2,777 results match your criteria biomass burning

Site selection of straw collection and storage facilities considering carbon emission reduction.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Transportation, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025, China.

Straw recycling has generated high collection and transportation costs. Scientifically informed collection, storage, and transportation methods can reduce automobile exhaust emissions and high transportation costs. According to the relevant statistics, China's total theoretical straw resources reached 920 million tons in 2020. Read More

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Qualitative Study on the Observations of Emissions, Transport, and the Influence of Climatic Factors from Sugarcane Burning: A South African Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 19;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa.

There are two methods of harvesting sugarcane-manual or mechanical. Manual harvesting requires the burning of the standing sugarcane crop. Burning of the crop results in the emission of aerosols and harmful trace gases into the atmosphere. Read More

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Molecular Dynamics and Light Absorption Properties of Atmospheric Dissolved Organic Matter.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The light-absorbing organic aerosol referred to as brown carbon (BrC) affects the global radiative balance. The linkages between its molecular composition and light absorption properties and how environmental factors influence BrC composition are not well understood. In this study, atmospheric dissolved organic matter (ADOM) in 55 aerosol samples from Guangzhou was characterized using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and light absorption measurements. Read More

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Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Associations with Exposures to PM Mass, Constituents, and Sources in Dhaka, Bangladesh Air Pollution.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

New York University School of Medicine, 12296, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York, New York, United States.

Rationale: To date, there is no published local epidemiological evidence documenting the respiratory health effects of source specific air pollution in South Asia, where PM2.5 composition is different from past studies. Differences include more biomass and residue crop-burning emissions, which may have differing health implications. Read More

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Source profiling of air pollution and its association with acute respiratory infections in the Himalayan-bound region of India.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Indian Meteorological Department, Rambagh, Srinagar, India.

The studies related to air pollutants and their association with human health over the mountainous region are of utmost importance and are sparse especially over the Himalayan region of India. The linkages between various atmospheric variables and clinically validated data have been done using various datasets procured from satellite, model reanalysis, and surface observations during 2013-2017. Aerosol optical depth, air temperature, and wind speed are significantly related (p < 0. Read More

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A comparative study of EOF and NMF analysis on downward trend of AOD over China from 2011 to 2019.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 7;288:117713. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, Shandong, 250101, China.

In recent decades China has experienced high-level PM pollution and then visible air quality improvement. To understand the air quality change from the perspective of aerosol optical depth (AOD), we adopted two statistical methods of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) to AOD retrieved by MODIS over China and surrounding areas. Results showed that EOF and NMF identified the important factors influencing AOD over China from different angles: natural dusts controlled the seasonal variation with contribution of 42. Read More

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Mass Absorption Efficiency of Black Carbon from Residential Solid Fuel Combustion and Its Association with Carbonaceous Fractions.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

Black carbon (BC) emissions, derived primarily from incomplete fuel combustion, significantly affect the global and regional climate. Mass absorption efficiency (MAE) is one important parameter in evaluating the climate impacts of BC. Here, values and variabilities in the MAE of BC (MAE) from real-world residential emissions were investigated from a field campaign covering 163 burning events for different fuel-stove combinations. Read More

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Aerosol microphysics and chemistry reveal the COVID19 lockdown impact on urban air quality.

Sci Rep 2021 07 14;11(1):14477. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR Demokritos, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, Athens, Greece.

Air quality in urban areas and megacities is dependent on emissions, physicochemical process and atmospheric conditions in a complex manner. The impact on air quality metrics of the COVID-19 lockdown measures was evaluated during two periods in Athens, Greece. The first period involved stoppage of educational and recreational activities and the second severe restrictions to all but necessary transport and workplace activities. Read More

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Quantifying the effects of co-composting organic biomass mixtures with inorganic amendments to obtain value-added bio-products.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(7):e0253714. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Co-digestion of organic biomass mixed with inorganic amendments could have an impact on composting dynamics. Various studies highlighted fertilizers' role as an additive to lesser the nitrogen loss, while some studies focused on the addition of fertilizers to enhance the efficiency. The changes in carbon, nitrogen components, and humic substances during the organic-inorganic co-compost process were seldom studied. Read More

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Stable isotopic characterization of nitrate wet deposition in the tropical urban atmosphere of Costa Rica.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Isotope Hydrology Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, 1400, Vienna, Austria.

Increasing energy consumption and food production worldwide results in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen into the atmosphere. To date, however, little information is available on tropical urban environments where inorganic nitrogen is vastly transported and deposited through precipitation on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we present compositions of water stable isotopes in precipitation and atmospheric nitrate (δO-HO, δH-HO, δN-NO, and δO-NO) collected daily between August 2018 and November 2019 in a tropical urban atmosphere of central Costa Rica. Read More

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Impact of biomass induced black carbon particles in cascading COVID-19.

Urban Clim 2021 Jul 8;38:100913. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune 411008, India.

We explore the association of biomass-induced black carbon aerosolized virus with COVID-19 in one of the top-ranked polluted hot spot regions of the world, Delhi, at the time when other confounding factors were almost stable and the pandemic wave was on the declining stage. Delhi was worst affected by COVID-19. However, when it was fast returning back to normal after about 6 months with minimum fatalities, it suddenly encountered a reversal with a 10 fold increase in infection counts, coinciding with the onset of the stubble burning period in neighbouring states. Read More

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Impact of Land-Use Types on the Distribution and Exposure Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dusts from Benin City, Nigeria.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X5400l, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

The concentrations of the sixteen United States Environmental Protection Agency polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in dusts from different land-use types in Benin City by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results obtained were used to assess the ecological and human health risk and to determine the source apportionment. The Ʃ16 PAH concentrations in dusts from Benin City ranged from 230 to 2300 µg kg for industrial areas, 211-1330 µg kg for commercial areas, 153-1170 µg kg for residential areas, and from 216 to 1970 µg kg for school playgrounds/parks. Read More

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Genome-Wide Association Studies for Resistance in Tropical Maize.

Int J Genomics 2021 20;2021:9979146. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Plant Production Sciences and Technologies, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe.

L. is a parasitic weed in cereal crops including maize leading to tremendous yield losses up to 100% under severe infestation. The available control methods include cultural control options such as uprooting and burning the plants before they flower, field sanitation, crop rotation, intercropping, organic matter usage, improved fallows, and application of herbicides. Read More

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Air pollution and lung function in children.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul;148(1):1-14

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Mass; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

In this narrative review, we summarize the literature and provide updates on recent studies of air pollution exposures and child lung function and lung function growth. We include exposures to outdoor air pollutants that are monitored and regulated through air quality standards, and air pollutants that are not routinely monitored or directly regulated, including wildfires, indoor biomass and coal burning, gas and wood stove use, and volatile organic compounds. Included is a more systematic review of the recent literature on long-term air pollution and child lung function because this is an indicator of future adult respiratory health and exposure assessment tools have improved dramatically in recent years. Read More

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Lung-deposited dose of particulate matter from residential exposure to smoke from wood burning.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100, Chania, Greece.

Residential settings are of utmost importance for human exposure, as it is where people spend most of their time. Residential wood combustion is a widespread practice known as a source of indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, research on the risks of exposure associated with this source is scarce, and a better understanding of respiratory deposition of smoke particles is needed. Read More

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Using a hybrid approach to apportion potential source locations contributing to excess cancer risk of PM-bound PAHs during heating and non-heating periods in a megacity in the Middle East.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 3;201:111617. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Venezia, Italy.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent one of the major toxic pollutants associated with PM with significant human health and climate effects. Because of local and long-range transport of atmospheric PAHs to receptor sites, higher global attentions have been focused to improve PAHs pollution emission management. In this study, PM samples were collected at three urban sites located in the capital of Iran, Tehran, during the heating and non-heating periods (H-period and NH-period). Read More

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The burden of chronic respiratory diseases in adults in Nepal: A systematic review.

Chron Respir Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;18:1479973121994572

NIHR Nottingham BRC Respiratory Theme, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

While chronic lung disease causes substantial global morbidity and mortality, global estimates have primarily been based on broad assumptions. Specific country data from low-income countries such as Nepal are limited. This review assessed primary evidence on chronic respiratory disease burden among adults in Nepal. Read More

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Fine particulate matter constituents and infant mortality in Africa: A multicountry study.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 30;156:106739. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Fudan University, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: Few studies have investigated the association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and infant mortality in developing countries, especially for the health effects of specific PM constituents.

Objective: We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to specific PM constituents with infant mortality in 15 African countries from 2005 to 2015.

Methods: Based on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) dataset, we included birth history records from 15 countries in Africa and conducted a multicountry cross-sectional study to examine the associations between specific PM constituents and infant mortality. Read More

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Diurnal variability in the spectral characteristics and sources of water-soluble brown carbon aerosols over Delhi.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 25;794:148589. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232, Switzerland.

It is well established that light-absorbing organic aerosols (commonly known as brown carbon, BrC) impact climate. However, uncertainties remain as their contributions to absorption at different wavelengths are often ignored in climate models. Further, BrC exhibits differences in absorption at different wavelengths due to the variable composition including varying sources and meteorological conditions. Read More

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[Pollution Characteristics and Sources of Wintertime Atmospheric Brown Carbon at a Background Site of the Yangtze River Delta Region in China].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jul;42(7):3127-3135

Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.

To investigate the pollution characteristics and sources of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in Chongming Island, a background site of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China, PM samples collected from December 2018 to January 2019 were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions and optical properties. The results showed that the light absorption coefficient (Abs) of BrC extracted by methanol at 365 nm was (5.39±3. Read More

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Impact of various air mass types on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations along coastal southeast Florida.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2021 Jun 29;254. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Coastal southeast Florida experiences a wide range of aerosol conditions, including African dust, biomass burning (BB) aerosols, as well as sea salt and other locally-emitted aerosols. These aerosols are important sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which play an essential role in governing cloud radiative properties. As marine environments dominate the surface of Earth, CCN characteristics in coastal southeast Florida have broad implications for other regions with the added feature that this site is perturbed by both natural and anthropogenic emissions. Read More

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Traffic Density-Related Black Carbon Distribution: Impact of Wind in a Basin Town.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 16;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor, Mariborska cesta 7, 3000 Celje, Slovenia.

Black carbon is one of the riskiest particle matter pollutants that is harmful to human health. Although it has been increasingly investigated, factors that depend on black carbon distribution and concentration are still insufficiently researched. Variables, such as traffic density, wind speeds, and ground levels can lead to substantial variations of black carbon concentrations and potential exposure, which is even riskier for people living in less-airy sites. Read More

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Mass absorption cross-section and absorption enhancement from long term black and elemental carbon measurements: A rural background station in Central Europe.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 16;794:148365. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Global Change Research Institute of the CAS, Brno 603 00, Czech Republic; RECETOX, Masaryk University, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic.

Black carbon (BC) is a dominant aerosol light absorber, and its brown carbon (BrC) coating can enhance absorption and lead to uncertainties concerning the radiative forcing estimation. This study investigates the mass absorption cross-section of equivalent BC (MAC) during a long-term field measurement (2013-2017) at a rural Central European site. The MAC enhancement factor (E) and the contribution of BrC coatings to the absorption coefficient (B) were estimated by combining different approaches. Read More

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Exploring smoke: an ethnographic study of air pollution in rural Malawi.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Jun;6(6)

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Air pollution adversely affects human health, and the climate crisis intensifies the global imperative for action. Low-/middle-income countries (LMIC) suffer particularly high attributable disease burdens. In rural low-resource settings, these are linked to cooking using biomass. Read More

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Effects of prescribed fire timing on vigor of the invasive forb sericea lespedeza (), total forage biomass accumulation, plant-community composition, and native fauna on tallgrass prairie in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 2;5(2):txab079. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

The predominant grazing-management practice of the Kansas Flint Hills involves annual prescribed burning in March or April with postfire grazing by yearling beef cattle at a high stocking density from April to August. There has been a dramatic increase in sericea lespedeza ( [Dumont] G. Don) coincident with this temporally focused use of prescribed fire in the Flint Hills region. Read More

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Aerosol water content enhancement leads to changes in the major formation mechanisms of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols in winter over the North China Plain.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 23;287:117625. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

In recent years, severe air pollution still frequently occurs in winter despite the effective implementation of clean air actions in China. Therefore, field measurements of particle composition and gas precursors were collected from December 1, 2018 to January 15, 2019 at an urban site in a central Chinese city to investigate the existing mechanisms of pollution. The hourly averaged PM concentration during the campaign was 92. Read More

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Study of Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Agriculture Briquette Using Thermogravimetric Analysis.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 9;6(24):15827-15833. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Zibo Energy Research Institute, Zibo, Shandong 255049, China.

The present paper was aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and combustion characteristics of corn straw briquette as a fuel energy. The results of physicochemical properties displayed that corn straw briquette has higher volatile matter, lower ash content, and higher heating value. Combustion characteristics and kinetic analysis were investigated using thermogravimetry analysis at various heating rates of 10, 15, and 20 °C/min. Read More

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Evaluating the impacts of burning biomass on PM regional transport under various emission conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 19;793:148481. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

The fine particulate matter (PM) emitted by burning biomass has become the main source of pollution in cities; this pollution seriously threatens the ecosystem and inhabitants' health. A major challenge in dealing with this issue is the uncertainty regarding the influence of burning biomass on PM regional transport. In this study, Harbin-Changchun Megalopolis is the research area. Read More

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A newly integrated dataset of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles and implications for the future development of VOCs profiles in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 9;793:148348. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute for Environment and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511486, PR China. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles can be used for a number of purposes, such as creating speciated air pollutant emission inventories and providing inputs to receptor and air quality models. In this study, we first collected and schematically evaluated more than 500 Chinese domestic source profiles from literature and field measurements, and then established a most up-to-date dataset of VOCs source profiles in China by integrating 363 selective VOCs profiles into 101 sector-based source profiles. The profile dataset covers eight major source categories and contains 447 VOCs species including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) species and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) species. Read More

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Analysis of fine particulates from fuel burning in a reconstructed building at Çatalhöyük World Heritage Site, Turkey: assessing air pollution in prehistoric settled communities.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The use of wood, dung and other biomass fuels can be traced back to early prehistory. While the study of prehistoric fuel use and its environmental impacts is well established, there has been little investigation of the health impacts this would have had, particularly in the Neolithic period, when people went from living in relatively small groups, to living in dense settlements. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Çatalhöyük, Turkey, is one of the earliest large 'pre-urban' settlements in the world. Read More

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