2,050,572 results match your criteria biology


Rossmann-toolbox: a deep learning-based protocol for the prediction and design of cofactor specificity in Rossmann fold proteins.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Laboratory of Structural Bioinformatics, Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

The Rossmann fold enzymes are involved in essential biochemical pathways such as nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Their functioning relies on interaction with cofactors, small nucleoside-based compounds specifically recognized by a conserved βαβ motif shared by all Rossmann fold proteins. While Rossmann methyltransferases recognize only a single cofactor type, the S-adenosylmethionine, the oxidoreductases, depending on the family, bind nicotinamide (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) or flavin-based (flavin adenine dinucleotide) cofactors. Read More

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September 2021

Biphenylene monolayer as a two-dimensional nonbenzenoid carbon allotrope: A first-principles study.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Semiconductors, Linkoping University Department of Physics Chemistry and Biology, Linkoping, Linkoping, 581 83, SWEDEN.

In a very recent accomplishment, the two-dimensional form of Biphenylene network (BPN) has been fabricated. Motivated by this exciting experimental result on 2D layered BPN structure, herein we perform detailed density functional theory-based first-principles calculations, in order to gain insight into the structural, mechanical, electronic and optical properties of this promising nanomaterial. Our theoretical results reveal the BPN structure is constructed from three rings of tetragon, hexagon and octagon, meanwhile the electron localization function shows very strong bonds between the C atoms in the structure. Read More

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September 2021

Design and construction of a stereochemically diverse piperazine-based DNA-encoded chemical library.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Sep 13;48:116387. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Center for Drug Discovery, Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, United States; Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, United States; Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, United States. Electronic address:

Here we report the successful construction of a novel, stereochemically diverse DNA-Encoded Chemical Library (DECL) by utilizing 24 enantiomerically pure trifunctional 2, 6- di-substituted piperazines as central cores. We introduce the concept of positional diversity by placing the DNA attachment at either of two possible sites on the piperazine scaffold. Using a wide range of building blocks, a diverse library of 77 million compounds was produced. Read More

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September 2021

DNA nanosensing systems for tunable detection of metal ions and molecular crypto-steganography.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Sep 22;195:113645. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, PR China. Electronic address:

Various sensing platforms based on molecular or nanosystems are widely exploited through molecular diversity and specific recognition. However, it is extremely challenging to develop systems with tunable sensing ability and utilize the systems as information carriers/covers for communication and safety. Herein, DNA nanosensing systems based on cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) nanosheets were constructed for tunable detection and valence distinction of metal ions, molecular crypto-steganography, and information coding. Read More

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September 2021

Calcium signaling in intracellular protist parasites.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Sep 24;64:33-40. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Calcium ion (Ca) signaling is one of the most frequently employed mechanisms of signal transduction by eukaryotic cells, and starts with either Ca release from intracellular stores or Ca entry through the plasma membrane. In intracellular protist parasites Ca signaling initiates a sequence of events that may facilitate their invasion of host cells, respond to environmental changes within the host, or regulate the function of their intracellular organelles. In this review we examine recent findings in Ca signaling in two groups of intracellular protist parasites that have been studied in more detail, the apicomplexan and the trypanosomatid parasites. Read More

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September 2021

Corrigendum to ''Interactive effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and a seaweed extract on the growth and physiology of Allium cepa L. (onion)''. Journal of Plant Physiology, 262 (2021) 153437.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Sep 24;266:153512. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209, South Africa. Electronic address:

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September 2021

Binding of l-kynurenine to X. campestris tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Sep 16;225:111604. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK. Electronic address:

The kynurenine pathway is the major route of tryptophan metabolism. The first step of this pathway is catalysed by one of two heme-dependent dioxygenase enzymes - tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) - leading initially to the formation of N-formylkynurenine (NFK). In this paper, we present a crystal structure of a bacterial TDO from X. Read More

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September 2021

Effects from disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain function on bull sperm motility.

Theriogenology 2021 Sep 20;176:63-72. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, United States. Electronic address:

Sperm mitochondrial function is essential for normal physiology and fertility, but the importance of mitochondrial activity to support specific sperm functions, such as motility, varies between species. It was previously believed that mitochondrial function was not necessary for bull sperm motility [1]; however, this theory is contradicted by recently reported findings that the upper fraction of bull sperm swim-up preparations had both high motility and elevated mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates [2]. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial function and motility in bull sperm. Read More

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September 2021

Transcriptome analysis identifies CsNRT genes involved in nitrogen uptake in tea plants, with a major role of CsNRT2.4.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 20;167:970-979. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, National Center for Tea Improvement, Tea Research Institute Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310008, China. Electronic address:

Tea trees have a high demand for nitrogen (N) fertilizer to improve the yield and quality of tea. In this research, transcriptome analysis revealed the effect of N starvation and resupply upon N uptake in tea plants. We identified 4098 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were significantly enriched in amino acid and N metabolism and were extensively mapped to the tea genome. Read More

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September 2021

New avenues of silicon research in plant biology.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 15;167:955-957. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of the Sciences in Philadelphia (USP), Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

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September 2021

Annual plastic ingestion and isotopic niche patterns of two sympatric gull species at Newfoundland, Canada.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 24;173(Pt A):112991. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Biology, Acadia University, 15 University Avenue, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4N 3J2, Canada. Electronic address:

Ingestion of plastic pollution by pelagic seabirds is well-documented globally, but increasingly, researchers are investigating plastic ingestion in generalist predators and scavengers like gulls. We studied the gut contents of two sympatric gull species, American herring gulls (Larus smithsoniansus) and great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), collected year-round as part of "kill-to-scare" measures at the regional sanitary landfill in St. Read More

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September 2021

Ecological and human health risk assessment of trace element pollution in sediments and five important commercial fishes of the Oman Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 24;173(Pt A):112962. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran.

The distribution of trace elements in sediments and five commercially important fish species of the Oman Sea were assessed using an atomic absorption spectrometer to determine ecological and human health risk assessment. The ranges of trace elements concentration in sediments were: Cr: 5.42-68. Read More

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September 2021

Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis in human lung cancer tissue and tumour-associated macrophages.

EBioMedicine 2021 Sep 24;72:103578. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Based on reports on elevated cholesterol levels in cancer cells, strategies to lower cholesterol synthesis have been suggested as an antitumour strategy. However, cholesterol depletion has also been shown to induce tumour-promoting actions in tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs).

Methods: We performed lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses of human lung cancer material. Read More

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September 2021

Absence of significant clinical benefit for a systematic routine creatine phosphokinase measurement in asymptomatic patients treated with anti-programmed death protein (ligand) 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor to screen cardiac or neuromuscular immune-related toxicities.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 23;157:383-390. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Drug Development Department (DITEP), Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-94805, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Aim: Despite unprecedented results of anti-programmed death protein (ligand) 1 (PD-(L)1) immune checkpoint inhibitor in the oncology's armamentarium, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) represent a therapeutic hurdle. Currently, there is no consensual recommendation on a routinely monitored biomarker to early detect irAE. Biological markers such as serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) are commonly used to measure muscular tissue injury. Read More

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September 2021

Testes morphology and the identification of transcripts of the hormonal pathways of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2021 Sep 24;65:101111. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Laboratório de Citogenética Animal, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main defoliating pests of soybeans in Brazil. In the current study, we characterized the histomorphology of the testes and the spermatogenesis process in A. gemmatalis. Read More

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September 2021

Mouse Single Islet β Cell Transcriptomic Reveals Sexually Dimorphic Transcriptome and Type 2 Diabetes Genes.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy and Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Tsingtao Advanced Research Institute, Tongji University, Qingdao 266073, China. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), characterized by the malfunction of pancreatic β cells, is affected by multiple factors, including sex differences. However, the mechanisms of sex differences in T2D susceptibility and pathogenesis remain unclear. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), we show sexually dimorphic transcriptomes exist in mouse β cells. Read More

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September 2021

Simulated microgravity triggers DNA damage and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human promyelocytic leukemic cells.

Mitochondrion 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India; Special Centre for Systems Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

The weightlessness or microgravity, a physical factor in space, may adversely affect the health of the space travellers or astronauts. The knowledge about the effect of microgravity on human cancer cells is very limited and poorly understood. Here, we employed rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to induce simulated microgravity (SMG) and examined its effects on human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. Read More

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September 2021

Advances in mitochondrial medicine and translational research.

Mitochondrion 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Manipal School of Life Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576104, India. Electronic address:

Current knowledge of mitochondrial biology and function has provided tools and technologies that helped a better understanding of the molecular etiology of complex mitochondrial disorders. Dual genetic control of this subcellular organelle function regulates various signaling mechanisms which are essential for metabolism, bioenergetics, fatty acid biosynthesis, and DNA replication & repair. Understanding nuclear mitochondrial crosstalk through advanced genomics as well as clinical perspectives is the overall basis of mitochondrial research and medicine, also the sole objective of Society for Mitochondrial Medicine and Research (SMRM) - India. Read More

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September 2021

MitoLink: A Generic Integrated Web-based Workflow System to Evaluate Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Human Mitochondrial Diseases: Observations from The GenomeAsia Pilot Project.

Mitochondrion 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Bioinformatics Center, CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39A, Chandigarh - 160036, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India.

MitoLink is a generic, scalable and modular web-based workflow system developed to study genotype-phenotype correlations in human mitochondrial diseases. MitoLink integrates applications for assessment of genomic variation and currently houses genome-wide datasets from GenomeAsia Pilot project, gnomAD, ClinVar and DisGenNet. In this study, a reference list of nearly 3975 proteins (both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded) with mitochondrial function is reported. Read More

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September 2021

Salinity-dependent impacts on the effects of antiepileptic and antihistaminic drugs in Ruditapes philippinarum.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 16;806(Pt 1):150369. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Biology Department & CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

In coastal systems, pollutants as pharmaceutical drugs exert changes from the molecular to the organism level in marine bivalves. Besides pollutants, coastal systems are prone to changes in environmental parameters, as the alteration of salinity values because of Climate Change. Together, these stressors (pharmaceutical drugs and salinity changes) can exert different threats than each stressor acting individually; for example, salinity can change the physical-chemical properties of the drugs and/or the sensitivity of the organisms to them. Read More

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September 2021

Grape Pomace Reduces the Severity of Non-Alcoholic Hepatic Steatosis and the Development of Steatohepatitis by Improving Insulin Sensitivity and Reducing Ectopic Fat Deposition in Mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Sep 24:108867. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Departments of Molecular Biology and Nutrition Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. Electronic address:

While non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the common cause of chronic liver disease, specific therapies are currently unavailable. The wine industry produces millions of tons of residue (pomace), which contains high levels of bioactive phytochemicals. The aim of this study was to clarify the potential benefits of grape pomace for the treatment of NAFLD at different levels of severity, and to clarify the mechanism of action. Read More

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September 2021

Characterization and function analysis of Epinephelus coioides Hsp40 response to Vibrio alginolyticus and SGIV infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China. Electronic address:

Heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40), a member of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) family, plays a crucial role in regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis in mammals. In this study, Hsp40, EcHsp40, was identified from Epinephelus coioides, an economically important marine-cultured fish in China and Southeast Asian counties. The full length of EcHsp40 was 2236 bp in length containing a 1026 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 341 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 37. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative analysis of erythrocyte hemolysis, plasma parameters and metabolic features in red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var) and triploid hybrid fish following Aeromonas hydrophila challenge.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, PR China.

Aeromonas hydrophila can pose a great threat to survival of freshwater fish. In this study, A. hydrophila challenge could promote the erythrocyte hemolysis, increase free hemoglobin (FHB) level and generate malondialdehyde (MDA) production in plasma but decrease the levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lysozyme (LZM) of red crucian carp (RCC, 2N = 100) and triploid hybrid fish (3N fish, 3N = 150) following A. Read More

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September 2021

Photoperiodic modulation of ovarian metabolic, survival, proliferation and gap junction markers in adult golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Sep 24:111083. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Pineal Research Lab, Reproduction Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Female reproductive physiology is greatly dependent on tight regulation of metabolic and survival factors. Photoperiod regulates female reproductive rhythms but very less information exists explaining whether photoperiod could modulate thyroid hormone homeostasis, metabolic/energy parameters along with survival, proliferation and gap junction proteins in the ovary of a long-day breeder, Mesocricetus auratus. Adult female hamsters were exposed to different photoperiodic regimes i. Read More

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September 2021

Nanopore long-read sequencing of circRNAs.

Methods 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics (MBG), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark; Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark; Center for Cellular signal Patterns (CellPAT), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark.

Circular RNA (circRNA) is a group of highly stable RNA molecules with suggested roles in development and disease. They derive from linear pre-mRNAs when a 5'-splice site splices back to an upstream 3'-splice site in a process termed back-splicing. Most circRNAs are multi-exonic and may contain several thousand nucleotides. Read More

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September 2021

Implications derived from S-protein variants of SARS-CoV-2 from six continents.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Electronic address:

Spike (S) protein is a critical determinant of the infectivity and antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2. Several mutations in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 have already been detected, and their effect in immune system evasion and enhanced transmission as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality are being investigated. From pathogenic and epidemiological perspectives, spike proteins are of prime interest to researchers. Read More

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September 2021

Neutralizing interleukin-6 in tumor-bearing mice does not abrogate behavioral fatigue induced by Lewis lung carcinoma.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Sep 25:113607. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Symptom Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX. Electronic address:

Tumor growth is associated with metabolic reprogramming of various organs including the liver. This metabolic reprogramming is responsible for the development of behavioral fatigue represented by decreased voluntary wheel running in a murine model of lung cancer. To determine whether interleukin (IL-)6 induced by the tumor is responsible for the metabolic reprogramming, mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells in the flank were treated with an anti-mouse IL-6 monoclonal neutralizing antibody using a 2 ×2 factorial design (+/- tumor and +/- anti-IL-6 antibody). Read More

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September 2021

Partners in crime: The Lewis Y antigen and fucosyltransferase IV in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 24:107994. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, 30 Pildong-ro 1-gil, Seoul 04620, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative agent of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. H. Read More

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September 2021

The cardiovascular effects of air pollution: Prevention and reversal by pharmacological agents.

Authors:
Mark R Miller

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 24:107996. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Electronic address:

Air pollution is associated with staggering levels of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Airborne particulate matter (PM), in particular, has been associated with a wide range of detrimental cardiovascular effects, including impaired vascular function, raised blood pressure, alterations in cardiac rhythm, blood clotting disorders, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Considerable headway has been made in elucidating the biological processes underlying these associations, revealing a labyrinth of multiple interacting mechanistic pathways. Read More

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September 2021

Weissella confusa with thermostable β-hemolytic exopolysaccharide.

Toxicon 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Consuming cooked meat contaminated with bacteria that carry thermostable hemolytic exopolysaccharide (ESP), could lead to severe diseases. Culture of a 5- h boiled sample of meat goulash on blood agar showed growth of a gram positive rod-shaped, mucoid and hemolytic bacterium. Biochemical tests and amplification of 1500 bp product of 16S rDNA and sequencing revealed bacterial identity as Weissella confusa. Read More

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September 2021