Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we provide a detailed survey of 16,034 cells within the AP and NTS of the mouse, in the fed and fasted state. Read More

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The Risks and Benefits of Myopia Control.

Ophthalmology 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Children's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: The prevalence of myopia is increasing around the world, stimulating interest in methods to slow its progression. The primary justification for slowing myopia progression is to reduce the risk of vision loss through sight-threatening ocular pathology in later life. The paper analyzes whether the potential benefits of slowing myopia progression by one diopter justify the potential risks associated with treatments. Read More

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Theranostic AGuIX nanoparticles as radiosensitizer: A phase I, dose-escalation study in patients with multiple brain metastases (NANO-RAD trial).

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Radiotherapy Department, Grenoble Alps University Hospital, Grenoble, France.

Background And Purpose: Brain metastasis impacts greatly on patients' quality of life and survival. The phase I NANO-RAD trial assessed the safety and maximum tolerated dose of systemic administration of a novel gadolinium-based nanoparticle, AGuIX, in combination with whole brain radiotherapy in patients with multiple brain metastases not suitable for stereotactic radiotherapy.

Materials And Methods: Patients with measurable brain metastases received escalating doses of AGuIX nanoparticles (15, 30, 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg intravenously) on the day of initiation of WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions) in 5 cohorts of 3 patients each. Read More

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Regulatory T-cells and transplantation tolerance: Emerging from the darkness?

Herman Waldmann

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX13RE, UK.

The field of tissue transplantation has revolutionised the treatment of patients with failing organs. Its success, thus far, has depended on combinations of immunosuppressive drugs that damp host immunity, whilst also imposing numerous unwanted side effects. There is a longstanding recognition that better treatment outcomes, will come from replacing these drugs, fully or in part, by taking advantage of tractable physiological mechanisms of self-tolerance. Read More

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Detection of cancer metastasis: past, present and future.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

The clinical importance of metastatic spread of cancer has been recognized for centuries, and melanoma has loomed large in historical descriptions of metastases, as well as the numerous mechanistic theories espoused. The "fatal black tumor" described by Hippocrates in 5000 BC that was later termed "melanose" by Rene Laennec in 1804 was recognized to have the propensity to metastasize by William Norris in 1820. And while the prognosis of melanoma was uniformly acknowledged to be dire, Samuel Cooper described surgical removal as having the potential to improve prognosis. Read More

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Current management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Morsani School of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

The management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases has undergone dramatic changes over the last decade. In the past, the standard of care for patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was a completion lymph node dissection (CLND), while patients with palpable macroscopic nodal disease underwent a therapeutic lymphadenectomy in cases with no evidence of systemic spread. However, studies have shown that SLN metastases present as a spectrum of disease, with certain SLN-based factors being prognostic of and correlated with outcomes. Read More

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Persistent effects of pair bonding in lung cancer cell growth in monogamous .

Elife 2021 May 7;10. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, United States.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that social interactions and especially bonding between couples influence tumorigenesis, yet whether this is due to lifestyle changes, homogamy (likelihood of individuals to marry people of similar health), or directly associated with host-induced effects in tumors remains debatable. In the present study, we explored if tumorigenesis is associated with the bonding experience in monogamous rodents at which disruption of pair bonds is linked to anxiety and stress. Comparison of lung cancer cell spheroids that formed in the presence of sera from bonded and bond-disrupted deer mice showed that in monogamous and , but not in polygamous , the disruption of pair bonds altered the size and morphology of spheroids in a manner that is consistent with the acquisition of increased oncogenic potential. Read More

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Pediatric Cushing syndrome: An early sign of an underling cancer predisposition syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a genetic overgrowth and cancer predisposition syndrome that can be associated with a spectrum of clinical features including isolated lateralized overgrowth, macrosomia, macroglossia, organomegaly, omphalocele/umbilical hernia, and distinct facial features. Because of a range of clinical presentations and molecular defects involving Chromosome 11p15, many cases will fall within what is now being defined as the Beckwith-Wiedemann spectrum (BWSp). Cushing syndrome (CS) in infants is a rare neuroendocrinological disease associated with hypercortisolism that has rarely been reported in patients with BWS. Read More

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[The cell technologies in modification of mesh materials used in urology].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):94-99

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Based on the literary analysis, the influence of cellular technologies on the results of implantation of mesh materials was studied. The scientific literature of recent years contains a large amount of data devoted to the study of mesh structures and the possibilities of their modification using multipotent stromal cells (MSC) for implantation into patients for correcting tissue defects and pelvic organ prolapse. However, the ideal implant has not yet been created. Read More

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[Features of surgical treatment of urinary incontinence in women with urethral destruction].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):86-89

Novosibirsk Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics n.a. Ya.L. Tsivyan, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Urethral destruction in women is a rare pathology which is result of traumatic damage of the urethra during pelvic fractures, sexual trauma, iatrogenic effects (operative vaginal delivery, prolonged catheterization of the bladder, complicated surgical interventions on the urethra, etc.). The main symptom of urethral destruction is involuntary urinary incontinence. Read More

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A phase I open label dose-escalation study to evaluate the tolerability, safety and immunological efficacy of sub-urothelial durvalumab injection in adults with muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (SUBDUE-1, SUB-urothelial DUrvalumab injection-1 study): clinical trial protocol.

BJU Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Western Australia (UWA) Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Objectives: This article presents the clinical trial protocol for a phase I open label dose-escalation study to evaluate the tolerability, safety and immunological efficacy of sub-urothelial durvalumab injection in adults with muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), the SUB-urothelial DUrvalumab injection-1 study (SUBDUE-1). The primary objectives of this study are to assess the safety of sub-urothelial injection of durvalumab using patient reported outcome measures and observed local or systemic adverse events. The secondary objectives are to examine the local immunological efficacy of sub-urothelial administration of durvalumab. Read More

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Multidisciplinary practice guidelines for the diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic/parasympathetic neural ganglia, respectively. The heterogeneity in its etiology makes PPGL diagnosis and treatment very complex. The aim of this article was to provide practical clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PPGLs from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the involvement of the Spanish Societies of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN), Medical Oncology (SEOM), Medical Radiology (SERAM), Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM), Otorhinolaryngology (SEORL), Pathology (SEAP), Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Surgery (AEC) and the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO). Read More

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Fracture of ossified Achilles tendons: A review of cases.

World J Orthop 2021 Apr 18;12(4):207-213. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.

Fracture of an ossification of the Achilles tendon (OAT) is a rare entity, and its etiology, pathology, and treatment remain unclear. We reviewed and scrutinized 18 cases (16 articles) of the fracture of an OAT. The most common etiologies of the ossifications include previous surgery and trauma. Read More

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An unusual case of aggressive malignant spread of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.

Rare Tumors 2021 20;13:20363613211010858. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular neoplasm which typically originates from liver, lung, or bone. Due to the low incidence of disease, the most effective treatment is not easily studied and much of the information known about EHE has been learned through case reports and case series. In this case, we will present an uncommon form of primary soft tissue EHE with local recurrence, bone metastasis, and lymphangitic spread to the lungs leading to respiratory failure. Read More

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Stem cell therapy for heart failure: Medical breakthrough, or dead end?

World J Stem Cells 2021 Apr;13(4):236-259

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Health Sciences North, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury P3E 3Y9, Ontario, Canada.

Heart failure continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the primary causative agent of chronic heart failure resulting in cardiomyocyte necrosis and the subsequent formation of fibrotic scar tissue. Current pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies focus on managing symptoms of heart failure yet remain unable to reverse the underlying pathology. Read More

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Paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) nonpolyalanine repeat expansion mutations (NPARMs): genotype-phenotype correlation in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS).

Genet Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Autonomic Medicine, Center for Autonomic Medicine in Pediatrics (CAMP), Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and Stanley Manne Children's Research Institute, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: CCHS is an extremely rare congenital disorder requiring artificial ventilation as life support. Typically caused by heterozygous polyalanine repeat expansion mutations (PARMs) in the PHOX2B gene, identification of a relationship between PARM length and phenotype severity has enabled anticipatory management. However, for patients with non-PARMs in PHOX2B (NPARMs, ~10% of CCHS patients), a genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established. Read More

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Tumor reversion: a dream or a reality.

Biomark Res 2021 May 6;9(1):31. Epub 2021 May 6.

Amity Stem Cell Institute, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, Panchgaon, Haryana, Manesar (Gurugram), -122413, India.

Reversion of tumor to a normal differentiated cell once considered a dream is now at the brink of becoming a reality. Different layers of molecules/events such as microRNAs, transcription factors, alternative RNA splicing, post-transcriptional, post-translational modifications, availability of proteomics, genomics editing tools, and chemical biology approaches gave hope to manipulation of cancer cells reversion to a normal cell phenotype as evidences are subtle but definitive. Regardless of the advancement, there is a long way to go, as customized techniques are required to be fine-tuned with precision to attain more insights into tumor reversion. Read More

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Profiling non-small cell lung cancer reveals that PD-L1 is associated with wild type EGFR and vascular invasion, and immunohistochemistry quantification of PD-L1 correlates weakly with RT-qPCR.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251080. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, limiting their treatment options with very low response rate. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Therapies that target driver gene mutations (e. Read More

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Domain adaptation and self-supervised learning for surgical margin detection.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Computing, Queen's University, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: One in five women who undergo breast conserving surgery will need a second revision surgery due to remaining tumor. The iKnife is a mass spectrometry modality that produces real-time margin information based on the metabolite signatures in surgical smoke. Using this modality and real-time tissue classification, surgeons could remove all cancerous tissue during the initial surgery, improving many facets of patient outcomes. Read More

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Influence of Stress, Gender, and Minority Status on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Hispanic/Latino Community: Protocol for a Longitudinal Observational Cohort Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 6;10(5):e28997. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Background: Hispanic/Latino sexual and gender minorities (SGM) are the fastest growing ethnic group of SGM in the United States. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics/Latinos. SGM inequities in CVD risk have been identified as early as young adulthood, and minority stress has been identified as a potential mediator. Read More

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Clinical report of a Holstein's calf with ichthyosis.

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(1):133-135. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Congenital ichthyosis is a disease associated with hair loss and the presence of horny plates in the epidermis, covering the whole skin. The leading cause of the disease in humans and animals is genetic disorders, and they can be found in mild and severe forms. In June 2015, a newly born calf of the Holstein breed was referred to the Livestock Veterinary Hospital internal ward, Shabestar, Iran. Read More

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Increased miR-188-3p in Ovarian Granulosa Cells of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 15;2021:5587412. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

MicroRNA-target networks are often dysregulated in diseases. Our purpose is to investigate this dysregulation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Through the bioinformatics reanalysis of the public RNAseq dataset, we found that miR-188-3p was the miRNA with the highest induction rate, and indicated that miR-188-3p might have a rare function of upregulating its targeted expression. Read More

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Role of ILC2 in Viral-Induced Lung Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:675169. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Innate lymphoid type-2 cells (ILC2) are a population of innate cells of lymphoid origin that are known to drive strong Type 2 immunity. ILC2 play a key role in lung homeostasis, repair/remodeling of lung structures following injury, and initiation of inflammation as well as more complex roles during the immune response, including the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Remarkably, dysregulation of this single population has been linked with chronic lung pathologies, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrotic diseases (IPF). Read More

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Differential accumulation of tau pathology between reciprocal F1 hybrids of rTg4510 mice.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9623. Epub 2021 May 5.

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, 520-2192, Japan.

Tau, a family of microtubule-associated proteins, forms abnormal intracellular inclusions, so-called tau pathology, in a range of neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as tauopathies. The rTg4510 mouse model is a well-characterized bitransgenic F1 hybrid mouse model of tauopathy, which was obtained by crossing a Camk2α-tTA mouse line (on a C57BL/6 J background) with a tetO-MAPT*P301L mouse line (on a FVB/NJ background). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the genetic background and sex on the accumulation of tau pathology in reciprocal F1 hybrids of rTg4510 mice, i. Read More

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Development of a mini-replicon-based reverse-genetics system for rice stripe tenuivirus.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China.

Negative-stranded RNA (NSR) viruses include both animal- and plant-infecting viruses that often cause serious diseases in human and livestock, and in agronomic crops. Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), a plant NSR virus with four negative-stranded/ambisense RNA segments, is one of the most destructive rice pathogens in many Asian countries. Due to the lack of a reliable reverse-genetics technology, molecular studies of RSV gene functions and its interaction with host plants are severely hampered. Read More

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International consensus to standardise histopathological scoring for small bowel strictures in Crohn's disease.

Gut 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Objective: Effective medical therapy and validated trial outcomes are lacking for small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) strictures. Histopathology of surgically resected specimens is the gold standard for correlation with imaging techniques. However, no validated histopathological scoring systems are currently available for small bowel stricturing disease. Read More

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Clinical outcomes associated with prostate cancer conspicuity on biparametric and multiparametric MRI: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy.

BMJ Open 2021 May 5;11(5):e047664. Epub 2021 May 5.

UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK

Introduction: There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that visibility of prostate cancer on magnetic resonance (MRI) may be related to likelihood of adverse pathological outcomes. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy remains a significant clinical challenge and a means of predicting likelihood of this prior to surgery could inform treatment choice. It appears that MRI could be a potential candidate strategy for BCR prediction, and as such, there is a need to review extant literature on the prognostic capability of MRI. Read More

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Survival in borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer is determined by the duration and response of neoadjuvant therapy.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Australian Pancreatic Centre, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Upper Gastrointestinal Surgical Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Pancreatic cancer is the 8th commonest cancer and the 5th commonest cause of cancer-related death in Australia, with a 9% average 5-year survival. This study aims to investigate the effects of neoadjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic adenocarcinoma followed by curative resection.

Materials And Methods: Prospectively-collected demographic, medical, surgical and pathological data of patients with BRPC and LAPC treated with both neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) and surgery at a single tertiary referral centre in Australia were reviewed and analysed. Read More

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