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CD163 macrophages suppress T cell response by producing TGF-β in pediatric colorectal polyps.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;96:107644. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:

The local immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma. Patients with colorectal polyps are at increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, the immunoregulation of early-stage colorectal polyps remain unknown. Read More

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Tricky diagnosis and robot-laparoscopic surgical approach of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To show the challenging diagnosis and safe robotic surgical approach of a rare case of disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL).

Design: A clinical case shown by a sequential demonstration of investigation, diagnosis and surgical approach, with narrated video footage.

Setting: DPL is a rare disease, with just over 150 cases reported in literature. Read More

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Altered CD4+ T cell and cytokine levels in peripheral blood and skin samples from systemic sclerosis patients and IL35 in CD4+ T cell growth.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.

Objective: This study explored the role of IL-35 in CD4+ T lymphocyte and skin fibroblast (HSF) activity and cytokine levels in systemic sclerosis.

Methods: Blood and skin biopsies were collected from 41 patients and 39 healthy controls to assess CD4+ T lymphocytes and IL-35-related factors. CD4+ T lymphocytes were co-cultured with HSFs, rhIL-35, and IL-35 mAb to evaluate the cell viability, activation of CD4+T lymphocytes, and HSF cells. Read More

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A deep learning model to detect pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8454. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, 830-0011, Japan.

Histopathological diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) specimens has become the mainstay of preoperative pathological diagnosis. However, on EUS-FNB specimens, accurate histopathological evaluation is difficult due to low specimen volume with isolated cancer cells and high contamination of blood, inflammatory and digestive tract cells. In this study, we performed annotations for training sets by expert pancreatic pathologists and trained a deep learning model to assess PDAC on EUS-FNB of the pancreas in histopathological whole-slide images. Read More

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Systemic light-chain amyloidosis incidentally diagnosed after subtotal parathyroidectomy and thyroid lobectomy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 19;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California, USA.

A 74-year-old woman with a history of primary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid nodules, atrial fibrillation and pacemaker placement for sick sinus syndrome presented with fatigue, constipation and persistent lower extremity oedema. She underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy and left thyroid lobectomy. Histopathology revealed amyloidosis affecting the thyroidand parathyroids confirmed by Congo Red Staining with Mayo Clinic subtyping of light chain kappa-type amyloidosis. Read More

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Imaging urothelial bladder cancer: A VPAC PET targeted approach.

Can J Urol 2021 Apr;28(2):10596-10602

Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

INTRODUCTION Accurate staging of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) with imaging, which guides effective bladder cancer treatment, remains challenging. This investigation is to validate a hypothesis that targeting Vasoactive intestinal and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (VPAC) receptors using ⁶⁴Cu-TP3805 can PET image UBC efficiently.

Materials And Methods: Nineteen patients (44-84 years of age) scheduled for radical cystectomy, underwent VPAC positron emission tomography (PET) imaging prior to surgery. Read More

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Association between erythema nodosum/ erythema induratum of Bazin and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Koreans.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Mar 2:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Dermatology Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Erythema nodosum and erythema induratum of Bazin are similar inflammatory diseases of the lower extremities. These are clinically distinguishable entities, though overlap can occur. Both diseases are reported to be related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but it is very difficult to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis in skin lesions. Read More

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Paucity of data evaluating patient centred outcomes following sentinel lymph node dissection in endometrial cancer: A systematic review.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 1;36:100763. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre of Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is presently used by the majority of gynaecologic oncologists for surgical staging of endometrial cancer. SLND assimilated into routine surgical practice because it increases precision of surgical staging and may reduce morbidity compared to a full, systematic LND. Previous research focussed on the accuracy of SLND. Read More

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Clinical and Pathologic Presentation of Primary Ocular Surface Tumors among Zambians.

Ocul Oncol Pathol 2021 Mar 21;7(2):108-120. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Nebraska Center for Virology and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Aim: This study aimed to characterize the clinical and pathologic presentation of ocular surface tumors (OSTs) and to more precisely differentiate the grades of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and benign lesions among Zambians.

Methods: Two-hundred sixty-five Zambian patients presenting with ocular surface growths, suspicious for OSSN, were recruited between November 2017 and November 2019 to a cross-sectional study to investigate their lesions. Sociodemographic data were collected, HIV infection status and vision tests were performed, and lesions were measured and documented. Read More

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The frequency of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes and celiac disease among the first-degree relatives of patients with celiac disease.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(1):36-43

Digestive Disease Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: We evaluated the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes as well as celiac disease (CD) among the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CD patients, compared with healthy controls, and compared the HLA typing with serologic tests in this population.

Background: Until now, no study has examined the frequency of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes among the FDRs of Iranian patients with CD.

Methods: In the current case-control study, 100 FDRs of CD patients and 151 healthy controls were included. Read More

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January 2021

PMMA-Based Continuous Hemofiltration Modulated Complement Activation and Renal Dysfunction in LPS-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:605212. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Science, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in critically ill patients, refractory to conventional treatments. Aberrant activation of innate immune system may affect organ damage with poor prognosis for septic patients. Here, we investigated the efficacy of polymethyl methacrylate membrane (PMMA)-based continuous hemofiltration (CVVH) in modulating systemic and tissue immune activation in a swine model of LPS-induced AKI. Read More

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Exploration of Circulating Tumour Cell (CTC) Biology: A Paradigm Shift in Liquid Biopsy.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 16;36(2):131-142. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Biochemistry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Circulating tumour cells (CTCs), are disseminated tumour cells found in the blood in solid tumour malignancies. Identification of CTCs act as emerging tools in the field of the Liquid Biopsy. Majority of the studies focused on detection and enumeration of CTCs due to technological challenges those results from the rarity of CTCs in the blood. Read More

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[Multiple cerebral infarctions in the deep perforator regions in a case of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saga University Faculty of Medicine.

A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to cerebral infarction in the pons and the right putamen. On admission (day 3 from symptom onset), laboratory testing showed a white blood cell count of 13,100/μl with hypereosinophilia of 3,734/μl. As deep vein thrombosis was detected on contrast-enhanced CT, we started anticoagulation therapy. Read More

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Gastroesophageal Varices and Hyperplastic Nodules of the Liver in a Patient with Anorexia Nervosa.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gastroenterology and Medicine, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, Japan.

We report a case of anorexia nervosa (AN) with gastroesophageal varices (GEV) in a 36-year-old woman. The patient presented to our hospital with progressive bloating due to severe ascites. She had no history of alcohol intake. Read More

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Assessment of therapeutic platelet inhibition in cardiac patients: Comparative study between VerifyNow-P2Y12 and Anysis-P2Y12 assay.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Analyzing responsiveness to P2Y12 therapy is vital to preventing thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: This study evaluates a new Anysis-P2Y12 assay system against VerifyNow-P2Y12 in cardiac patients and analyzes the P2Y12 low-response rates of the two devices with various cutoff values.

Methods: In total, 125 citrated blood samples were collected from cardiac patients referred for a P2Y12 antiplatelet response test. Read More

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Microvascular changes associated with epilepsy: A narrative review.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Apr 17:271678X211010388. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is dysfunctional in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this regard, microvascular changes are likely present. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on microvascular changes in epilepsy, and includes clinical and preclinical evidence of seizure induced angiogenesis, barriergenesis and microcirculatory alterations. Read More

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Analysis of circulating cell-free DNA after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background/objectives: Recently, increase in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentration or newly detected KRAS mutation after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) biopsy were reported to be related to the occurrence of new distant metastasis. In this study, we investigated whether cfDNA concentration increased with the release of tumor components into the blood after EUS-FNA and whether its increase was related to prognosis.

Methods: Sixty-eight patients underwent EUS-FNA and were pathologically confirmed as having pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Read More

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A case with Crohn's disease-associated spondyloarthritis exhibiting enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Despite the high incidence of spondyloarthritis (SpA) as an extra-intestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease (CD), the immunopathogenesis of CD-associated SpA remains largely unknown.

Objective: We tried to explore molecular mechanisms accounting for the development of CD-associated SpA in a patient successfully treated with infliximab.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before infliximab treatment were stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to measure pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Read More

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Blood biomarkers for differential diagnosis and early detection of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 24;96:102193. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Functional Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Pancreatic cancer is currently the most lethal tumor entity and case numbers are rising. It will soon be the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Mortality is close to incidence and patient survival after diagnosis stands at about five months. Read More

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Safety of surgical fertility preservation procedures in children prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Long-term survival following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in childhood continues to improve and patients are thus increasingly faced with the late effects of treatment. Infertility is very common for both males and females following HSCT and is one of the most distressing sequelae. Adoption and surrogate egg or sperm donation are possibilities for some patients but post-HSCT reversal of gonadal failure is not possible. Read More

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Update on B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

Semin Diagn Pathol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 420 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to a significant portion of the immune system, which interacts daily with the antigenic milieu of its contents. Therefore, the presence of white blood cells within the walls of the GI tract upon histologic examination is a familiar sight on GI biopsies-both in health and disease. The GI tract is the most common site of extranodal lymphomas, most of which are B-cell neoplasms. Read More

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Acute non-traumatic tetraparesis - Differential diagnosis.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 May 20;87:116-124. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Neurology, Hospital da Luz Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisbon, Portugal; Institute of Physiology, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Introduction: Potentially life-threatening disorders may present in the emergency department with acute tetraparesis, and their recognition is crucial for an appropriate management and timely treatment. Our review aims to systematize the differential diagnosis of acute non-traumatic tetraparesis.

Results: Causes of tetraparesis can be classified based on the site of defect: upper motor neuron (UMN), peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction or muscle. Read More

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A verified genomic reference sample for assessing performance of cancer panels detecting small variants of low allele frequency.

Genome Biol 2021 Apr 16;22(1):111. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, 72079, USA.

Background: Oncopanel genomic testing, which identifies important somatic variants, is increasingly common in medical practice and especially in clinical trials. Currently, there is a paucity of reliable genomic reference samples having a suitably large number of pre-identified variants for properly assessing oncopanel assay analytical quality and performance. The FDA-led Sequencing and Quality Control Phase 2 (SEQC2) consortium analyze ten diverse cancer cell lines individually and their pool, termed Sample A, to develop a reference sample with suitably large numbers of coding positions with known (variant) positives and negatives for properly evaluating oncopanel analytical performance. Read More

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A combination of surgery, theranostics, and liquid biopsy - a personalised oncologic approach to treatment of patients with advanced metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.

Int J Med Sci 2021 19;18(10):2166-2175. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

CURANOSTICUM Wiesbaden-Frankfurt at DKD Helios Klinik, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) of small bowel (SBNEN) frequently present with metastatic disease. Theranostics (molecular imaging followed by targeting therapy) allow for personalised medicine. Liquid biopsies enable precise identification of residual disease and real-time monitoring of therapeutic response. Read More

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Structural changes in renal arterioles are closely associated with central hemodynamic parameters in patients with renal disease.

Hypertens Res 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Although central hemodynamics are known to be closely associated with microvascular damage, their association with lesions in the small renal arteries has not yet been fully clarified. We focused on arterioles in renal biopsy specimens and analyzed whether their structural changes were associated with noninvasive vascular function parameters, including central blood pressure (BP) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Forty-four nondiabetic patients (18-50 years of age) with preserved renal function underwent renal biopsy. Read More

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An immunosuppressed 37-year-old woman with right atrial necrotising myocarditis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Cardiovascular Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.

A 37-year-old immunocompromised woman was admitted with palpitations, fevers and myalgias. An echocardiogram demonstrated a mass in the right atrial walls and interatrial septum. Endovascular biopsy of the myocardium revealed neutrophilic necrotising myocarditis isolated to the right atrium. Read More

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Safety and efficiency of performing transvaginal ultrasound-guided tru-cut biopsy for pelvic masses.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the safety, adequacy and accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound-guided tru-cut biopsy of pelvic masses.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive women who underwent transvaginal ultrasound-guided tru-cut biopsies between June 2014 and October 2018 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University Hospitals Leuven. Main indications for tru-cut biopsy were tissue collection for diagnosis of pelvic tumors in cases of suspected disseminated disease or recurrence, or tissue banking for research purposes. Read More

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Versatility of use of fibrin glue in wound closure and vitreo-retinal surgery.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2021 Apr 15;7(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Retina and Vitreus Department, Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en México, IAP, Vicente García Torres 46, Col. Barrio San Lucas, Coyoacan, 04030, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Fibrin glue is an absorbable blood-derived product, a biological tissue adhesive which imitates the final stages of the coagulation cascade, it produces a firm clot, forming a seal along the whole length of the wound, the resultant fibrin clot degrades physiologically into granulation tissue 2 weeks after the application. Biological glue has been used extensively in many forms of surgical procedures. Its use in eye surgery has grown lately as we have evidence that showed it was effective in securing conjunctival grafts in pterygium surgery, in securing wounds after glaucoma surgery and more importantly in 20G and 23G vitrectomy. Read More

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Renal hemosiderosis presenting with acute kidney Injury and macroscopic hematuria in Immunoglobulin A nephropathy: a case report.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Apr 15;22(1):132. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Kidney Disease and Transplant Center, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, 1370-1 Okamoto, 247-8553, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Macroscopic hematuria-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-known complication of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. In such cases, intratubular obstruction by red blood cell (RBC) casts and acute tubular necrosis are mainly observed pathologically. Herein, we report the case of a patient with IgA nephropathy presenting with AKI following an episode of macrohematuria. Read More

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Non-invasive assessment of heterogeneity of gliomas using diffusion and perfusion MRI: correlation with spatially co-registered PET.

Acta Radiol 2021 Apr 15:2841851211006913. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Background: Heterogeneity of gliomas challenges the neuronavigated biopsy and oncological therapy. Diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the cellular and hemodynamic heterogeneity of tumors. Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI is expected to be a non-invasive imaging approach to characterizing glioma. Read More

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