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Sarcoidosis and neuromyelitis optica in a patient with optic neuritis - a case report.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Neuroinflammation, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

We present a case of atypical recurrent optic neuritis. A man in his 50s presented with right optic neuritis and profound visual loss, associated with elevated inflammatory markers. Lymph-node biopsy was consistent with sarcoidosis. Read More

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[Redo surgery of carotid arteries in patients with contraindications to carotid angioplasty and stenting].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2021 ;27(2):92-98

Kemerovo State Medical University of the RF Ministry of Public Health, Kemerovo, Russia.

Aim: The study was aimed at analysing the in-hospital results of carotid re-endarterectomy and plasty of the zone of reconstruction with a biological patch in patients with haemodynamically significant restenosis and contraindications to carotid angioplasty with stenting.

Patients And Methods: During the period from 2008 to 2019, we operated on a total of 22 patients presenting with carotid restenosis and found to have contraindications to carotid angioplasty with stenting (an extended lesion, unstable neointima, calcification, pronounced tortuosity). Carotid re-endarterectomy was performed according to the classical technique. Read More

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January 2021

Vignettes to Illustrate the Value of Tumor Biobanks in Cancer Research in Canada.

Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Office of Biobank Education and Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Tumor biobanks are a common research infrastructure. As a collection of biospecimens and annotated data collected to support a multitude of research projects, biobanks facilitate access to materials that are the critical fuel for the generation of data in up to 40% of cancer research publications. However, quantifying how to measure biobanks' impact and their value on the field of cancer research discoveries and findings, has not been well elucidated. Read More

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induces maize-derived ethylene to promote virulence by engaging fungal G-protein signaling.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Texas A&M University System, 2655, Plant Pathology and Microbiology, College Station, Texas, United States;

Seed maceration and contamination with mycotoxin fumonisin inflicted by is major disease of concern for maize producers world-wide. Meta-analyses of QTL for ear rot resistance uncovered several ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and signaling genes within them, implicating ET in maize interactions with . We tested this hypothesis using maize knock-out mutants of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthases, and . Read More

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Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured by the Advise Dx SARS-CoV-2 assay are concordant with previously available serologic assays but are not fully predictive of sterilizing immunity.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jun 24:JCM0098921. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA.

With the availability of widespread SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, high-throughput quantitative anti-spike serological testing will likely become increasingly important. Here, we investigated the performance characteristics of the recently FDA authorized semi-quantitative anti-spike AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay compared to the FDA authorized anti-nucleocapsid Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Roche elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S, EuroImmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA, and GenScript surrogate virus neutralization assays and examined the humoral response associated with vaccination, natural protection, and breakthrough infection. The AdviseDx assay had a clinical sensitivity at 14 days post-symptom onset or 10 days post PCR detection of 95. Read More

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The College of American Pathologists Foundation's See, Test & Treat Program®: an Evaluation of a One-Day Cancer Screening Program Implemented in Mississippi.

J Cancer Educ 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

Women in Mississippi experience significant barriers to healthcare that results in high incidence rates of late-stage breast, cervical, and oropharyngeal cancer. We implemented See, Test, & Treat, a cancer screening and education program, that was aimed at increasing access to cancer screening for underserved women in the Jackson Metropolitan Area. During the event, 103 women between the ages of 21 and 69 years old received breast, cervical, and/or oral cancer screenings. Read More

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Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19: A Graphical Mosaic of the Worldwide Evidence.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 7;8:684151. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Convalescent plasma has been used worldwide to treat patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevent disease progression. Despite global usage, uncertainty remains regarding plasma efficacy, as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have provided divergent evidence regarding the survival benefit of convalescent plasma. Here, we argue that during a global health emergency, the mosaic of evidence originating from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy should inform contemporary policy and healthcare decisions. Read More

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Combination of immunotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer.

Rafal Suwinski

J Thorac Dis 2021 May;13(5):3315-3322

Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Clinic and Teaching Hospital, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Gliwice, Poland.

It was commonly assumed in the past that blood-brain barrier could efficiently prohibit penetration of large peptide molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, including programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. This belief has been recently revised by studies that demonstrate the presence of functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. Furthermore, the activated circulating T cells have been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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Pilot study using virtual 4-D tracking electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules: a single center prospective study.

J Thorac Dis 2021 May;13(5):2885-2895

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a navigation technology intended to improve the diagnostic yield of pulmonary nodules. However, nodule displacement due to respiratory motion may compromise the accuracy of the navigation guidance. The Veran SPiNDrive ENB system employs respiratory-gating (4D-tracking) to compensate for this motion. Read More

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Oral complaints in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gerodontology and Oral Pathology Poznan University of Medical Sciences Bukowska 70, 60-812 Poznań, Poland

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia belongs to proliferative diseases of the hematopoietic system. It is currently the leading indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study was designed to determine the most common subjective oral mucosa complaints in patients with acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, in relation to the type of conditioning used. Read More

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Pathology Residency Curriculum: Time for a Change?

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2021 May;51(3):434-440

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA

The current Anatomical and Clinical Pathology residency curriculum, as outlined by the American Board of Pathology (ABP), emphasizes resident exposure to a wide variety of subjects without in-depth training. This has led to a large number of residents pursuing fellowship training. With the demand for further sub-specialization, there is a necessity for the establishment of an updated curriculum that not only encompasses the basic knowledge of pathology but is also focused on training residents in their desired subspecialty. Read More

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Carbamazepine protects the endometrium against negative effects of estrogen in rats.

Biotech Histochem 2021 Jun 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Physiology, Adıyaman University Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman, Turkey.

Carbamazepine (CMZ) increases estrogen metabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4). We investigated whether CMZ is protective against endometrial hyperplasia (EH). We used 32 female Wistar albino rats divided into four equal groups: the control group received drinking water, the estradiol valerate (EV) group was given EV, the CMZ group was given CMZ, and the EV + CMZ group was given both EV and CMZ. Read More

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Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound using guide sheath-guided transbronchial lung biopsy in peripheral pulmonary lesions without fluoroscopy.

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Division of Pulmonology and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University and Respiratory Center, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea.

Background: : Radial probe endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial lung biopsy (RP-EBUS-TBLB) has improved the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopic biopsy of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). The diagnostic yield and complications of RP-EBUS-TBLB for PPLs vary depending on the technique, such as using a guide sheath (GS) or fluoroscopy. We investigated the utility of RP-EBUS-TBLB using a GS without fluoroscopy for diagnosing PPLs. Read More

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Acquired Resistance to KRAS Inhibition in Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun;384(25):2382-2393

From Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (M.M.A., S.L., J.D., J.O.J., K.E.L., H.F., K.M.H., B.M.W., P.A.J., A.J.A.), Massachusetts General Hospital (R.S.H., Y.P.H.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (L.M.S., A.J.A.), Boston, and Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (S.L., X.Y., N.S.P., D.E.R., K.M.H., A.J.A.) and Foundation Medicine (J.L., A.B.S.), Cambridge - all in Massachusetts; Henry Ford Cancer Institute, Detroit (I.I.R.); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (K.C.A., G.J.R., P.L.); Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, Orange (V.W.Z., S.S.Z., S.-H.I.O.), Boundless Bio, La Jolla (J.W., J.C.), and Mirati Therapeutics, San Diego (L.D.E., L.W., J.D.L., P.O., J.G.C.) - all in California; Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Tennessee Oncology/OneOncology, Nashville (M.L.J.); the University of Colorado, Aurora (T.P.); and Resolution Bioscience, Kirkland, WA (L.P.L., K.G., M.L.).

Background: Clinical trials of the KRAS inhibitors adagrasib and sotorasib have shown promising activity in cancers harboring KRAS glycine-to-cysteine amino acid substitutions at codon 12 (KRAS). The mechanisms of acquired resistance to these therapies are currently unknown.

Methods: Among patients with -mutant cancers treated with adagrasib monotherapy, we performed genomic and histologic analyses that compared pretreatment samples with those obtained after the development of resistance. Read More

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The Evaluation of the Containment Efficacy of Semi-Rigid Isolators for Housing Cages of Laboratory Animals Infected With BSL-3 Agents.

ILAR J 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Research animals models infected with Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) agents need to be housed in specialized biocontainment caging. Most of these specialized cages have input and exhaust that is high efficiency particulate air filtered and sealed to prevent escape of the BSL-3 agent. An alternative to the use of the above BSL-3 biocontainment caging is the use of a flexible film or modified semi-rigid plastic film isolator that has its own high efficiency particulate air-filtered input and exhaust and is sealed with respect to the animal room environment, thus preventing BSL-3 agent escape. Read More

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Post-mortem CT lung findings at a medicolegal institute in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive cases with autopsy correlation.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Forensic Pathology, Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Southbank, Australia.

CoVID-19 is a novel viral infection with now well-established clinical radiological findings. There is limited data on post-mortem imaging. We explore the proposition that PMCT could be used as screening test. Read More

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The immunopathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, NE 68198, USA.

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can lead to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Virus-specific immunity controls infection, transmission, and disease severity. With respect to disease severity, a spectrum of clinical outcomes can occur on the basis of the age, genetics, comorbidities, and immune responses in an infected person. Read More

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Replication-dependent biogenesis of turnip crinkle virus long noncoding RNAs.

J Virol 2021 Jun 23:JVI0016921. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Plant Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of virus origin accumulate in cells infected by many positive strand (+) RNA viruses to bolster viral infectivity. Their biogenesis mostly utilizes exoribonucleases of host cells that degrade viral genomic or subgenomic RNAs in the 5'-to-3' direction until being stalled by well-defined RNA structures. Here we report a viral lncRNA that is produced by a novel replication-dependent mechanism. Read More

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Rhinovirus Reduces the Severity of Subsequent Respiratory Viral Infections by Interferon-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

mSphere 2021 Jun 23:e0047921. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute for Modeling Collaboration and Innovation, University of Idahogrid.266456.5, Moscow, Idaho, USA.

Coinfection by heterologous viruses in the respiratory tract is common and can alter disease severity compared to infection by individual virus strains. We previously found that inoculation of mice with rhinovirus (RV) 2 days before inoculation with a lethal dose of influenza A virus [A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8)] provides complete protection against mortality. Here, we extended that finding to a second lethal respiratory virus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and analyzed potential mechanisms of RV-induced protection. Read More

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CRISPR/Cas9-engineered Drosophila knock-in models to study VCP diseases.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Louisiana State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Valosin containing protein (VCP) is a hexameric type II AAA ATPase required for several cellular processes including ER-associated degradation, organelle biogenesis, autophagy and membrane fusion. VCP contains three domains: a regulatory N-terminal domain and two ATPase domains (D1 and D2). Mutations in the N-terminal and D1 domains are associated with several degenerative diseases, including Multisystem Proteinopathy (MSP-1) and ALS. Read More

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Indicators Differentiating Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura From Other Thrombotic Microangiopathies in a Canadian Apheresis Referral Center.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objectives: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) caused by ADAMTS13 deficiency with mortality of up to 90% in the absence of treatment, typically therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). TTP presents similarly to other TMAs in which TPE is ineffective and associated with morbidity and additional costs. Thus, we sought to assess clinical and laboratory parameters differentiating TTP from other TMAs in our institution's catchment population. Read More

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Selective intra-carotid blood cooling in acute ischemic stroke: A safety and feasibility study in an ovine stroke model.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 23:271678X211024952. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neuroradiology, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Selective therapeutic hypothermia (TH) showed promising preclinical results as a neuroprotective strategy in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to assess safety and feasibility of an intracarotid cooling catheter conceived for fast and selective brain cooling during endovascular thrombectomy in an ovine stroke model.Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 3 h) was performed in 20 sheep. Read More

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The selective use of preoperative MRI in the staging of breast cancer: a single-institution experience.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Radiology, Counties Manukau District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.

Introduction: Routine use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for loco-regional staging of breast cancer remains controversial. At Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB), preoperative breast MRI is used selectively within a multidisciplinary setting. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of selective use of preoperative MRI in staging loco-regional disease and how it has impacted our clinical practice. Read More

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Bronchoscopic interventions for plastic bronchitis in children without structural heart disease.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Pulmonology, Allergy/Immunology, Cystic Fibrosis and Sleep (PACS), Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare and life-threatening complication encountered in several disease states that leads to airway obstruction by branching casts. PB is most often reported in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease where recurrence is common, and mortality is high. There is limited data on optimal management strategies or recurrence of non-structural heart disease-related PB in children. Read More

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Distribution of and in cage protection environments for the conservation of Japanese rock ptarmigans () in the Japanese Alps.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 20;15:225-230. Epub 2021 May 20.

Academy of Emerging Sciences, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501, Japan.

Japanese rock ptarmigans, , are classified as an endangered species in Japan and are found only in the Japanese Alps. The number of birds has decreased in the last half century and cage protection projects have been undertaken as conservation strategies (one of the projects for the recovery plan of Japanese rock ptarmigan) in the mountains. During the period with cage protections, some chicks died and two spp. Read More

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"Omental Cake" in a Patient With Asbestosis Leading to the Diagnosis of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Cureus 2021 May 19;13(5):e15116. Epub 2021 May 19.

Digestive Diseases, Hospital Universitario de Jerez de la Frontera, Jerez de la Frontera, ESP.

We report a case of a 68-year-old man with medical history of pleural asbestosis and diagnosed with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. This neoplasm is rare, has a poor prognosis, and is associated with asbestosis in many cases. It manifests clinically insidiously and in relation to the intra-abdominal locoregional effect. Read More

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Light Chain Deposition Disease Diagnosed Using Computed Tomography-Guided Kidney Biopsy.

Cureus 2021 May 18;13(5):e15102. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Radiology, Teine Keijinkai Medical Center, Sapporo, JPN.

Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in the kidney, which can cause end-stage kidney disease if not treated. While kidney biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis, choosing an appropriate biopsy method may be problematic when examining patients with atrophic kidneys. A 66-year-old Japanese man was referred to our institution with a three-month history of leg edema. Read More

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Greater trochanteric pain syndrome: Evaluation and management of a wide spectrum of pathology.

SAGE Open Med 2021 3;9:20503121211022582. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common cause of lateral hip pain, encompassing a spectrum of disorders, including trochanteric bursitis, abductor tendon pathology, and external coxa saltans. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is primarily a clinical diagnosis, and careful clinical examination is essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment. A thorough history and physical exam may be used to help differentiate greater trochanteric pain syndrome from other common causes of hip pain, including osteoarthritis, femoroacetabular impingement, and lumbar stenosis. Read More

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Dysphagia Severity and Outcomes Following Iatrogenic High Vagal Nerve Injury.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Jun 22:34894211026991. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Loma Linda Voice and Swallowing Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Loma Linda University Health System, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Objective: To examine severity of dysphagia and outcomes following iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients with iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury that were seen at a tertiary referral center from 2012 to 2020.

Results: Of 1304 patients who met criteria for initial screening, 18 met all inclusion criteria. Read More

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A review of experimental models of focal cerebral ischemia focusing on the middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

F1000Res 2021 26;10:242. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Cerebral ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, but current pharmacological therapies are limited in their utility and effectiveness. and models of ischemic stroke have been developed which allow us to further elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of injury and investigate potential drug targets. models permit mechanistic investigation of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of injury but are reductionist and do not mimic the complexity of clinical stroke. Read More

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