24,983 results match your criteria biology volume

A rise in Proteobacteria is an indicator of gut-liver axis-mediated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fructose-fed adult mice.

Nutr Res 2021 May 21;91:26-35. Epub 2021 May 21.

Laboratory of Morphometry, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases, Biomedical Center, Institute of Biology, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake results in gut dysbiosis, leading to endotoxemia and NAFLD onset. Thus, the hypothesis of the study was that an enhanced Proteobacteria proportion in the cecal microbiota could be the most prominent trigger of NAFLD through enhanced endotoxin (LPS) in adult high-fructose-fed C57BL/6 mice. Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (n = 10, C: 76% of energy as carbohydrates, 0% as fructose) or high-fructose diet (n = 10, HFRU: 76% of energy as carbohydrate, 50% as fructose) for 12 weeks. Read More

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Facile and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody based on a noncompetitive fluorescence polarization immunoassay in human serum samples.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 5;190:113414. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8628, Japan; Innovative Research Centre for Preventive Medical Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan; Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

Antibody detection methods for viral infections have received broad attention due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, there remains an ever-increasing need to quantitatively evaluate the immune response to develop vaccines and treatments for COVID-19. Here, we report an analytical method for the rapid and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in human serum by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Read More

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Morphometric properties of immature reticulocytes in health and during acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 10;71:101578. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, Belgorod State University, 85 Pobeda St., Belgorod, 308015, Russia. Electronic address:

Despite significant advances, many changes occurring in the tumor microenvironment during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. The surface of immature reticulocytes was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine specific changes during the development of ALL and AML. In patients with ALL the surface area of reticulocytes increased by 18. Read More

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A stochastic micro to macro mechanical model for the evolution of bone-implant interface stiffness.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Upon placement of an implant into living bone, an interface is formed through which various biochemical, biological, physical and mechanical processes and interactions take place. This interface evolves over time as the mechanical properties of peri-implant bone increase. Owing to the multifactorial nature of interfacial processes, it is challenging to devise a comprehensive model for predicting the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant interface. Read More

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Neuromorphological changes following selection for tameness and aggression in the Russian fox-farm experiment.

J Neurosci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Russian fox-farm experiment is an unusually long-running and well-controlled study designed to replicate wolf-to-dog domestication. As such, it offers an unprecedented window onto the neural mechanisms governing the evolution of behavior. Here we report evolved changes to gray matter morphology resulting from selection for tameness vs. Read More

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Bioremediation of lindane contaminated soil: Exploring the potential of actinobacterial strains.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 3;278:130468. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Structural Biology and Lignin Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia. Electronic address:

Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, causes detrimental impacts on the environment and human health owing to its high toxicity, low degradation, and bioaccumulation. Its toxic nature can be overcome by biological and eco-friendly approaches involving its degradation and detoxification. The biodegradation of lindane was assessed using actinobacterial species Thermobifida cellulosilytica TB100 (T. Read More

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September 2021

A programmable chemical switch based on triggerable Michael acceptors.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 10;11(8):2103-2111. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst Massachusetts 01003 USA

Developing an engineerable chemical reaction that is triggerable for simultaneous chemical bond formation and cleavage by external cues offers tunability and orthogonality which is highly desired in many biological and materials applications. Here, we present a chemical switch that concurrently captures these features in response to chemically and biologically abundant and important cues, , thiols and amines. This thiol/amine-triggerable chemical switch is based on a Triggerable Michael Acceptor (TMAc) which bears good leaving groups at its β-position. Read More

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January 2020

Self-division of giant vesicles driven by an internal enzymatic reaction.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 4;11(12):3228-3235. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry and Biology "A. Zambelli", University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 - Fisciano SA Italy

Self-division is one of the most common phenomena in living systems and one of the most important properties of life driven by internal mechanisms of cells. Design and engineering of synthetic cells from abiotic components can recreate a life-like function thus contributing to the understanding of the origin of life. Existing methods to induce the self-division of vesicles require external and non-autonomous triggers (temperature change and the addition of membrane precursors). Read More

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Super-capacity information-carrying systems encoded with spontaneous Raman scattering.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 2;11(11):3096-3103. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University Wuhan 430079 China

Optical multiplex barcode systems have been significantly boosting the throughput of scientific discovery. A high volume of barcodes can be made from combinations of distinct spectral bands and intensity levels. However, the practical capacity often reaches a ceiling due to the overlaps of signal frequencies or intensities when massive information is written on individual carriers. Read More

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Simultaneous umbilical blood flow during normal pregnancy in sheep and goat foetuses using non-invasive colour Doppler ultrasound.

Anim Reprod 2018 Aug 16;15(2):148-155. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Institute of Reproductive Biology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

The characteristics of umbilical blood flow (UM) was investigated using 18 (25 foetuses) pregnant ewes and 20 (41 foetus) pregnant goats transrectal non-invasive color Doppler ultrasonographic examinations were done frequently between 2 and 8 week after breeding and then transabdominally until parturition. Colour Doppler velocimetery includes blood flow volume (BFV), time averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), time average of mean (TAMEAN) and impedance of blood flow (PS/ED or AB ratio). Also a qualitative evaluation of UM blood flow indicating increases (P < 0. Read More

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Distinct Behavior of Traumatic versus Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hematomas: Different Biology or Impact of Age?

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of General and Trauma Surgery, BG Bergmannsheil University Hospital Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Background And Study Aims:  Patients with large intracerebral hematomas (ICH) may demonstrate different demographics and underlying brain and systemic diseases, as well as different radiologic courses and distinct outcomes. It remains unclear whether their different behavior attributes to a different biology of the ICH or to the asymmetric characteristics of the two populations. To analyze and adjust for potential sources of selection and treatment bias, our study compared age-matched patients with traumatic and nontraumatic ICH in a single cohort diagnosed and treated in the same surgical department. Read More

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Proteomic analysis of pikeperch seminal plasma provides novel insight into the testicular development of domesticated fish stocks.

Animal 2021 Jun 11;15(7):100279. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Gametes and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

Control of the reproduction of domesticated stocks is considered a prerequisite for aquaculture development of pikeperch. However, knowledge about the physiology of the captive pikeperch male reproductive system and the biology of semen is very limited, especially regarding protein characteristics. The aims of our study were to characterize pikeperch sperm quantity and quality parameters and to analyze changes in the proteome of the same males spawned for the first and second times. Read More

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It's clearly the heart! Optical transparency, cardiac tissue imaging, and computer modelling.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Recent developments in clearing and microscopy enable 3D imaging with cellular resolution up to the whole organ level. These methods have been used extensively in neurobiology, but their uptake in other fields has been much more limited. Application of this approach to the human heart and effective use of the data acquired present challenges of scale and complexity. Read More

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A Comparative Review of the Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Genetics of Lactose Synthesis.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Lactose is the primary carbohydrate in the milk of most mammals and is unique in that it is only synthesized by epithelial cells in the mammary glands. Lactose is also essential for the development and nutrition of infants. Across species, the concentration of lactose in milk holds a strong positive correlation with overall milk volume. Read More

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Post-stroke Delivery of Valproic Acid Promotes Functional Recovery and Differentially Modifies Responses of Peri-Infarct Microglia.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 28;14:639145. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

The specific role of peri-infarct microglia and the timing of its morphological changes following ischemic stroke are not well understood. Valproic acid (VPA) can protect against ischemic damage and promote recovery. In this study, we first determined whether a single dose of VPA after stroke could decrease infarction area or improve functional recovery. Read More

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Rectal wall sparing effect of a rectal retractor in prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):383-388

Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences; Radiation Biology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a rectal retractor (RR) designed to protect rectal tissue in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by pushing rectal wall (RW) away from the prostate.

Materials And Methods: Twelve patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled into this study. Patients underwent two computed tomography (CT) scans without and with RR. Read More

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Regionally specific gray matter volume decreases in Alcohol Use Disorder: Implications for non-invasive brain stimulation treatment: Implications for non-invasive brain stimulation treatment.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: There is growing interest in neuromodulation-based therapeutics as tools for individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). Through electromagnetic induction, techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can noninvasively depolarize cortical cells in the induced electrical field and monosynaptic afferents. The ability of TMS to modulate the brain is dependent upon 2 factors which may be compromised in individuals with AUD: 1) gray matter volume (GMV) at the site of stimulation and 2) scalp-to-cortex distance. Read More

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Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Concentration on Testicular Morphology and Oxidative Stress Markers and on Plasma Testosterone Concentrations.

J Comp Pathol 2021 May 23;185:72-81. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, , Brazil. Electronic address:

We evaluated the effects of feeding 6%, 12% or 18% crude glycerin, containing 80.5% glycerol, on testicular histomorphometry and markers of oxidative stress and on plasma testosterone concentrations in lambs. Body weight, testicular biometric measurements, gonadosomatic index and net weight of the testicles were higher for the treated groups (P <0. Read More

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Reply to "Commentary on: Risk factors for postoperative morbidity after thyroid surgery in a PROSPECTIVE cohort of 1500 patients (Int. J. Surg. 2021, Epub ahead of print)".

Int J Surg 2021 Jun 9:105994. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centre for Translational Microbiome Research Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Health Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

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Review of methods for animal videography using camera systems that automatically move to follow the animal.

Andrew D Straw

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Biology I and Bernstein Center Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.

Digital photography and videography provide rich data for the study of animal behavior and are consequently widely used techniques. For fixed, unmoving cameras, the image sensor and optics govern the field of view and spatial detail. For a given sensor resolution, the optics determine a tradeoff between high magnification in which high spatial detail from a restricted field of view is obtained versus low magnification in which lower spatial detail is obtained from a larger region. Read More

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Starvation induces shrinkage of the bacterial cytoplasm.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(24)

Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130;

Environmental fluctuations are a common challenge for single-celled organisms; enteric bacteria such as experience dramatic changes in nutrient availability, pH, and temperature during their journey into and out of the host. While the effects of altered nutrient availability on gene expression and protein synthesis are well known, their impacts on cytoplasmic dynamics and cell morphology have been largely overlooked. Here, we discover that depletion of utilizable nutrients results in shrinkage of 's inner membrane from the cell wall. Read More

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High risk of early sub-therapeutic penicillin concentrations after intramuscular benzathine penicillin G injections in Ethiopian children and adults with rheumatic heart disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009399. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: Intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) injections are a cornerstone of secondary prophylaxis to prevent acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Uncertainties regarding inter-ethnic and preparation variability, and target exposure profiles of BPG injection are key knowledge gaps for RHD control.

Methods: To evaluate BPG pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients receiving 4-weekly doses in Ethiopia, we conducted a prospective cohort study of ARF/RHD patients attending cardiology outpatient clinics. Read More

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Prognostic Impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients With Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Department of Haematology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, Pierre-Bénite Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Lyon Departments of Nuclear Medicine Critical Care Pharmacy Haematology Laboratory, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, Pierre-Bénite INSERM U1052 and CNRS UMR5286, Lyon Cancer Research Center, Lyon Department of Biology and Therapy, Etablissement Français du Sang Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Department of Haematology, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble Department of Haematology, Institut de Cancérologie Lucien Neuwirth, Saint-Etienne Department of Haematology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon Department of Haematology, Groupe Hospitalier Mutualiste, Institut Daniel Hollard, Grenoble Department of Haematology, Clermont Ferrand University Hospital, Clermont Ferrand, France.

Purpose Of The Report: We aimed to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in predicting patient outcome following chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells infusion in aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

Methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT data before leukapheresis, before CAR T-cell infusion and 1 month (M1) after CAR T-cell infusion, from 72 patients were retrospectively analyzed. SUVmax, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and parameters describing tumor kinetics were calculated for each 18F-FDG PET/CT performed. Read More

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Protein Microarrays for Ocular Diseases.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2344:239-265

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The eye is a multifaceted organ organized in several compartments with particular properties that reflect their diverse functions. The prevalence of ocular diseases is increasing, mainly because of its relationship with aging and of generalized lifestyle changes. However, the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of many common eye pathologies remain poorly understood. Read More

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January 2021

Bone healing around titanium implants in a preclinical model of bile duct ligation-induced liver injury.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Oral Biology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Chronic liver disease increases the risk for periodontal disease and osteoporotic fractures, but its impacts on bone regeneration remain unknown. Herein we studied the impact of liver cirrhosis on peri-implant bone formation.

Material And Methods: A total of 20 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; one with the common bile duct ligated (BDL) and the respective sham-treated control group (SHAM). Read More

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Sample-to-answer COVID-19 nucleic acid testing using a low-cost centrifugal microfluidic platform with bead-based signal enhancement and smartphone read-out.

Lab Chip 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nanobiotechnology, Department of Protein Science, Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, Sweden. and AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences at Karolinska Institutet and, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

With its origin estimated around December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a major global health challenge. The demand for scalable, rapid and sensitive viral diagnostics is thus particularly pressing at present to help contain the rapid spread of infection and prevent overwhelming the capacity of health systems. While high-income countries have managed to rapidly expand diagnostic capacities, such is not the case in resource-limited settings of low- to medium-income countries. Read More

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Scaling of subcellular actin structures with cell length through decelerated growth.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biology, Rosenstiel Basic Medical Science Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, United States.

How cells tune the size of their subcellular parts to scale with cell size is a fundamental question in cell biology. Until now, most studies on the size control of organelles and other subcellular structures have focused on scaling relationships with cell volume, which can be explained by limiting pool mechanisms. Here, we uncover a distinct scaling relationship with cell length rather than volume, revealed by mathematical modeling and quantitative imaging of yeast actin cables. Read More

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Effects of detraining on preconditioning exercise-induced neuroprotective potential after ischemic stroke in rats.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Kagoshima, Japan.

Preconditioning exercise prior to stroke exerts neuroprotection, which is an endogenous strategy that leads the brain cells to express several intrinsic factors and inhibits their apoptosis. However, it is unclear how long these benefits last after exercise cessation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of detraining on preconditioning exercise-induced neuroprotective potential after stroke. Read More

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Exploring PI3Kδ Molecular Pathways in Stable COPD and Following an Acute Exacerbation, Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1621-1636. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Refractory Respiratory Inflammation Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK.

Background: Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) exerts corrective effects on the dysregulated migration characteristics of neutrophils isolated from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objective: To develop novel, induced sputum endpoints to demonstrate changes in neutrophil phenotype in the lung by administering nemiralisib, a potent and selective inhaled PI3Kδ inhibitor, to patients with stable COPD or patients with acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD.

Methods: In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials patients with A) stable COPD (N=28, randomized 3:1) or B) AECOPD (N=44, randomized 1:1) received treatment with inhaled nemiralisib (1mg). Read More

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Three dimensional reconstruction of coronary artery stents from optical coherence tomography: experimental validation and clinical feasibility.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12252. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Cardiovascular Biology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 982265 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

The structural morphology of coronary stents (e.g. stent expansion, lumen scaffolding, strut apposition, tissue protrusion, side branch jailing, strut fracture), and the local hemodynamic environment after stent deployment are key determinants of procedural success and subsequent clinical outcomes. Read More

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