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Use of Circulating Tumor DNA for the Clinical Management of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter, Real-World Study.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 May 14:1-10. Epub 2021 May 14.

1Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.

Background: This study aimed to describe the aberrations of DNA damage repair genes and other important driving genes in Chinese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) using circulating tumor (ctDNA) sequencing and to evaluate the associations between the clinical outcomes of multiple therapies and key genomic alterations in mCRPC, especially DNA damage repair genes.

Patients And Methods: A total of 292 Chinese patients with mCRPC enrolled from 8 centers. Multigene targeted sequencing was performed on 306 ctDNA samples and 23 matched tumor biopsies. Read More

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Giardia lamblia and Helicobacter pylori coinfection in gastrointestinal biopsies: A retrospective single-center analysis from Switzerland.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 May 10;53:151756. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medica Institute of Clinical Pathology, Hottingerstrasse 9/11, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The protozoan Giardia lamblia (GL) and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP) are common causes of gastrointestinal disease. Coinfection is common and has been reported in studies from Africa, Europe, North America and Asia, but data for Switzerland are scarce.

Aim: To investigate GL and HP prevalence and coinfection rate in gastrointestinal biopsies from the Zurich area of Switzerland. Read More

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Passive smoking induces nasal biofilms in children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 7;146:110755. Epub 2021 May 7.

Clinical Sciences Department, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Objectives: Passive exposure of children to cigarette smoke has been implicated in several recalcitrant respiratory childhood disorders. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding the connection between passive exposure to tobacco smoke and the formation of nasal biofilms in children. The present study was therefore geared at investigating the hypothesis that exposure of children to household passive smoking may induce the formation of nasal biofilms. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles, the cornerstone of next-generation cancer diagnosis?

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore; Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117600, Singapore; Department of Haematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore 119228, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Cancer has risen up to be a major cause of mortality worldwide over the past decades. Despite advancements in cancer screening and diagnostics, a significant number of cancers are still diagnosed at a late stage with poor prognosis. Hence, the discovery of reliable and accurate methods to diagnose cancer early would be of great help in reducing cancer mortality. Read More

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A Novel Fenestrating Device, "Quick Fenestrater," for Reconstructing Supra-aortic Arteries In Situ during Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

Can J Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200001, China. Electronic address:

Background: In situ fenestration (ISF) is an effective approach for reconstructing supra-aortic branches during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). A dedicated device is needed for ISF.

Methods: The "Quick Fenestrater" (QF) underwent in vitro, animal-based, and initial clinical testing. Read More

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The Diagonal Technique for Alopecia Biopsies.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Pathology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114.

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Intravascular Large B Cell Lymphoma as a Cause of Multifocal Cryptogenic Stroke.

Am J Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

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Is there a role for neuregulin 4 in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251822. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Hepatology, Department Chronic Diseases, Metabolism & Ageing (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a novel adipokine enriched in brown adipose tissue has been observed to negatively regulate de novo hepatic lipogenesis and limit nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rodents. However, the role of Nrg4 in human NAFLD remains unclear to date. We analysed Nrg4 plasma levels and its association with liver disease severity together with the transcriptional profile of the Nrg4 pathway in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of NAFLD patients. Read More

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Validation of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as a candidate therapeutic target in the spontaneous canine model of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0250839. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of blood cancers arising in lymphoid tissues that commonly effects both humans and dogs. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), an enzyme that catalyzes the symmetric di-methylation of arginine residues, is frequently overexpressed and dysregulated in both human solid and hematologic malignancies. In human lymphoma, PRMT5 is a known driver of malignant transformation and oncogenesis, however, the expression and role of PRMT5 in canine lymphoma has not been explored. Read More

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Local and regional therapy for primary and locally recurrent melanoma.

Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr;19(4):246-260

Department of Cutaneous Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

In the vast majority of cases, cutaneous melanoma presents as localized disease and is treated with wide excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy, with shared decision making regarding completion lymph node dissection and adjuvant systemic therapy. The treatment of recurrent and in-transit disease is more complex, with further options for regional and systemic therapies and multiple variables to be factored into decisions. Rates of overall and complete response to regional therapies can be quite high in carefully chosen patients, which limits the need for systemic therapies and their inherent side effects. Read More

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Cutaneous Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as Presenting Sign of Systemic B-Cell Lymphoma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV; Department of Pathology, Penrose-St. Francis Health Services, Colorado Springs, CO; and Department of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Washington, Seattle, WA.

Abstract: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal proliferative disorder most commonly involving the bone and skin; however, it can arise in many other locations. It is predominantly a pediatric disease, but adult cases occur. Here, we present a case of adult-onset cutaneous LCH with systemic symptoms, believed to represent disseminated LCH. Read More

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Unusual Case of a Caruncular Oncocytoma.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; Dermatology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; Department of Basic Science Education, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA; and Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vistar Eye Center, Roanoke, VA.

Abstract: Oncocytomas are benign neoplasms that are most often found in the salivary glands and kidneys. Ocular oncocytoma typically present as an asymptomatic dark blue papule on the lacrimal caruncle. Histologically, the tumor is composed of oncocytes, cells notable for eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules representing large quantities of dysfunctional mitochondria. Read More

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Case of Symptomatic Dermal Neurofibroma With Microcystic Features.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH; and Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract: A neurofibroma is a benign neural tumor arising within a peripheral nerve sheath composed of Schwann cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells involved in the nerve. Microcystic elements have been rarely described in these tumors. Neurofibromas are classically described as unencapsulated tumors of interspersed spindle cells and mast cells in a hypocellular, myxoid stroma. Read More

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Chrysiasis: Gold Aggregates Around a Nevus and Osteoma Cutis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Pathology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY; Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV; and Rose Salter Medical Research Foundation, Newport Beach, CA.

Abstract: Parenteral gold has historically been used to treat several conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. Gold administration leads to a variety of cutaneous reactions, including chrysiasis, which is a permanent blue-grey hyperpigmentation of the skin due to dermal gold deposition. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who received parenteral gold injections 22 years before the onset of her chrysiasis for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Read More

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Current-Smoking alters Gene Expression and DNA Methylation in the Nasal Epithelium of Asthmatics.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

University of Technology Sydney, 1994, Respiratory Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology (RBMB), School of Life Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Current-smoking contributes to worsened asthma prognosis, more severe symptoms and limits the beneficial effects of corticosteroids. As the nasal epithelium can reflect smoking-induced changes in the lower airways, it is a relevant source to investigate changes in gene expression and DNA methylation. This study explores gene expression and DNA methylation changes in current and ex-smokers with asthma. Read More

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Palpable Lumps after Mastectomy: Radiologic-Pathologic Review of Benign and Malignant Masses.

Radiographics 2021 May 14:200161. Epub 2021 May 14.

From the Departments of Radiology (R.A.K., G.K.N., E.P.C., J.H.S., J.L.J., M.N., E.V.M.) and Pathology (A.A.), MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007; and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (V.L.M.).

Patients who have undergone mastectomy, with or without reconstruction, are not universally screened with mammography or US. Therefore, clinical breast examination by the physician and patient-detected palpable abnormalities are crucial for detecting breast cancer or recurrence. Diagnostic US is the first-line modality for evaluation of postmastectomy palpable masses, with occasional adjunct use of diagnostic mammography for confirming certain benign masses. Read More

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Comparison of British Thyroid Association, American College of Radiology TIRADS and artificial intelligence TIRADS with histological correlation: diagnostic performance for predicting thyroid malignancy and unnecessary fine needle aspiration rate.

Br J Radiol 2021 May 14:20201444. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, NHS GG&C, Glasgow, UK.

Objectives: To compare diagnostic performance of British Thyroid Association (BTA), American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-TIRADS) and Artificial Intelligence TIRADS (AI-TIRADS) for thyroid nodule malignancy. To determine comparative unnecessary FNA rates.

Methods: 218 thyroid nodules with definitive histology obtained during 2017 were included. Read More

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ASO Visual Abstract: Use and Costs of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonulcerated T1b Melanoma: Analysis of a Population-Based Registry.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

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Fifteen days of moderate normobaric hypoxia does not affect mitochondrial function, and related genes and proteins, in healthy men.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: To investigate within the one study potential molecular and cellular changes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis following 15 days of exposure to moderate hypoxia.

Methods: Eight males underwent a muscle biopsy before and after 15 days of hypoxia exposure (FiO = 0.140-0. Read More

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Low-cost transcriptional diagnostic to accurately categorize lymphomas in low- and middle-income countries.

Blood Adv 2021 May;5(10):2447-2455

University of Washington/Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Inadequate diagnostics compromise cancer care across lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We hypothesized that an inexpensive gene expression assay using paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens from LMICs could distinguish lymphoma subtypes without pathologist input. We reviewed all biopsy specimens obtained at the Instituto de Cancerología y Hospital Dr. Read More

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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of a Large Size Retrospective Series.

Dermatol Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

All authors are affiliated with the Departments of dermatology, head and neck surgery, dermatologic surgery, and dermatopathology, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada.

Background: One of the most important prognostic factors for mortality in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the development of nodal metastasis. There is no consensus regarding which patient with cSCC should be offered sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).

Objective: This study aimed to establish the rate of positive SLNBs among patients with high-risk cSCCs and to identify which high-risk features are associated with a positive SLNB. Read More

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Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antibody Mediated Rejection Following Orthotopic Heart Transplant: A Single Center Experience.

Transplantation 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine 2Department of Pathology & Immunology 3Department of Developmental Biology Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130.

Background: Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) following orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) causes significant morbidity and mortality. There is limited data on antibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R-Ab) causing rejection following OHT.

Methods: This is a retrospective, single center study that presents our 2-year experience with a series of 11 patients with evidence of nonspecific graft dysfunction and pathologic levels of AT1R-Ab. Read More

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February 2021

The Full Spectrum of COVID-19 Development and Recovery Among Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Transplantation 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

1 Division of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Hospital do Rim, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: COVID-19 fatality rate is high among kidney transplant recipients. Among survivors, kidney outcomes, seroconversion, and persistence of viral shedding are unexplored.

Methods: Single-center prospective cohort study including data from kidney transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 between 03/20/2020 and 07/31/2020. Read More

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Involvement of chronic inflammation via monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in uraemic cardiomyopathy: a human biopsy study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Aims: Patients undergoing dialysis, even those without coronary artery disease or valvular abnormalities, sometimes present with reduced heart function, which resembles dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This condition is known as uraemic cardiomyopathy (UCM). The mechanisms of UCM development are not fully understood. Read More

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Genotyping, antifungal susceptibility, enzymatic activity, and phenotypic variation in Candida albicans from esophageal candidiasis.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 May 14:e23826. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Esophageal candidiasis is the most frequent form of esophagitis. The pathogenicity of Candida spp. is related to a combination of microbial factors, hydrolytic enzyme secretion and phenotypic switching. Read More

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Extramedullary multiple myeloma patient derived orthotopic xenograft with high disturbed genome: combined exhaustive molecular and therapeutic studies.

Dis Model Mech 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Hematology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat Barcelona, Spain.

Extramedullary multiple myeloma (EMM) has an overall survival of 6 months and occurs in 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in EMM and the therapeutic role of new agents for MM are not well established. Besides, well characterized preclinical models for EMM are not available. Read More

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Separation of distinct exosome subpopulations: isolation and characterization approaches and their associated challenges.

Analyst 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Environment and Natural Sciences and Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia.

Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles that serve as a communications system between cells and have shown tremendous promise as liquid biopsy biomarkers in diagnostic, prognostic, and even therapeutic use in different human diseases. Due to the natural heterogeneity of exosomes, there is a need to separate exosomes into distinct biophysical and/or biochemical subpopulations to enable full interrogation of exosome biology and function prior to the possibility of clinical translation. Currently, there exists a multitude of different exosome isolation and characterization approaches which can, in limited capacity, separate exosomes based on biophysical and/or biochemical characteristics. Read More

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COVID-19 Endothelial Dysfunction Can Cause Erectile Dysfunction: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study of the Human Penis.

World J Mens Health 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: A pilot study to describe histopathological features of penile tissue of patients who recovered from symptomatic COVID-19 infection and subsequently developed severe erectile dysfunction (ED).

Materials And Methods: Penile tissue was collected from patients undergoing surgery for penile prosthesis for severe ED. Specimens were obtained from two men with a history of COVID-19 infection and two men with no history of infection. Read More

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Comparison of the clinical, ultrasound, and CT findings in 13 dogs with gastric neoplasia.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Diagnosis of gastric tumors in dogs is difficult and is often obtained by biopsy following identification of a mass through ultrasound (US) or endoscopy. In human medicine, modalities such as CT and endoscopy are standard of care in the diagnosis and staging of gastric tumors. Although one veterinary study has described CT findings of gastric tumors in dogs using iatrogenic gas dilation, there are no veterinary studies that have directly compared the usefulness of US versus CT in the diagnosis and staging of these tumors. Read More

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Dermoscopy of papulopustular rosacea and comparison of dermoscopic features in patients with or without concomitant Demodex folliculorum.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Section of Dermatology, Department of Health Sciences, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy.

Background: Dermoscopic findings of papulopustular rosacea include follicular plugs, white scales and follicle dilatation. Demodex tails and Demodex follicular openings are dermoscopic indicators mainly found in primary demodicosis and, less frequently, in rosacea.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the dermoscopic features of papulopustular rosacea and investigate the differential dermoscopic features between patients with and without concomitant Demodex infestation. Read More

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